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BEATSON'S POLITICAL INDEX MODERNISED. 



THE 

BOOK OF DIGNITIES; 

CONTAINING 

ROLLS OF THE OFFICIAL PERSONAGES 
OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE, 

CIVIL, ECCLESIASTICAL, JUDICIAL, MILITARY, NAVAL, AND MUNICIPAL, 

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIODS TO THE PRESENT TIME: 
COMPILED CHIEFLY FROM THE RECORDS OF THE PUBLIC OFFICES: 

TOGETHBK WITH THE 

SOVEREIGNS OF EUROPE, 

FROM THE FOUNDATION OF THEIR RESPECTIVE STATES; 

THE PEEEAGE OF ETTG-LAINrD AKD OP GREAT BRITAUnT; 
AND NUMEROUS OTHER LISTS. 

BY JOSEPH HAYDN, 

AUTHOR OF " THE DICTIONARY OF DATES," AND COMPILER OF VARIOUS WORKS. 



LONDON: 

LONGMAN, BEOWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS. 

1851. 



London : 
Spottisvvoodes and Sha 
New-street Square. 



TO 



THE RIGHT HONORABLE 

YISCOUNT PALMERSTO]^, 

HER majesty's PRINCIPAL SECRETARY OF STATE 
FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 



My Lord, 

It may surprise, but will not, I persuade myself, 
displease your Lordship that I dedicate this Book to you. 
Were I to have followed the current usage of authors, I 
should have previously asked your Lordship's gracious 
permission for this purpose : but while your condescension 
would have operated as a favourable introduction of my 
Work to the Public, and have gratified my vanity, I feared 
I should detract from the object I have in view, that of 
shewing, spontaneously and freely, the high respect which T, 
in common with the community at large, entertain for your 
Lordship as one of the most enlightened, eloquent, and 

A 2 



iv 

zealous ministers that ever directed the Foreign Affairs of 
Great Britain. 

My Lord, my humble name may never have reached 
3^our Lordship's ear ; and my only apology for the liberty I 
take is, that mine is an Official Book, and therefore not 
inaptly dedicated to a personage, throughout whose vast 
department there prevails a system of such efficiency and 
precision, that even the minutest matters relating to the 
most distant region, can be at once determined by the 
records of his Office. 

I am, My Lord, 
With profound respect. 

Your Lordship's most humble Servant, 

JOSEPH HAYDN 



Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn, 
London, Oct. 1851. 



PREFACE. 



In 1786, Beatson produced his Political Index to the Histories oj 
Great Britain and Ireland^ a Work that presented for the first time, 
in a collective form, rolls of all the high personages in the State from 
the institution of their respective offices in England. The novelty of 
his plan, and manifest usefulness of his Work (which was stamped 
with the commendation of Adam Smith), assured his Index an 
immediate and almost universal popularity ; and he was encouraged 
by a consequent rapid sale to publish in succession three large 
editions ^ each of many thousand copies, of which the last edition 
appeared in 1806, nearly half a century ago. 

It is a curious fact in the history of his Book, that the third 
edition of Beatson (the only one we now find in our great Public 
Institutions, and in the library of the private gentleman), is, though 
certainly the most enlarged, yet the most incorrect of the whole. 
It would seem to have wanted the superintending eye of Beatson 
himself^, for we cannot otherwise account for the innumerable 
errors it contains, and the rather slovenly manner in w^hich it is 

* The 1st edition of Beatson's Political Index was published in one volume, octavo ; the 
2d edition in two volumes ; and the 3d in three, all of similar size. 

2 Dr. Robert Beatson (LL. D. ) F.R.S. lived until 1818: he died Jan. 24, in that 
year, aged 7(j. Besides the Political Index, Dr. Beatson was the author of A Chronological 
Register of both Houses of Parliament, Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain, and 
various other works, chiefly of a scientific character. 

A 3 



vi PREFACE. 

compiled. Bat, notwithstanding this great disadvantage, Beatsoin's 
Political Index is, even to tliis day, a favourite, though wanting the 
cliaractcr of a standard. Work. No other Work has hitherto been 
attempted to supply its place, or in continuation of it ; and latterly 
it has become so scarce, as to have entirely disappeared from tlie 
shelves of the modern bookseller. 

In the Work we now place before the Public, we owe little more 
tlian the plan to Beatson. The Book of Dignities includes 
many lists (among them, the Administrations of England, and the 
J udges of the Ecclesiastical Courts) not to be found in the Political 
Index^ and we have rejected other lists that had neither antiquarian 
research nor usefulness to entitle them to a place in the present 
volume. For the earlier dates we have consulted our most esteemed 
antiquaries, drawing our information directly from the authors them- 
selves. Instead of relying upon the transcripts made from them by 
a writer who errs so frequently. Were we to enumerate those 
authors here, w^e should crowd a page with the most illustrious 
names in our literature ; but as we quote, with scrupulous fidelity, 
our authority in every case throughout the Work, we deem such an 
array unnecessary. 

It is right to observe, that w^e have had a pre-eminent advantage 
over Beatson. We have been honoured by the chief members of the 
Government with their especial permission to search the records of 
their respective departments, and where records did not exist, either 
on account of the comparative newness of the office, or some par- 
ticular contingency, they have graciously directed that the inform- 
ation essential to the completion of our Work should be supplied to 
us from the minutes of their Boards, or from some equally authentic 



PREFACE, vii 

source. To acknowledge, in tins place, the condescension of the 
highest personages in the State, might seem ostentatious and im- 
pertinent, yet we may be allowed to mention, that the roll of the 
Privy Councillors has been compiled from the registers of the 
Council, and is now published, for the first time, by permission of 
the Marquess of Lansdowne, the Lord President. Several of our 
lists are the contributions of the most distinguished individuals. 
Our lists of the Judges of England are (from the Restoration to the 
present year) the compilations of the late Lord Langdale. 

Of the numerous winters that have sprung up within the past 
half-century, we have, of course, availed ourselves. We have not 
gone, for instance, to Dugdale for our list of the Lord Chancellors. 
The indefatigable antiquary, Mr. Hardy, of the Tower, has recently 
produced, after much laborious research, a roll of the Lord Chan- 
cellors, the most accurate that has ever appeared, and of this roll, 
ours is nearly a transcription. 

We conclude with the expression of our humble hope, that the 
Book of Dignities will be found of some usefulness to the 
Official Gentleman, the Historian, and the Scholar. If we shall have 
achieved this chief object of our labours, we shall be satisfied to 
mingle undistinguished in the crowd of useful writers, desiring no 
higher fame, or greater reward. 

London, October 1851. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



Page 

Soverb:ign Princes of Europe, viz. : 

— Of Austria - - - - 20 

— Of Baden - . - - 52 

— Of Bavaria - - - - 45 

— Of Belgium - - - - 36 

— Of Bohemia - - - - - 54 
~ Of Brandenburg - - - 42 
— • Of Brunswick - - - - 47 

— Of Denmark - - - - 39 

— Of England - - - - 1 

— Of France - - - - 22 

— Of Germany - - - - 20 

— Of Hanover - - - - 47 

— Of Hesse-Cassel - - - 49 

— Of Hesse-Darmstadt - - - 50 

— Of Hesse-Homburg - - - 50 

— Of Holland - - - - 36 

— Of Hungary - - - - 53 

— Of Ireland - - - - 18 

— Of Lucca - - - - 34 

— Of Mecklenburg-Schwerin - - 51 
— ■ Of Mecklenburg-Strelitz - - 51 

— Of Modena - - - - 35 

— Of Naples - - - - 30 

— Of Nassau - - - - 38 

— Of the Netherlands - - - 36 

— Of Parma - - - - 35 

— Of Piacenza - - - - 35 

— Of Poland - - - - 55 
The Popes of Rome - - - 64 

— Of Portugal - - - - 29 

— Of Prussia - - - - 42 

— Of the Russian Empire - - 56 

— Of Sardinia - - - - 32 

— Of Savoy - - - - 32 

— Of Saxony - - - - 43 

— Of Saxe-Altenburg - - - 45 

— Of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - - 45 

— Of Saxe-Gotha Altenburg - - 44 



— Of Saxe-Meiningen - - - 44 

— Of Saxe-Weimar - - - 44 

— Of Scotland - - - - 15 

— Of Sicily - - - --80 

— Of Spain - - - ' - 26 

— Of Sweden - - - - 40 

— Of the Turkish or Ottoman Empire - 61 

— Of Tuscany - - - - 33 

— Of the Two Sicilies - - -SO 

— Of Wales - - - - 14 

— OfWurtemberg - - - 47 



— Of Brazil - - - - 30 

— Of Greece - - - - 63 

— Of Persia - - - -> 62 
The United States of America - - 63 



Merged, or Extinct Kingdoms. 

— Of Anjou - - - - 

— Of Bretagne, or Brittany - - 68 

— Of Burgundy - - - - 71 

— Of the Eastern Empire - - 60 

— Of Flanders - - - - 72 

— Of Franconia - - - - 70 

— Of Hainault - - - - 73 

— Of Italy - - - - 59 

— Of Jerusalem - - - - 68 

— Of Lorraine - - - - 71 

— Of Luxemburg - - 73 

— Of Normandy - - - - 69 
Palatinate of the Rhine - - 46 
The Roman Empire - - - 57 

— Of Suabia - - - - 70 
The Western Empire - - - 59 



PART II. 



Ambassadors, Envoys Extraordinary, and 
Ministers Plenipotentiary from Great 
Britain to Foreign States. 



Ministers To Austria - - - 75 

— To the Barbary States - - 86 

— To Bavaria -• - - - 76 

— To Belgium - - - - 76 

— To Brazil - - - - 87 



To the Chinese Empire - - 86 

To Denmark - - - - 76 

To France - - - - 77 

To Greece - - - - 79 

To Hanover - - - - 79 

To the Hanse Towns - - - 79 

To the Netherlands - - - 79 

To the New States of North America - 86 



X 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



Ministers To Persia - - - 8G 

— To Poland ^ - - - 80 

— To Portugal - - - - 80 

— To Prussia - - - - 80 

— To Russia - - - - 81 

— To Sardinia - - - - 82 

— To Saxony - - - - 82 

— To the (Two) Sicilies - - - 82 

— To the New States of South America - 87 

— To Spain - - - - 83 

— To Sweden - - - - 83 

— To the Swiss Cantons - - - 84 

— To Turlvcy - - - - 84 

— To Tuscany - - - - 85 

— To the United States of North America 86 

— To Venice - - - - 85 

— To Wurtcmberg - - - 85 



AD:MixiSTRATroxs of ExGLAND from the 
reif?n of IIenuy YIII. to the reign of 
VlCTOlilA - - - - 88 



Great Officers of State of England : 
Lord High Stewards - - - 99 

Lord High Chancellors - - 100 

Lord High Treasurers, First Lords 
of the Treasury, and Lords Com- 
missioners of the Treasury - - 100 
Secretaries - - - - 117 
Assistant-Secretaries - - 118 
Lord Presidents of the Council - 118 
Privy Councillors of England, from 

the reign of Charles II. - - 119 

Lords Privy Seal _ - - 146 
Lord Great Chamberlains - - 148 

Lord High Constables - - 149 

Earls- Marshal - - - 150 

Deputy Earls-lMarshal - - 151 

Lord High Admirals, First Lords, and 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 151 
Secretaries - - - - 166 

Second Secretaries - - - 167 

Chancellors of the Exchequer - 167 



Speakers of the House of Commons - 215 



The Judges of England. 

Justiciers of England - - « 219 
Chief Justices of the King's (now Queen's) 

Bench - - - - - 220 
Puisne Justices of the King's (now Queen's) 

Bench - - -' - - - 222 

Chief Justices of the Common Pleas - 224 

l*uisne Justices of the Common Pleas - 228 

Chief Barons of the Exchequer - - 231 

Junior Barons of the Exchequer - - 232 

INIasters of the Polls - - - 233 

Vice-Chancellors of England, &c. - - 235 

^Masters in Chancery - - . 235 



P.me 



Principal Secretaries of State - 170 
Home Department - - - 173 
Foreign Department - - - 174 
War and Colonies - - - 174 
Secretaries of State for Scotland - - 175 
Under-Secretaries of State for the dif- 
ferent Departments - - - J 75 
Commissioners of the Board of Trade - 177 
Present Establishment - - - 182 
Presidents of the Board of Trade - 183 
Vice-Presidents - - - - 184 
Secretaries - - - - 184 
Board of Controul, or India Board - 185 
Secretaries to the Board - - 188 
Chancellors of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster - - - '189 
Secretaries-at-War - - - i<)0 
IMasters-General of the Ordnance - 191 
Lieutenants-General of the Ordnance - 192 
Surveyors-General of the Ordnance - 193 
First Coinimissioners of Woods and 

Forests - - - - 193 
Surveyors - General of the Woods and 

Forests - - - - 193 

Survej^ors-General of Land Revenues - 194 
Commissioners of Woods, Forests, and 

Land Revenues - - - 194 

Treasurers of the Navy - - 195 

Comptrollers of the Navy - - 196 

Surveyors of the Navy - - - 196 

Paymasters-General - - - 197 

Postmasters-General - - 198 

Secretaries of the Post-Office - - 200 

Masters of the Mint - - - 200 

Judge- Advocates General - - - 202 



Lord Stewards of the Household - - 203 

Treasurers of the Household - - 204 

Lord Chamberlains of the Household - 206 

Grooms of the Stole . - . 207 

INIasters of the Horse - - - 208 

Corps of Gen tlemen-at- Arms - - 209 

Yeomen of the Guard - - - 211 

The Suppressed State Offices : 

Masters of the Great Wardrobe - - 213 

Cofferers of the Household - - 213 

Treasurers of the Chamber - - 214 



Auditors of the Receipt of the Exchequer - 238 

Clerks of the Pells - - - - 238 

Tellers of the Exchequer - - - 239 

Chamberlains of the Exchequer - - 240 

Comptroller-General - - - 241 



Attorneys-General - - - - 242 

Solicitors-General - - - - 244 

Serjeants-at-Law - - - _ 246 



The Ecclesiastical Courts, &c. 
Deans of the Arches' Court - - 252 

Prerogative Court of Canterbury - - 253 

Vicars-General to the Lord Primate - 254 



PAHT HI. 



CONTENTS. 



xi 



Page 

Consistory Court - - - - 254 

High Court of Admiralty - - - 255 

King's (now Queen's) Advocates - - 255 

Admiralt}^ Advocates - - _ 25G 

J udges of the Court of Session of the County 
Palatine of Chester - _ 1 256 



Recorders of London _ - » 257 

Lord INIayors of London - - . 257 

Common Sergeants of London - - 2G4 

Chamberlains of London - - - 261 



India. 



Governors-General of India 




- 265 


Commanders-in-Chief of India 




- 267 


Commanders-in-Chief of the Presidency of 


Bengal - 




- 268 


Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of 


Bengal - 




- 268 


Bishops of Calcutta 




- 269 


Presidency of Madras : 






Governors 




- 269 


Commanders-in-Chief - 




- 270 


Chief Justices - 




- 270 


Bishops of Madras 




- 270 


Presidency of Bombay : 






Governors 




- 271 


Commanders-in-Chief - 




- 271 


Bishops of Bombay 




- 272 


Supreme Court of Bombay 




- 272 


Admirals and Commodores on 


the 


East 


India Station 




- 272 


East India Company; Chairmen 


and 


De- 


puty Chairmen - 




- 273 



Archbishops and Bishops of En* 

Province of Canterbury. 

Archbishopric of Canterbury 

Bishopric of Bangor 

Bishopric of Bath and Wells 

Bishopric of Bristol 

Bishopric of Chichester 

Bishopric of Ely - . - 

Bishopric of Exeter 

Bishopric of Gloucester and Bristol 

Bishopric of Hereford 

Bishopric of Lichlield 

Bishopric of Lincoln 

Bishopric of LlandafF 

Bishopric of London 

Bishopric of Norwich 

Bishopric of Oxford 

Bishopric of Peterborough - 

Bishopric of Rochester 

Bishopric of St. Asaph 

Bishopric of St. David's 

Bishopric of Salisbury 

Bishopric of Winchester 

Bishopric of Worcester 

Bishop and deans of Westminster - 



The Colonies. 
Governors of Ceylon - - _ 274 

Governors of the Cape of Good Hope - 275 
Governors-General of Jamaica - - 275 

Governors of Barbadoes - _ . 275 

Governors of Bermuda - - - 276 

Governors of Newfoundland - - 276 

Governors-General of Canada - - 277 

Governors-General of Gibraltar - - 277 

Governors of Malta _ . _ 278 

Lord High Commissioners of the Ionian 

Islands - - - - - 278 

Admirals and Commodores on the West 

India Station - - - - 278 

Admirals and Commodores on the North 

American Station - 279 

Admirals and Commodores in the Mediter- 
ranean ----- 280 



Admirals of Great Britain from the 

Restoration to the present year 1851 - 281 
Retired Rear- Admirals - - 313 

Naval Battles and Actions fought within 
the present Century - - - 314 



Military Departjient. 

Commanders-in-Chief of the British Army 815 

Captains-General - - - - 316 

Field-Marshals - - - - 316 

Generals of the Army - - - 317 

Lieutenant-Generals _ _ _ 394 

Major-Generals - . - _ 333 

Chief Battles and Actions fought in the 

present Century - - - - 340 



PART lY. 



- 341 

- 343 

- 344 

- 346 
. 347 

- 348 

- 350 

- 351 

- 352 

- 354 

- 355 

- 357 

- 358 

- 360 

- 362 

- 363 

- 363 

- 365 

- 366 

- 368 

- 370 

- 372 

- 373 



Province of York. 

Archbishopric of York 
Bishopric of Carlisle 
Bishopric of Chester 
Bishopric of Durham 
Bishopric of Manchester 
Bishopric of Ripon - 
Bishopric of Sodor and Man 



Merged or Extinct Bishoprics. 

Bishops of Cornwall 

Bishops of Coventry 

Bishops of Devonshire 

Bishops of Dorchester 

Bishops of Dunwich 

Bishops of East Angles 

Bishops of Elmham, or Helraham - 

Bishops of Hexham 

Bishops of Lindisfarne, or Holy Island 

Archbishops of London - " - 

Bishops of Selsey - - - , 

Bishops of Sherborne 

Bishops of Sidnacester 

Bishops of Wilton - - . . 



374 
376 
377 
378 
379 
380 
380 



350 
354 
350 
356 
361 
361 
361 
380 
378 
359 
347 
369 
356 
369 



xii 



CONTENTS. 



Knights. 



Page 



Knights of the Garter, from the found- 
ation of the Order - - - 382 



Page 

Knighthood of the Bath, from the insti- 
tution of the Order - - - 392 

Knights of the Bath, from the Revival of 
the Order in 1725 - - - 303 



PART v.— 1 

The Great Officers of State of 



Scotland. 

The Lord Chancellor - - - 400 

Lord Keepers of the Great Seal - - 401 

Lord High Treasurers . - - 402 

Comptrollers - - - - 404 

Presidents of the Privy Council - - 404 

Lords Privy Seal - - - - 404 

Lord High Admirals - - - 405 

Lord Great Chamberlain - - - 406 

Lord High Steward - - - 407 

Lord High Constable - - - 407 

Earl-Marshal - - - - 408 

Secretaries of State - - - 408 
High Commissioners to the Parliament of 

Scotland - - - - - 409 



Postmasters-General - - - 417 

Lord Provosts of Edinburgh - - 418 



Law Officers. 

Lord Clerk Registers - - - 410 

Lord Justice Generals _ - - 410 

Lord Justice Clerk, or Second Judges of 

Justiciary - - - - 411 

Extraordinary Lords of Session - - 411 

Lord Presidents of the Court of Session - 412 

Ordinary Lords of Session - - - 413 

Lords Advocate - - - - 416 

vSolicitors -General - - - - 416 

Deans of Faculty - - - - 417 



Lord High Commissioners to the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland - 417 



SCOTLAND. 

Archbishops and Bishops of Scotland. 



Bishopric of St. Andrew's (became arcliie- 

piscopal) - - - - 419 

Bishopric of Aberdeen ^ .. . 42 1 

Bishopric of Argyll .. - _ 428 

Bishopric of Brechin _ _ _ 422 

Bishopric of Caithness - - _ 422 

Bishopric of Dunblane - _ - 423 

Bishopric of Dunkeld - - 424 

Bishopric of Edinburgh - - _ 425 

Bishopric of Galloway - _ - 429 

Bishopric of Glasgow (for a time archie- 

piscopal) ----- 427 

Bishopric of the Isles - - - 429 

Bishopric of Moray - - . 425 

Bishopric of Orkney - - - 426 

Bishopric of Ross - - - - 426 



Post-Revolution Bishops. 

(^Present Estahlishinent.^ 

Bishops of Aberdeen - - - 431 

Bishops of Argyll and the Isles - - 433 

Bishops of Brechin - - - 432 

Bishops of Dunkeld _ _ . 432 

l^ishops of Edinburgh - - - 431 

Bishops of Fife (now St, Andrew's) • 433 

Bishops of Glasgow and Galloway - - 431 

Bishops of Moray - - - . 432 

Bishops of Ross - - - 433 

Bishops of St. Andrew's (late Fife) - 433 



Knights of the Thistle, from the found- 
ation of the Order - _ _ 434 



PART VL—IRELAND. 



State Officers. 

Lord Lieutenants and Chief Gover- 
nors of Ireland - - - 437 
I*rincipal Secretaries of State - - 445 
Chief Secretaries to the Lord Lieutenant 
and Chief Secretaries for Ireland - 445 
Under Secretaries - - - 446 
Lord Chancellors of Ireland - - 446 
Lord Treasurers ~ - _ - 449 
Chancellors of the Exchequer - - 451 
Commanders of the Forces - - - 462 



Judges and Law Officers. 

Chief Justices of the King's (now Queen's) 

Bench - - - - .452 

Puisne Justices of the King's Bench - 452 

Chief Justices of the Common Pleas - 454 

Puisne Justices of the Common Pleas - 454 

Chief Barons of the Exchequer - - 455 

Junior Barons of the Exchequer - - 456 
Masters of the Rolls - 457 

Attorneys-General - - - - 453 

Solicitors-General - - - _ 4,53 

Serjeants-at-Law - - - - 459 



CONTENTS. 



xiu 



Postmasters-General of Ireland 
Lord Mayors of Dublin 



Archbishopric of Armagh - 
Archbishopric of Dublin 
Archbishopric of Cashel (now a 

only) . - - 

Archbishopric of Tuam (now a 

only) - - - 
Bishopric of Achonry 
Bishopric of Ardagh 
Bishopric of Ardfert and Aghadoe 
Bishopric of Clogher 
Bishopric of Clonfert 
Bishopric of Cloyne 
Bishopric of Cork 
Bishopric of Derry - 
Bishopric of Down and Connor 
Bishopric of Dromore 
Bishopric of Elphin 
Bishopric of Emly - 



Page 

- 461 

- 461 



- 463 

- 465 
bishopric 

- 468 
bishopric 

- 490 

- 493 

- 482 

- 484 

- 464 

- 479 

- 473 

- 471 

- 474 

- 476 

- 477 

- 483 

- 469 



Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Bishopric of 
Deans of St. 



Ferns - ^ - 
Glandalagh 
Kildare 
Kilfenora 
Killala 
Killaloe 

Kilmacduach - 
Kilmore 
Leighlin 
Limerick 
Lismore 

Mayo - - - 

Meath and Clonmacnois 
Ossory 
Raphoe 

Ross - - - 

Waterford and Lismore 
Patrick's 



Knights of the Order of St. Patrick 
Table of Precedency 



Page 

- 488 

- 467 

- 467 

- 479 

- 491 

- 478 

- 481 

- 481 

- 489 

- 484 

- 471 

- 491 

- 485 

- 487 

- 475 

- 473 

- 470 

- 4&3 



494 
510 



EEVENUE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLAND. 

Commissioners of Customs - - - 497 I Commissioners of Stamps - - - 506 
Commissioners of Excise - - - 501 | Commissioners of Taxes - - - 5Q7 

Poor Law Boards - 508 



The Peerage of England and of Great Britain - - - - - - -511 



Index to the Privy Councillors of England ------- 569 

Index to the Admirals of Great Britain ------- 578 

Index to the Generals of the British Army ------- 583 

Index to the Lieutenant-Generals - -- -- -- - 586 

Index to the Major-Generals - -- -- -- -- 590 



TABLE OF THE KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND 



FROM THE CONQUEST. 

(COMPILICD ACCOKDING TO THE DATES IN THE " Not'ltia Histovica'" OF SiR 

Nicholas IlAKiiis Nicolas.) 



No. 


Sovereigns. 


Born. 


Began to Reign. 


Reigned. 


Year 

of 
Age. 


Buried. 









NORMAN L 


INE. 






1. 


AVlLLlAlVI I. - 


1025 


Oct. 14, lOGG 


Y. M. D. 

20 10 26 


61st 


Caen, in Normandy. 


2. 


William II. - 


1057 


Sept. 9, 1087 


12 10 23 


43d 


Winchester. 


3. 


Henry I. - - 


1070 


Aug. 1, 1100 


35 4 1 


66th 


Reading. 


4. 


Stephen 


1105 


Dec. 2, 1135 


18 10 23 


49th 


Feversham. 






PLANTAGENET LINE. 






5. 


Henry II. 


1133 


Oct. 25, 1154 


34 8 12 


56th 


Fontevrault. 


6. 


Richard I.- 


1157 


July 7, 1189 


9 9 0 


42d 


Fontevranlt. 


7. 


John - - - 


11G6 


April 6, 1199 


17 6 13 


50th 


Worcester. 


Q 
O. 


HENRY Hi. 


1206 


Oct. 19, 1216 


56 0 28 


botn 


Westminster. 


9. 


Edward I.- 


1239 


Nov. 16, 1272 


34 7 21 


68th 


Westminster. 


10. 


Edward II. - 


1284 


July 7, 1307 


19 6 18 


43d 


Gloucester. 


11. 


Edward III. - 


1312 


Jan. 25, 1327 


50 4 28 


66th 


Westminster. 


12. 


Richard II. - 


1367 


June 21, 1377 


22 3 8 


33d 


Westminster. 






LINE OF LANCASTER. 






13. 


Henry IY. 


1367 


Sept. 29, 1399 


13 5 20 


46th 


Canterbury. 


14. 


Henry V. - - 


1388 


March 20, 1413 


9 5 11 


34th 


Westminster. 


15. 


Henry VI. - 


1421 


Aug. 31, 1422 


38 6 4 


50th 


Chertsey. Windsor. 






HOUSE OF YORK. 






IG. 


Edward IV. - 


1441 


March 4, 1461 1 


22 I 5 


42d 


Windsor. 


17. 


Edward V.- 


1470 


April 9, 1483 


0 2 13 


13th 


Tower. Westminster. 


18. 


Richard III. - 


1443 


June 22, 1483 


2 2 0 


42d 


Leicester. 



1 Part of the year 1470 is called the 49th of Henrj^ VI., that monarch having been restored to the throne by 
the carl of Warwick, and a parliament summoned in Henry's name on the 15th of October, 1470, to meet at West- 
minster on the 2Gth of November following. King Henry, dethroned in 14G1, died a few days after the decisive 
battle of Tewkesbury, which was fought on the 4th of May, 1471. 



KIXGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND. 



XV 



No. 


Sovereigns. 


Born. 


Began to Reign. 


Reigned. 


Year 

of 
Ago. 


Buried. 






I] 


LOUSE OF T 


UDOR. 






19. 


Henry YII.^ - 


1455 


Ang. 22, 1485 


Y. M. D. 

23 7 30 


54th 


Westminster. 


20. 


Henry VHI. - 


1491 


April 21, 1509 


37 9 7 


56th 


Windsor. 


21. 


Edward VI. - 


1537 


Jan. 28, 1547 


6 5 8 


16th 


Westminster. 


22. 


Mary I. and. - 


1516 


July 6, 1553 


5 4 11 


43d 


AVestminster. 




Philip (jointly) 


1527 


July 25, 1554 


4 3 23 


71st 


Escurial, Spain. 


23. 


Elizabeth 


1533 


Nov. 17, 1558 


44 4 7 


70th 


Westminster. 






HOUSE OF STUART. 






24. 


James I. - - 


1566 


March 24, 1603 


22 0 3 


59th 


Westminster. 


25. 


Charles I.- 


1600 


March 27, 1625 


23 10 3 


49th 


Windsor. 


26. 


Charles II. 


1630 


Jan. 30, 1649 


36 0 7 


54th 


TT COl/lilillOLd. 




Restoration 




May 29, 1660 


24 8 8 






27. 


James II. 


1633 


Feb. 6, 1685 


4 0 7 


68th 


Benedictines, Paris. 


28. 


William III. and - 
Mary II. (jointly) - 


1650 
1662 


1 Feb. 13, 1689 | 


13 0 23 
5 10 15 


52d 
33d 


VV^ p fin 1 n c! f p V 

TT Co Lllii llo LCI . 

Westminster. 


29. 


Anne - 


1665 


Maich 8, 1702 


12 4 24 


50th 


Westminster. 






LINE OF HANOVER. 






30. 


George I. - - 


1660 


Aug. 1, 1714 


12 10 10 


68th 


Hanover. 


31. 


George II. 


1683 


June 11, 1727 


33 4 14 


77th 


Westminster. 


32. 


George III.2 


1738 


Oct. 25, 1760 


59 3 4 


82d 


Windsor. 


33. 


George IV. - 


1762 


Jan. 29, 1820 


10 4 28 


68th 


Windsor. 


34. 


William IV. - 


1765 


June 26, 1830 


6 11 24 


72d 


Windsor. 


35. 


Victoria 


1819 


June 20, 1837 


Our Present Queen, whom God preserve ! 



1 Nearly all other Tables state that Henry VTI. died on the 22nd of April, 1509; but the inscription on that 
monarch's tomb, as piven in Sandf.ird's Genealogical Hisfori/, proves the above to be the correct date: " Moritur 
deinde XXI die Aprilis, anno cetatis LIII. Regnavit annos XXIII^ menses VIII, minus uno die.'''' 

2 In consequence of the mental illness of his majesty George III., his son George, prince of Wales (afterwards 
George IV. >, was declared Regent of the kiiigdom. on the 5th of February, 1811 ; and the regency continued 
until the death of the king, Jan. 29, 1820, thus embracing a period of eight years, eleven months, and twenty- 
four days. George IV. therefore governed, as regent and king, nineteen years, four months, and twenty-two 
days. 

It may, perhaps, be necessary to observe, that two queens, viz., Matilda or Maud (styled in history the 
" Empress "), and the la ly Jane Grey, are not included in the preceding Table of Sovereigns. The one, though 
the rightful heir, and crowned, was excluded from the successi()n by the usurpation of Stephen ; the other, 
though unambitious of her elevation to the throne, forfeited her life, a few days after she had been proclaimed 
qupen, upon the scaffold. Neither of these princesses has a place in the Regal Tables of our accepted historians. 
•— Editor. 



ADDENDA. 



Add, at end of Administrations, page 98 : 

1851. Feb. 24. Lord John Russell announced to the Commons, and the Marquess of 
LansdoAvne to the Lords, that ministers had resigned, in consequence of their defeat on Mr. 
Locke King's motion respecting the Franchise, the majority against them being 48 (100 to 
62) ; and on March 3, the same personages informed parliament, that it having been 
found impossible to form a Coalition Ministry, of which Sir James Graham and the 
Earl of Aberdeen were invited to be members, her Majesty, by the advice of the Duke 
of Wellington, was pleased to call upon her late Ministers to resume office. It appeared that 
Lord Stanley had been previously charged by the Queen to form a new Cabinet, but had 
not succeeded. Lord J ohn Russell and his colleagues accordingly resumed their functions, 
and form (October 1851) the present Administration. 

PnivY Councillors, page 146 ; 

Immediately upon Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe being sworn of the Council as a Vice-Chancellor, 
Nov. 13, 1850, he was created Lord Cranworth. 

New Judges. October 8, 1851. Letters-patent were this day directed to be passed the 
Great Seal, appointing, 

^^^^^^^} J-^S- of the Court of Appeal in Chancery. 



CORRIGENDA. 

Sovereigns of Europe, page 6., Richard III. For born 1453, read born 1443. " 

Under same head, page 31. Francis I., King of the Two Sicilies. For 1826 (mis- 
printed) 7'ea<il825; succeeded January 24. 



THE 

BOOK or DIGNITIES, 



&c. &c. 



PART I. 



SOVEREIGNS OF EUROPE, &c., 



Comprising the Lines of Princes of the following Kingdoms and States, 

Holland — The Netherlands — 

Belgium 
Nassau 
Denmark 
Sweden 

Prussia — Brandenburg 
Saxony 

Saxe-Coburg, Gotha, &c. 
Bavaria, and Counts Palatine 
Wurtemberg 
Hanover — Brunswick 
Mecklenburg 

Hesse-Cassel, Darmstadt, &c. 
Baden 



England 

Wales 

Scotland 

Ireland 
Germany — Austria 
France 
Spain 

Portugal — Brazil 
Sicily — Naples — Two Sicilies 
Sardinia — Savoy 
Tuscany 
Lucca 

Parma, Piacenza, &c. 
Modena 



Hungary 
Bohemia 
Poland 
Russia 

Roman Empire 
Western Empire 
Italy 

Eastern Empire 
Turkish Empire 
Persia 
Greece 

United States of America 
Popes of Rome ; 



With the Princes of the Merged or Extinct Kingdoms and Principalities of 



Jerusalem 

Bretagne or Brittany 

Normandy 

Suabia 



Franconia 
Burgundy 
Lorraine 
Flanders 



Hainault 

Luxemburg 

Anjou 



Appended, to render this Work a Book of Reference (in relation to history), 
as well for Ancient, as Modern Princes. 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 
ENGLAND. 

Called by the Romans, Britannia; by the Greeks, Bretannia ; and by Ptolemy 
(peculiarly remarkable for adhering strictly, in the names of places, to the pronun- 
ciation of the respective countries), Brettania. " Anciently Albion^ signifying a high 
mountainous country ; but Brettan (Celtic), or Britannia, a name much of the same 
import, became the prevalent appellation." — Pliny, 

The Britons were divided into many small nations or tribes, and being a military 
people, it was impossible for their princes or chieftains to establish any despotic 
authority over them. Their governments, though monarchical, were free, as were 
those of all the Celtic nations, and they seem to have enjoyed more liberty than the 
nations of Gaul, from whom they were descended. Each state was agitated with 
jealousies against the neighbouring states, and while the arts of peace were yet 
unknown, war was the chief occupation among the people. — Tacitus. Hume. 

The inhabitants had long remained in this rude but independent state, when Cassar, 

B 



PIIINCES OF EUROPE. 



having overrun all Gaul by his victories, cast his eyes on Britain, where, in the 1st 
century, after much resistance, was planted the Roman power by succeeding em- 
perors. This power existed until the middle of the 5th century, when the Romans, 
distracted by wars at home, retired. The Saxons, who were at first invited, were the 
next invaders and the permanent conquerors of Britain. They founded the several 
kingdoms of the Heptarchy, in which, however, an exact rule of succession waj either 
unknown, or not strictly observed, so that the reigning prince was jealous of all the 
princes of the blood, whom he still considered his rivals, and whose death could alone 
give entire security to his throne. From this cause, together with the love of monastic 
life, the royal families became extinguished in all the kingdoms, Wessex only excepted, 
in which Egbert ruled. This prince was the sole descendant of the first Saxon 
conquerors, and under him were at length united all the governments of the Hep- 
tarchy, his territories being nearly of the same extent with what is now properly 
called England, — Hume, 

Kings of the Heptarchy. 



Kent. 

[ Co-extensive with the shire of Kent. ] 
455. Hengist. 

488. ^sc, Esca, or Escus, son of Hengist ; in 
honour of whom the kings of Kent were 
for some time called JLscings. 

512. Octa, son of ^sc. 

542. Hermenric, or Ermenric, son of Octa. 

560. St. Ethelbert : first Christian king. 

G16. Eadbald, son of Ethelbert. 

640. Ercenbert, or Ercombert, son of Eadbald. 

664. Ecbert, or Egbert, son of Ercenbert. 

673. Lother, or Lothair, brother of Ecbert. 

685. Edric : slain in 687. 

[The kingdom was now subject for a time 
to various leaders.] 

694. Wihtred, or Wightred. 

725. Eadbert | ^^^^ Wihtred, succeed- 

/48. E helbert 11. V . ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

760. Alric J ° 

794. Edbert, or Ethelbert Pryn : deposed. 

796. Cutlired, or Gutlired. 

805. Baldred ; who in 823 lost his life and king- 
dom to Egbert, king of Wessex. 

South Saxons. 
[ Sussex and Surrey. ] 

490. Ella, a warlike prince, succeeded by 

514. Cissa, his son, whose reign was long and 
peaceful, exceeding 70 years. 
[The South Saxons here fell into an almost 
total dependence on the kingdom of 
Wessex, and we scarcely know the 
names of the princes who were possessed 
of this titular sovereignty. — Hume.'] 

648. Edilwald, Edilwach, or Adelwalch. 

688. Authun and Berthun, brothers ; they 
reigned jointly; both were vanquished 
by Ina, king of Wessex, and the king- 
dom was finally conquered in 725. 

West Saxons. 
[J5er^5, Southampton, Wilts, Somerset, Dorset, 

Devon, and part of Cornwall.] 
619. Cerdicus. 

534. Cynric, or Kenric, son of Cerdic. 

559. Ceawlin, son of Cynric: banished by his 

subjects, and died in 593. 
591. Ceolric, nephew of Ceawlin. 
597. Ceolwulf. 
611. f Cynegils, and in 
614. \ Cwiciielm, his son, reign jointly. 



643. Cenwal, Cen^valh, or Cenwald. 

672. Sexburga, his queen, sister to Penda, king 

of Mercia ; of great abilities : probably 

deposed. 

674. Esc wine; in conjunction with Centwine; 
on the death of Esc wine. 

676. Centwine rules alone. 

685. Ceadwal, or Coedwalla : this prince went in 
lowdy state to Rome, to expiate his 
deeds of blood, and died there. 

688. Ina, or Inas, a brave and wise ruler: he 
also journeyed to Rome, where he 
passed his time in obscurity, leaving 
behind him an excellent code of law^s. 

728. Ethelheard, or Ethelard, related to Ina, 

740. Cuthred, brother to Ethelheard. 

754. Sigebryht, or Sigebert ; having murdered 

a nobleman, he fled, but was recognised 
and slain. 

755. Cynewulf, or Kenwulf, a noble youth of 

the line of Cerdic : murdered by a ba- 
nished subject. 
784. Bertric, or Beorhtric : poisoned by drink- 
ing of a cup his queen had prepared for 
another. 

800. Egbert, afterw^ards sole monarch of Eng- 
land. 



East Saxons. 
[^Essex, Middlesex, and part of Herts.] 

527. Erchenwin, or Erchwine. 
587. Sledda ; his son. 

597. St. Sebert, or Sabert ; son of the preceding : 

first Christian king. 
614. Saxred, or Sexted, or Serred, jointly with 

Sigebert and Seward : all slain. 
623. Sigebert II., surnamed the Little ; son of 

Seward. 

655. Sigebert III., surnamed the Good ; brother 

of Sebert : put to death. 
661. Swithelm, son of Sexbald. 
663. Sigher, or Sigeric, jointly with Sebbi, or 

Sebba, who became a monk. 
693. Sigenard, or Sigehard, and Suenfrid. 
700. Offa; left his queen and kingdom, and 

became a monk at Rome. 
709. Suebricht, or Selred. 
738. Swithred, or Swithed ; a long reign. 
792. Sigeric : died in a pilgrimage to Rome. 
799. Sigered. 

823. The kingdom seized upon by Egbert, king 
of Wessex. 



ENGLAND. 



3 



KORTIIUJIBRIA. 

[^Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
Durham, and Northumberland.'] 

*^* Northumbria was at first divided into two separate 
governments, Bernicia and Deira ; the former 
stretching from the river Tweed to the Tyne, 
and the latter from the Tyne to the Humber. 

547. Idea, a valiant Saxon. 

5G0. Adda, his eldest son ; king of Bernicia. 

— Ella, king of Deira ; afterwards sole king 

of Northumbria. 
567. Glappa, Clappa, or Elappea ; Bernicia. 

572. Heodwulf; Bernicia. 

573. Freodwulf; Bernicia. 
580. Theodric; Bernicia. 
588. Ethelric; Bernicia. 

593. Ethelfrith, surnamed the Fierce. 

617. Edwin, son of Ella, king of Deira in 590. 
The greatest prince of the Heptarchy in 
that age. — Hume. Slain in battle with 
Penda, king of Mercia. 

634. The kingdom again divided ; Eanfrid rules 

in Bernicia, and Osric in Deira; both 
put to death. 

635. Oswald ; slain in battle. 

644. Osweo, or Oswy ; a reign of great renown. 

670. Ecfrid, or Egfrid, king of Northumbria. 

685. Alcfrid, or Ealdferth. 

705. Osred, son of Ealdferth. 

716. Cenred; sprung from Ida. 

718. Osric, son of Alcfrid. 

729. Ceolwulf ; died a monk. 

738. Eadbert, or Egbert ; retired to a monastery. 

757. Oswulf, or Osulf ; slain in a sedition. 

759. Edilwald, or Mollo ; slain by Aired, wdio 

was impatient for the throne. 
765. Aired, Ailred, or Alured ; deposed. 
774. Ethelred, son of Mollo ; expelled. 
778. Elwald, or Celwold; deposed and slain. 

789. Osred, son of Aired; fled. 

790. Ethelred restored ; afterwards slain. 
795. Erdulf, or Ardulf ; deposed. 

808. Alfwold II.; succeeded by Erdulf, and 
perhaps others ; but the kingdom after 
so many fatal revolutions lost all attach- 
ment to its government and princes, 
and was prepared for its subjection to 
the yoke of Egbert. — Hume. 

East Angles. 
\_Norfolh, Suffolk, Cambridge, Isle of Ely.~\ 
575. Uffa ; a noble German. 
582. Titilus, or Titulus ; son of UfFa. 
599. Kedwald; son of Titilus: the greatest 

prince of the East Angles. 
624. Erpwald, or Eorpwald. 
629. Sigebert, half-brother to Erpwald. 
632. Egfrid, or Egric, cousin to Sigebert. 
635. Anna, or Annas ; a just ruler: killed. 



654. Ethelric, or Ethelhere ; slain in battle. 

655. Ethelwald, his brother. 
664. Aldulf, or Aldwulf. 
713. Selred, or Ethelred. 
746. Alphwuld. 

749. Beorn and Ethelred, jointly. 
758. Beorn, alone. 
761. Ethelred. 

790. Ethelbert, or Ethelbyrht; treacherously 
put to death in Mercia in 792, when 
Offa, king of Mercia, overran the coun- 
try, which was finally subdued by 
Egbert. 

Mercia. 

\_Counties of Gloucester, Hereford, Chester, Staf- 
ford, Worcester, Oxford, Salop, Warwick, 
Derby, Leicester, Bucks, Northampton, Notts, 
Lincoln, Bedford, Rutland, Huntingdon, and 
part of Herts. ] 

586. Crida, or Cridda ; a noble chieftain. 
593. [Interregnum.] 
597. Wibba, a valiant prince, his son. 
615. Ceorl, or Cheorl ; nephew of Wibba. 
626. Penda, a fierce, cruel, and revengeful war- 
rior ; killed in battle. 

655. Peada, son of Penda ; murdered. 

656. Wulfhere, brother of Peada; to make 

way for whom Peada was slain : he 

slew his two sons with his own hand. 
675. Ethelred ; became a monk. 
704. Cenred, Cendred, or Kendred; became a 

monk at Rome. 
709. Ceolred, or Celred, or Chelred, son of 

Ethelred. 

716, Ethelbald ; slain in a mutiny by one of his 

own chieftains, his successor, after a 

defeat in battle. 
755. Beornred, orBernred: himself slain. 
755. Ofia: he fimned the great dyke on the 

borders of Wales known by his name. 
794. Egfrid, or Egferth, son of Offa : he had 

ruled jointly with his father for some 

years : died suddenly. 
794. Cenulf, or Kenulph ; slain. 
819. Kenelm, or Cenelm, a minor ; reigned five 

months : killed by his sister Quendreda, 

from the ambitious hope of assuming 

the government. — Hume. 
819. Ceolwulf, uncle to Kenelm; driven from 

the throne. 

821. Beornulf, or Burnwulf; killed by his own 
subjects. 

823. Ludecan ; a valiant ruler : slain. 
825. Withlafe, or Wiglaf. 
838. Berthulf, or Bertulf. 
852. Burhred, or Burdred. 

[This last kingdom merged, like the other 

kingdoms of the Heptarchy, into that of 

England,] 



The Saxons, although they were divided into seven different kingdoms, yet were 
for the most part subject to one king alone, who was entitled Rex gentis Anglorum^ or 
King of the English nation ; those which were stronger than the rest giving the law to 
them in their several turns, till, in the end, they all became incorporated in the empire 
of the West Saxons, under Eo:bert. The foUowins: were kin^s or octarchs durino^ the 
Heptarchy ^ : — 

1 The term " Octarchy " is sometimes applied, by writers, to the Saxon kingdoms, inasmuch as Northumbria, 
the seventh kingdom, was at different periods divided into two kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira, ruled by separate 
kings. Other writers apply the term to the successive kings whose authority was acknowledged by the other 
princes of the Heptarchy ; these, they call Octarchs. 

B 2 



4 



PRmCES OF EUROPE. 



Kings, or Octarciis, of the English Saxons. 
457. Hengist, first king of Kent. 
490. Ella, 1st king of the South Saxons. 
519. Cerdic, 1st king of the West Saxons. 
534. Kenric, 2nd king of the West Saxons. 
560. Ceawlin, 3rd king of the West Saxons. 
593. Ethelbert, 5th king of Kent. 
616. Redwald, 3rd king of the East Angles. 
630. Edwin, 4th king of Northumbria. 
635. Oswald, 5th king of Northumbria. 
644. Osweo, 8th king of Bernicia. 
670. Wulfhere, 6th king of Mercia. 



675. Ethelred, 7th king of Mercia. 

704. Cenred, 8th king of Mercia. 

709. Celred, 9th king of Mercia. 

716. Ethelbald, 10th king of Mercia. 

758. Offa, 11th king of Mercia. 

796. Egferth, 12th king of Mercia. 

796. Kenulph, 13th king of Mercia. 

820. Egbert, 17th king of the West Saxons; 
and first and absolute monarch of the 
whole Heptarchy, who vanquished all 
or most of the Saxon kings, and added 
their dominions to his own. 



Kings of England before the Conquest. 



827. Egbert, first sole monarch of England ; so 
reigned about ten j^ears. 

837. Ethelwolf, his eldest son ; remarkable for 
his great bigotry. 

857. Ethelbald, son of Ethelwolf; a profligate 
prince : died unlamented. 

860. Ethelbert, 2nd son of Ethelwolf ; succeeded 
by his next brother, 

866. Ethelred : mortally wounded by the Danes 
in battle ; died April 27, 871. 

871. Alfred, surnamed the Great, 4th son of 
Ethelwolf; a brave, wise, and virtuous 
prince: died Oct. 26, 901. 

901. Edward the Elder, son of Alfred ; a brave 
and prudent ruler: the Saxon Chron. 
fix his death in 925. 

925. Athelstan, natural son of Edward, whose 
legitimate sons were too young to go- 
vern : died Oct. 17, 941. 

941. Edmund, son of Edward : killed at a fes- 
tival by Leolf, an outlaw. May 26, 947. 

947. Edred, brother to Edmund : in this reign, 
Dunstan, a turbulent and ambitious 
priest, had unbounded sway. 

955. Edwy, son of Edmund : in this reign also, 
as in the last, Dunstan ruled the unfor- 
tunate king, who, however, afterwards 
banished him. 

959. Edgar, succeeded his brother Edwy; re- 
called Dunstan, whose influence he re- 
stored : died July 1, 975. 

975. Edward the Martyr, son of Edgar : stabbed 
at Corfe Castle, at the instance of his 
step-mother Elfrida, March 18, 978. 

978. Ethelred II., half-brother of Edward. This 
prince retired to Normandy during the 
Danish usurpation, when Sweyn was 
proclaimed king, 1013. Sweyn died in 
a few months afterwards, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Canute the Great. 
While the latter was absent in Den- 
mark, the exiled king returned. Ethel- 



red closed an inglorious reign, April 24, 
1016. 

1016. Edmund II., surnamed Ironside ; son of 
Ethelred. The English and Danish no- 
bility, tired of war, obliged Edmund and 
Canute to divide the kingdom between 
them. Canute ruled the northern por- 
tion, while the southern was held by 
Edmund, who, however, did not long 
survive the treaty : he was murdered at 
Oxford by two of his chamberlains, 
accomplices of duke Edric, Nov. 30, 1016. 

The Danish Race. 

1016. Canute, styled the Great, and the Dane ; 

established himself as king of England 

in 1017 : died Nov. 12, 1035. 
1035. Harold I., surnamed Harefoot, from his 

agility in running ; a cruel prince : died, 

unmarried, April 14, 1039. 
1039. Hardicanute, or Canute the Hardy, so 

named from his bodily powers ; brother 

of the last king : died of repletion at a 

nuptial feast, June 8, 1041. 

The Saxons Repossessed. 

1041. Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred II. 

by Emma, his 2nd queen; a tranquil 
and prosperous reign : died Jan. 5, 1066, 
naming William of Normandy his heir. 

1066. Harold II., son of Godwin, earl of Kent ; a 
powerful and popular nobleman ; reigned 
only nine months : killed at the battle 
of Hastings. 
[William of Normandy invaded England in 
Sept. 1066, with a powerful fleet and 
army, and on Oct. 14 following, gave 
battle, at Hastings, to Harold, over 
whom he obtained a complete victory ; 
and Harold being slain, William was 
proclaimed king by his triumphant army 
on the spot.] 



Sovereigns of England after the Conquest. 



The Norman Line. 
1066. WiiXTAM the Conqueror; natural son of 
Robert, duke of Normandy, by Harlotta, 
a tanner's daughter, at Ealaise; born 
in 1025 ; married Matilda, daughter of 
Baldwin, count of Flanders : died at 
Rouen, Sept. 9, 1087. Succeeded by his 
second son. 

1087. William Rufus, or the Red, from the 
colour of his hair ; born 1057: mortally 
wounded while hunting in the New 



Forest, by an arrow shot at a stag by 
sir Walter Tyrrell, and died, unmarried, 
Aug. 2, 1100. 
1100. Henry I., surnamed Beauclerk, youngest 
son of William I. ; born 1070 ; married, 
1st, Matilda, daughter of Malcolm Can- 
more, king of Scotland; 2d, Adelais, 
or Adeliza, daughter of Godfrey, duke 
of Louvaine : died of a surfeit, Dec. 1, 
1135. 

1135. Stephen, son of the earl of Blois (by 



ENGLAND. 



5 



Adela, daughter of the Conqueror), and 
nephew of Henr}'- I. ; born 1105. The 
empress Maud, daughter of Henry, and 
rightful heir to the throne, contended 
for it with Stephen, but ultimately con- 
cluded a peace with him, by which she 
secured the succession to her son. See 
next reign. Stephen married Matilda, 
daughter of Eustace, count of Boulogne : 
died Oct. 25, 1154. 

The Plantagenet Line. ' 

1154. Henry II., son of the empress Maud and 
Geoffrey Plantagenet, earl of Anjou, her 
second husband; born 1133. Henry 
married Eleanor, daughter of the duke 
of Guienne and divorced queen of 
Louis VII. of France : died of a broken 
heart, July 6, 1189. The Fair Rosa- 
mond was mistress of this prince. 

1189. Richard I. Cceur de Lion, son of Henry II. ; 

born in 1157: he joined the crusades 
to Palestine, where his consummate 
bravery obtained him the affix to his 
name. Married Berengera, daughter of 
Sancho YL, king of Navarre ^ : died of 
a wound from an arrow at the siege of 
Chaluz, April 6, 1199. 

1199. John, surnamed Lackland, brother of 
Richard, born Dec. 24, 1166; married, 
1st, Avisa, daughter of William, earl 
of Gloucester, whom he divorced upon 
the ground of consanguinity; and 2d, 
Isabel, daughter of Aymer, count of 
Angouleme, the affianced wife of the 
count de la Marche : died Oct. 19, 1216. 

1216. Henry III., son of John, born Oct. 1, 
1206 ; succeeded at 10 years of age; 
married Eleanor, daughter of Raymond, 
count de Provence : died Nov. 16, 1272. 

1272. Edward L, surnamed Longshanks, son 
of Henry, born Jime 17, 1239; married 
1st, Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand III., 
king of Castile; and, 2d, Margaret, 
daughter of Philip III., the Hardy, king 
of France : died July 7, 1307. 

1307. Edward II., son of Edward I. ; born at 
Carnarvon, April 25, 1284 ; married 
Isabella, daughter of Philip IV., the 
Fair, king of France : dethroned Jan. 25, 
1327 ; and barbarously murdered at 
Berkeley Castle Sept. 21 following, a 
victim to the crimes and ambition of 



his infamous queen and her favourite 
Mortimer. 

1327. Edavard III., of Windsor, son of the last 
king, born Nov. 13, 1312 ; married Phi- 
lippa, daughter of William, count of 
Holland and Hainhault : died at Sheen, 
now Richmond, June 21, 1377. 

1377. Richard IL, son of Edward the Black 
Prince and grandson of Edward III., 
born Jan. 6, 1367; married, 1st, Anne, 
sister of the emperor Winceslaus ; and, 
2d, Isabel, daughter of Charles VI. of 
France : dethroned Sept. 29, 1399, and 
murdered at Pomfret Castle, Feb. 13 
following. 

The Line of Lancaster. 

1399. Henry IV.,3 surnamed Bolingbroke, son 
of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, 
who was fourth son of Edward III. ; 
born in 1367; married 1st, Mary de 
Bohun, daughter and coheiress of the 
earl of Hereford ; and, 2d, Joan of 
Navarre, widow of John de Montfort, 
duke of Bretagne : died March 20, 1413. 

1413. Henry V., of Monmouth, son of the last 
king ; born in 1388 ; married Catharine, 
youngest daughter of Charles VI., king 
of France: died Aug. 31, 1422. 

1422. Henry VL, his son, born Dec. 6, 1421 ; 

succeeded to the throne when not nine 
months old ; married the celebrated 
Margaret of Anjou, daughter of Rene 
or Regnier, duke of Anjou, titular king 
of Sicily and Jerusalem : dethroned 
March 4, 1461 ; and died in the Tower, 
(supposed to have been murdered there 
by Richard, duke of Gloucester), June 
20, 1471. 

The House of York. 

1461. Edward IV.,"^ son of Richard, duke of 
York ; born April 29, 1441 : married Eli- 
zabeth Widvile (or Woodville) daughter 
of sir Richard Widvile, afterwards earl 
Rivers, widow of sir John Grey, of Groby : 
died April 9, 1483. Edward, prince of 
Wales, son of Henry VI., was murdered 
in this reign. 

1483. Edward V., eldest son of the last king ; 

born Nov. 4, 1470 ; succeeded in his 
13th year; reigned but 2 months and 
13 days, having been deposed June 22, 



^ Plantagenet seems to have been at first no more than one of those soubriquets or nicknames at this time so 
common. The first so-called was Fulke Martel, earl of Anjou, in the tenth century. That noble having con- 
trived the death of his nephew, the earl of Brittany, in order to succeed to the earldom, his confessor sent him, 
in atonement for the murder, to Jerusalem, attended by only two servants, one of whom was to lead him by a 
halter to the Holy Sepulchre, the other to strip and whip him there, like a common malefactor. Broom, in 
French genet, in Latin genista, being the only tough, pliant shrub in Palestine, the noble criminal was smartly 
scourged with it, and from this instrument of his chastisement, he was called Planta-genista, or Plantagenet. — 
Skinner. Nexeray. 

2 He was first contracted in marriage, in his infancy, to a daughter of Raymond, count of Barcelona, but when 
he was grown up, he was affianced to Alice, or Adela, daughter of Louis VII., king of France ; neither of whom 
he married. Afterwards, in his journey to the Holy Land, he married Berengera, or Berengaria, daughter of 
the king of Navarre, a virtuous and beautiful princess, who adventured with him many dangers, both by sea and 
land, in that famous expedition. — T. C. Banks. 

3 Henry IV. took advantage of the absence of Richard, who was then in Ireland, and landed with an armed 
force in Yorkshire ; and being joined by several of the nobility and gentry and by the army, he seized Richard on 
his return, assembled the parliament, which had been summoned by writs in Richard's name, exhibited articles 
of mal-administration against his sovereign, compelled him to resign, and then, with the army at the door, asserted 
his claim to the crown as next heir, which in point of hereditary right belonged to Edmund Mortimer, earl of 
March : thus he was doubly an usurper. 

4 Edward IV. was the eldest surviving son of Richard, duke of York, son of Richard, earl of Cambridge, and 
Anne his wife, who was daughter of Roger, earl of March, the son of Edmund Mortimer and Philippa his wife, 
who was daughter of Lionel, duke of Clarence, the third son of Edward III. — Banks. 

B 3 



6 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



1483. He was shortly afterwards mur- 
dered, with his brother Richard, in the 
Tower, by their uncle Gloucester, who 
had usurped the throne. 
1483. Richard III., duke of Gloucester; eighth 
and youngest son of Richard, duke of 
York, and brother of Edward IV. ; born 
1453 ; married Anne, daughter of the 
great earl of Warwick, and widow of 
Edward, prince of Wales, above-men- 
tioned, whom he, and the duke of Cla- 
rence and lord Hastings had murdered. 
Slain at the battle of BosAvorth-field, 
Aug. 22, 1485. 

The Families of York and Lancaster 
united in the house of tudor. 

1485. Henry VII., earl of Richmond, grandson 
of Owen Tudor and Catharine, widow of 
Henry V. ; born July 26, 1455 ; claimed 
his title to the crown in right of his 
mother, descended from John of Gaunt, 
4th son of Edward III. ; married Eliza- 
beth, eldest daughter of Edward IV., by 
which marriage the houses of Lancaster 
and York were united. Overcame Richard 
III. • at the battle of Bosworth, and was 
crowned king upon the spot : died April 
22, 1509. 

1509. Henry VIII., son of Henry VII. ; born 
June 28, 1491. He married, 1st, Catha- 
rine of Arragon (widow of his elder 
brother, Arthur), whom he repudiated 
and afterwards formally divorced. 2d, 
Anna Boleyn (daughter of sir Thomas 
Boleyn, and maid of honour to queen 
Catharine), whom he beheaded, od, 
Jane Seymour (daughter of sir John 
Seymour and maid of honour to Anna 
Boleyn), who died in childbirth of a son, 
afterwards Edward VI. 4th, Anne of 
Cleves (sister of William, duke of Cleves), 
whom he divorced. 5th, Catharine 
Howard (niece of the duke of Norfolk), 
v/hom he beheaded. 6th, Catharine 
Parr (daughter of sir Thomas Parr and 
widow of Edward Nevill, lord Latimer, 
her 2nd husband), who survived him. 
He died Jan. 28, 1547. 

1547. Edward VL, his son, by Jane Seymour, 
his 3rd queen ; born Oct. 12, 1537. This 
prince ascended the throne in his tenth 
year ; reigned 6 years, 5 months, and 9 
days ; and died unmarried. 

1553. Mary, eldest daughter of Henry VIII. by 
his 1st queen, Catharine of Arragon ; 
born Feb. 11, 1516. Married Philip II. 
of Spain, who was joined with her in the 
government, July 25, 1554. Mary died 
Nov. 17, 1558. Philip died in 1598, 
forty years afterwards, of a loathsome 
disease, being devoured by vermin, which 
swarmed from innumerable sores in all 
parts of his body. 
[In the beginning of this reign, lady Jane 



Grey, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, 
and wife of lord Guildford Dudley, was 
proclaimed queen ; young Edward, when 
dying, having been persuaded to alter 
the succession in her favour. In 10 days 
afterwards she returned to private life ; 
but was tried Nov. 13, 1553, and be- 
headed Feb. 12, 1554, then but seven- 
teen years of age.] 
1558. Elizabeth, second daughter of Henry 
VIII. by his 2nd queen, Anna Boleyn, 
born Sept. 7, 1533. This princess died, 
unmarried, March 24, 160S ; and in her 
ended the Tudors. 

House of Stuart. 

1603. James I. of England, and VI. of Scotland, 
son of Mary, queen of Scots, by Henry 
Stuart, lord Darnley ; and grandson of 
James IV. of Scotland, by Margaret, 
daughter of Henry VII. of England; 
born June 19, 1566. Married Anne, of 
Denmark, daughter of Frederick II. : 
died March 27, 1625. 

1625. Charles I., his eldest surviving son ; born 
Nov. 19, 1600 ; married Henrietta- 
Maria, daughter of Henry IV. of France, 
and sister of Louis XIII. This unfor- 
tunate monarch, after a reign of conten- 
tion with his subjects, was brought to 
trial on a charge of making war against 
the parliament, sentenced to be beheaded, 
Jan. 27, 1649, and executed on the 30th. 

1649. [Commonwealth. Oliver Cromwell, 
whose power and influence had pre- 
viously been paramount, was declared 
protector of England, Dec. 12, 1653 : 
died Sept. 3, 1658 ; and was succeeded 
by his son, Richard Cromwell, who was 
made protector, Sept. 4 : he resigned the 
office, April 22, 1659.] 

1649. Charles II., son of Charles I., born May 
29, 1630. This king's reign commenced, 
in effect, with his restoration to the 
throne, IMay 29, 1660 ; but it is reckoned 
by historians from the day of his father's 
death, Jan. 30, 1649. He married the 
infanta Catharine of Portugal, daughter 
of John IV. and sister of Alphonsus VI. ; 
but died without legitimate issue, Feb, 
6, 1685. 

1685. James II., his brother, born Oct. 13, 1633 : 
he married, when duke of York, lady 
Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward, earl 
of Clarendon, who died before he as- 
cended the throne ; married, 2d, INIary 
Beatrice Eleanor d'Este, princess of Mo- 
dena, daughter of Alphonso d'Este, 
duke. After an unquiet reign, James 
abdicated by flight, finallv quitting 
England Dec. 23, 1688; and died in 
exile Sept. 6, 1701. 

1689. William III., prince of Orange, and 

Mary II., his queen. The former was the 
posthumous son of William of Nassau 
and Orange by the princess Mary, eldest 



It was not, as some of our historians relate, by the hand of Richmond that Richard fell ; but by the hands of 
the multitude at large, among whom he had rushed upon finding himself betrayed, or rather deserted, by lord 
Manley. He died, after prodigies of valour, all covered with wounds ; and his body, bloody and naked when 
lound upon the field, was tlirown across a horse, and conveyed to Leicester, where it was interred without 
lunereal ceremony. Mr. Peck, the antiquary, in a letter dated Godeby, March 21, 1736, addressed to William 
cowper, esq clerk of parliament, writes : "King Richard III. 's stone coffin, at Leicester, has been dug up 
I some period before] and made a trough at one of the inns, for the watering of horses." 



ENGLAND. 



7 



daughter of Charles L, and was born 
Nov. 14, 1650 ; the latter was the elder 
daughter of James 11. by lady Anne 
Hyde, and was born April 30, 1662. 
Proclaimed Feb. 13, 1689; this event 
consummating the Revolution of 1688. 
Marv died Dec. 28, 1694 ; and William, 
of a fall from his horse, March 8, 1702. 
1702. Anne, second daughter of James II. by 
lady Anne Hyde, born Feb. 6, 1665; 
married-, July 28, 1683, prince George 
of Denmark, who died Oct. 28, 1708. 
The queen died Aug. 1, 1714. 

House of Hanover. 

1714. George I. (Lewis), the nearest Protestant 
heir to the crown ; son of Ernest Au- 
gustus, elector of Hanover and duke of 
Brunswick -Luneburg, by the princess 
Sophia, youngest daughter of Fre- 
derick v., elector palatine and king of 
Bohemia, and the princess Elizabeth, 
daughter of James I. Born, May 28, 
1660 ; married Sophia-Dorothea, daugh- 
ter of George-William, duke of Zell: 
died June 11, 1727. 

1727. George 11. (Augustus), born Oct. 30, 
1683 ; married Wilhelmina-Caroline, 
daughter of John-Frederick, margrave 
of Brandenburg- Anspach : died, Oct. 25, 
1760. 

1760. George III. (William-Frederick), son of 
Frederick-Lewis, prince of Wales, and 
grandson of George II. : born June 4, 
1738 ; married Charlotte- Sophia, daugh- 



ter of Charles-Lewis-Frederick, duke of 
Mecklenburgh-Strelitz, Sept. 8, 1761. 
His son, George, prince of Wales, de- 
clared regent of the kingdom, Feb. 5, 
1811 ; and so continued until Jan. 29, 
1820, when the king died in the 82d 
year of his age and the 60th of his reign, 
being the longest reign in the English 
annals. 

1820. George IV. (Augustus-Frederick), eldest 
son of George III. ; born Aug. 12, 1762 ; 
married his cousin Carohne- Amelia- 
Elizabeth, daughter of Charles-William- 
Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick- Wolfen- 
buttel, by Augusta, eldest sister of 
George III., April 8, 1795. Became 
prince regent, Feb. 5, 1811 ; and suc- 
ceeded to the throne, Jan. 29, 1820. His 
consort Caroline died Aug. 7, 1821 : the 
king died June 26, 1830. 

1830. WiTxiAM IV. (Henry), duke of Clarence, 
third son of George III. ; born Aug. 21, 
1765 ; married Amelia- Adelaide-Louisa- 
Theresa-Caroline, daughter of George- 
Frederick -Charles, duke of Saxe-^iei- 
ningen, July 11, 1818. The king died 
June 20, 1837. His consort died Dec. 2, 
1849. 

1837. Victoria (Alexandrina- Victoria), daugh- 
ter of Edward, duke of Kent, fourth 
son of George III. ; born May 24, 1819 ; 
succeeded her uncle, June 20, 1837 ; and 
was crowned, June 28, 1838. Married, 
Feb. 10, 1840, her cousin Albert, prince 
of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. See below. 



England and Wales were united a. d. 1283 ; Scotland was united to both in 1707; 
and the three were then styled Great Britain. Ireland was incorporated with these 
countries by the act of Legislative Union, January 1, 1 801, and the whole called the 
United Kingdom, of Great Britain and Ireland. 



The present Eoyal Family of England. 



The Queen. Alexandrina- Victoria, only daughtei of Edward, duke of Kent ; born May 24, 1819 ; 
succeeded to the throne on the decease of her uncle, William IV., June 20, 1837. Crowned at 
Westminster, June 28, 1838. Married (Feb. 10, 1840) to her cousin, Francis-Albert- Augustus- 
Charles-Emmanuel, duke of Saxe, prince of Saxe- Coburg and Gotha ; and has issue : 

1. Victoria- Adelaide-lSIary-Louisa, princess royal, 

born Nov. 21, 1840. 

2. Albert-Edward, prince of Wales, duke of 
Saxony, duke of Cornwall and Rothsay, 



earl of Chester and Carrick, baron of Ren- 
frew, and lord of the Isles, born Nov. 9, 1841. 



3. Alice-Maud-Mary, born April 25, 1843. 

4. Alfred-Ernest, born Aug. 6, 1844. 

5. Helena- Augusta- Victoria, born May 25, 1846. 
G. Louisa-Carolina-Alberta, born March 18, 1848. 
7. Arthur-Patrick- Albert, born Mav 1, 1850. 



The Queen's Mother. Victoria-Maria-Louisa, duchess of Kent, aunt to the duke of Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha, born Aug. 17, 178G ; married, 1st (Decern. 21, 1803) Emich-Charles, prince of Leiningen, 
who died July 4, 1814, leaving issue, Charles, prince of Leiningen, born Sept. 12, 1804, and the 
princess Feodore, born Dec. 7, 1807. Married, 2d (May 29, 1818) to Edward, duke of Kent, who 
died Jan. 23, 1820. Issue, The Queen. 



PRINCES AND PRINCESSES OF ENGLAND. 
Born of the Norman Line. 



Issue of Wieliam T. 

1. Robert, duke of Normandy. 

2. Richard ; said to have been killed by a stag in 

the New Forest. 

3. WiLEiAiSi RuFus, who succeeded his father on 

the throne. 

4. Henry, who succeeded his brother. 

B 



5. Cicely ; died abbess of the convent of the Holy 

Trinity at Caen. 

6. Constance ; married to Alan, earl of Brittany, 

and Richmond, in England. 

7. Alice ; contracted to Harold (who afterwards 

refused her) : she died unmarried. 

8. Adela ; married to Stephen, earl of Blois, by 
4 



8 



PRINCES OF EUEOPE. 



whom she had (besides three other sons, 
William, Theobald, and Henry) 

Stephen, afterwards king, by usurpa- 
tion, the empress Maud being rightful 
heir. 

9. Gundred ; married to William, earl of Warren 

and Surrey. 

10. Agatha (called Margaret by Ralph Brooke) ; 

betrothed to Alphonso, king of Galicia, but 
died on her journey to join her bridegroom. 

Issue of Henry I. 

1. William, drowned on his passage from Nor- 

mandy : the prince's newly married bride, 
Matilda, daughter of Fulke, earl of Anjou, 
shared the same fate. 

2. Maud, or Matilda ; married, 1st, to the emperor 



Henry v.; ^ and, 2d, to Geoffrey Planta- 
genet, son of Fiilke, earl of Anjou, by whom 
she had : 

I. Henry, surnamed Fitz-Em press, who 
ascended the throne as Henry II. 
IT. Geoffrey (Pembroke) earl of Nantes. 
HI. William, earl of Poitou. 
IV. Emma, married to David (by usurpa- 
tion) prince of North Wales. 

Issue of Stephen. 

1. Baldwin ; died in infancy. 

2. Eustace, earl of Boulogne. 

3. William, earl of Mortaigne. 

4. Maud ; died young. 

5. Mary, married to Matthew, son of Theodore, 

count of Flanders. 



Born of the Plantagenet Line. 



Issue of Henry II. 

1. William, who died in childhood. 

2. Henry; married Margaret, daughter of the 

French king : died before his father.^ 

3. Richard, who succeeded his father on the 

throne. 

4. Geoffrey, earl of Brittany and Richmond; 

married Constance, daughter of Conan, duke 
of Brittany : accidentally killed at a tour- 
nament in Paris, leaving 

I. Arthur, earl or duke of Brittany, 

who was rightful heir of his uncle 
Richard. 

II. Eleanor, who died unmarried. 

5. Philip, who died young. 

6. John, who usurped the crown, in prejudice to 

his nephew Arthur, whom he murdered. — 
Hume. 

7. Eleanor ; married to Alphonso VIII., king of 

Castile. 

8. Maud ; married to Henry the Lion, duke of 

Brunswick, ancestor of the present royal 
family of England. 

9. Joan ; married to William II., count of Sicily ; 

and, 2d, Raymond, count of Toulouse. 

[Henry had two sons by Rosamond 
Clifford : viz.^ William Longespee, or 
Longsword, so named from the sword 
he usually wore ; and Geoffrey, arch- 
bishop of York.] 

Issue of King John. 

1. Henry, who ascended the throne as Henry III. 

2. Richard, earl of Poitou and Cornwall ; elected 

king of the Romans in 1256. 

3. Joan ; married to Alexander IL, king of Scot- 

land. 

4. Eleanor; married to William Marshall the 



younger, earl of Pembroke; and 2d, to 
Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester. 
5. Isabel ; married to the emperor Frederick II. 

Issue of Henry HI. 

1. Edward, who ascended the throne. 

2. Edmund Plantagenet, surnamed Crouchback, 

earl of Lancaster.^ 

3. Richard ; 4. John ; 5. William ; who all died 

young. 

6. Henry ; assassinated at mass in Italy. 

7. Margaret ; married to Alexander III., king of 

Scotland. 

8. Beatrice ; married to John, 1st duke of Brit- 

tany. 

9. Catherine, who died in infancy. 

Issue of Edward I. 
1. John; 2. Henry; 3. Alphonso; who died 
young. 

4. Edward, prince of Wales; succeeded his 

father on the throne. 

5. Eleanor ; first espoused, by proxy, to Alphonso 

of Arragon, who died soon after ; married 
to Henry, comte de Barre. 

6. Joan ; married, 1st, to Gilbert de Clare, earl of 

Gloucester ; and 2d, to Ralph de Monther- 
mere. 

7. Margaret ; married to John, duke of Brabant. 

8. Berangera or Berenice ; died in infancj^ 

9. Alice ; also died young. 

10. Mary ; a nun at Amesbury in Wiltshire, and 

afterwards at Fontevraud, in Normandy. 

11. Elizabeth; married, 1st, to John, earl of 

Holland ; 2d, to Humphrey, earl of Here- 
ford and Essex. 

12. Beatrice ; died in infancy. 

13. Blanch ; died also in infancy. 



1 She was married to the emperor when only in her twelfth year ; and was his wife ebven years, but had no 
issue by him. This eminent princess is usually called " the Empress." She is memorable for the resolution with 
which she contended against Stephen for the English sceptre: died at Rouen, in Sept. 1167. 

This prince was married at four years of age to Margaret, daughter of Louis VII. In his sixteenth year his 
father caused him to be crowned, June, 1070; and three years afterwards his marriage was consummated. He 
broke out into rebellion against the king, and this unnatural contention between father and son, which continued 
long, was at length terminated by the death of the prince, at the castle of Martel, in Touraine, in 1082. _ Banks. 

3 Edmund Plantagenet was first made earl of Chester, but the grant was revoked, and given to his elder 
brother. By the pope he was invested in the kingdom of Sicily and Apulia ; but the splendid gift, it is well 
known, came to nothing: so that his real and intrinsic honour was that of earl of Lancaster. — This 
prince, sitting down before Bourdeaux, with a large force, and not being able to take the place, became so much 
affected by his ill success, that a fit of sickness was brought on, of which he died. One circumstance does honour 
to his memory : he commanded " that his body should not be interred until all his debts were paid.'' He was buried 
ni Westmmster Abbey. 



ENGLAND. 



9 



14. Thomas, earl of Norfolk and marshal of 

England. 

15. Edmund, of Woodstock, earl of Kent: be- 

headed in 1329.1 

16. Eleanor, who died young; second of the 

name. 

Issue of Edward II. 

1 . Edward, afterwards king. 

2. John, of Eltham, earl of Cornwall. 

3. Joan; married, in her minority, to David, 

prince of Scotland, son of Robert Bruce. 

4. Eleanor; married to Reynald or Reginald, 

earl of Gueldres. 

Issue of Edward III. 

1. Edward, surnamed the Black Prince, prince 

of Wales ^; born June 15, 1330; married 
his cousin Joan, the " Fair Maid of Kent," 
daughter of Edmund, earl of Kent, repu- 
diated wife of Thomas Montacute, earl of 
Salisbury, and widow of sir Thomas Hol- 
land: he died July 8, 1376, having had 
issue 

I. Edward, who died in his seventh year. 
II. Richard, who came to the crown as 
Richard 11. 

2. William, of Hatfield ; died early. 

3. Lionel, duke of Clarence; married 1st, Eli- 

zabeth de Burgh, daughter of William, 
earl of Ulster, by whom he had an only 
daughter, Philippa, married to Edmund 
Mortimer, earl of March. Lionel espoused, 
2d, Violante, daughter of the duke of 
Milan, and died in Italy soon after. For 
the issue of Philippa, see below. 

4. John, of Ghent, or Gaunt (so called from the 

place of his birth), duke of Lancaster. 
From this prince sprang that branch 
which afterwards possessed the crown. 
See below. 

5. Edmund, of Langley, earl of Cambridge, and, 

afterwards, duke of York ; married Isabel, 
daughter of Peter, king of Castile and 
Leon ; 2dly, Joan, daughter of Thomas, 
earl of Kent. For his issue (by his first 
duchess), see below. 

6. William, of Windsor, who died young. 

7. Thomas, of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester ; 

married Eleanor, eldest daughter and co- 
heiress of Humphrey de Bohun, earl of 
Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, The 
duke was murdered at Calais, Sept. 8, 
1397.3 

8. Isabel ; married to Ingelram de Courcy, cre- 

ated earl of Bedford. 



9. Joan; contracted in marriage to Alphonso, 
king of Castile, but died before its cele- 
bration.* 

10. Blanch de la Tour (born in the Tower) : died 

an infant. 

11. Mary; married to John de Montfort, sur- 

named the Valiant, duke of Brittany. 

12. Margaret ; married to John Hastings, earl of 

Pembroke, who was poisoned. 

[*^* The following are given under separate heads, as 
materially serving to elucidate the claims to, and 
the descent of, the crown.] 

Issue of Philippa 
(^daughter of Lionel, duke of Clarence^ 3rd 
son of Edward III. See above). 

1. Roger Mortimer, earl of March ; married 

Eleanor, daughter of Thomas Holland, 
earl of Kent: killed in Ireland, leaving 
issue 

I. Edmund, earl of March, who, on the 

death of Richard II. became right- 
ful heir to the crown : he was kept 
in confinement by Henry IV., and 
died in prison, in 1424. 

II. Anne Mortimer, who became heiress 

of her house, and conveyed its 
claims on the crown to the house 
of York, by her marriage with 
Richard, earl of Cambridge. 
III. Eleanor ; married to Edward Courte- 
nay, earl of Devon. 

2. Edmund Mortimer; who settled in North 

Britain. 

3. John Mortimer ; put to death in 1424. 

4. Elizabeth ; married to Henry, lord Percy, 

surnamed Hotspur. 

5. Philippa ; married, 1st, to John, earl of Pem- 

broke; 2d, to Richard Fitz-Alan, earl of 
Arundel. 

Issue of John of Gaunt 

(4th son of Edward III.). 

[This prince married, 1st, Blanch, youngest 
daughter and coheiress of Henry, duke of 
Lancaster; and had issue] 

1. Henry, afterwards Henry IV. 

2. Philippa ; married to John L, king of Por- 

tugal. 

3. Elizabeth; married, 1st, to John, duke of 

Exeter; and, 2d, to sir John Cornewall, 
created baron Fanhope. 
[He married, 2d, Constance, eldest daughter 
and coheiress of Peter, king of Castile ; nd 
Leon, by whom he had] 



1 The crime of this prince was, his endeavouring to deliver his brother, Edward III., from prison. Ey the orn- 
trivance of queen Isabel and her minion Mortimer, he was beheaded at Winchester, after having stood upon the 
scaffold from noon until five o'clock in the evening, waiting for an executioner. " No one," says the historian, 
" could be found hardened enough to perform the odious office." It was at length undertaken by a malefactor 
from the Marshalsea. — Banks. 

2/ In the 7th of Edward III. (1333), this prince had a grant of the county of Chester, with the castles of Chester, 
Rothelan, Flint, and Beeston ; and in the parliament holden at Westminster, 11th of same reign, he was created 
duke of Cornwall. From this period the dukedom of Cornwall has ever been vested in the heir apparent to the 
crown, who is duke of Cornwall immediately upon his birth; whereas the titles of prince of Wales and earl of 
Chester are by special creation or declaration, as in the instance of this noble prince, who, 17th Edward III. was 
by his father advanced to the former dignity, and had livery of all the castles and lands of the principality. — 
Banks. 

3 Thomas was taken from Pleshey, in Essex, and conveyed to Calais, where (with the royal privity) he was 
smothered under a feather-bed, by Seile, Francis, and others, who, informing him of the king's command, and 
announcing to him that he must die, he resigned himself, and said, that if it were his sovereion's pleasure he 
would submit to it. This appears by the examination of John Hall, taken in parliament, 1st Henry IV. 1399 ; 
and though not acting in the murder, this Hall was sentenced to be hanged at Tyburn and his body sent to Calais, 
where the deed was done. 

* She bore the title of Queen of Spain, and was conveyed to that country, where she presently died of the 
plague, which then raged, aged fourteen. So that Alphonso, coming to meet her, with great pomp, to solemnize 
his nuptials, had, instead, to follow her, in mourning, to the grave, anno 1348." — Rabbe's Uistoria de Espafla. 



10 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



4. Catherine ; married to Henr}^, prince of As- 

tiu'ias, afterwards king of Castile and 
Leon. 

[The duke married, 3d, Catherine, daughter 
of sir Fayn Roelt, knt., and widow of sir 
Hugh Swynford. By this lady he had, 
before marriage] 

5. John ; marquess of Dorset and Somerset, 

ancestor of the present duke of Beaufort. 

0. Henry ; bishop of Winchester. 

7. Thomas ; duke of Exeter. 

8. Joan; married to, 1st, Robert, lord Ferrers; 

and, 2(1, to Ralph Nevill, earl of West- 
moreland. 

[These last, by act of parliament, 20 Richard 
II., were declared legitimate for all pur- 
poses but inheriting the crown.] 

Issue of Edmund, Earl of Cambridge 
(5^7i son of Edward III.), 

1. Constance; married to Thomas le Despencer, 

earl of Gloucester. 

2. Edward, duke of York and Albemarle ; slain 

at the battle of Agincourt. 

3. Richard, earl of Cambridge ; married Anne 

Mortimer,great-grand-daughter, and even- 
tually heiress of his uncle Lionel, duke of 
Clarence. Through her the house of York 
derived its title to the crown in preference 
to the house of Lancaster, which, though 
descended in an unbroken male line from 
Edward III. was the line of a younger 
son. The earl was beheaded for a plot 
against the life of Henry V , leaving issue 
I. Isabel ; married to Henry Bourchier, 
earl of Essex. 



II. Rich":rd, duke of York and protector 
of England ; mariied Cicely, daughter 
of Ralph Nevill, earl of Westmore- 
land : he was slain at the battle of 
Wakefield in 1400. His issue fol- 
lows : 

Issue of Richard, Duke of York. 

1. Henry; died an infant. 

2. Edward ; afterwards Edward IV. 

3. Edmund, earl of Rutland ; slain at Wakefield, 

aged only 12 years. 

4. William ; died in infancy. 

5. John ; died an infant. 

6. George, duke of Clarence; married Isabel, 

daughter of Richard Nevill, earl of War- 
wick : attainted, and allowed by his 
brother, Edward IV., to choose the man- 
ner of his death, 1477' : he left issue 
I. Edward, earl of Warwick ; beheaded 
in 1499. 

II. Margaret, countess of Salisbury ; 
married to sir Richard Pole: at- 
tainted, and beheaded in 1541. 

7. Thomas ; died an infant. 

8. Richard, afterwards Richard III. 

9. Anne ; married, 1st, Henry Holland, duke of 

Exeter; and, 2d, sir Thomas St. Leger, 
knt. 

10. Elizabeth ; married to John Delapole, duke 

of Suffolk. 

11. Margaret; married to Charles, duke of Bur- 

gundy. 

12. Ursula. 

Edward, earl of Warwick, beheaded, as above, in 
1499, was the last of the male line of the Flanta- 
genets. 



Born of the House of Lancaster. 



Issue of Henry IV. 

1. Henry, surnamed Monmouth, prince of Wales, 

who succeeded to the throne as Henry V. 

2. Thomas, of Lancaster, duke of Clarence, who 

fell at the battle of Beague, in 1421. 

3. John, of Lancaster, duke of Bedford, the cele- 

brated regent of France in the minority of 
Henry YI. This prince's treatment of the 
enthusiastic Maid of Orleans indelibly tar- 
nished the laurels he had won by a series of 
brilliant achievements. 

4. Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, regent of 

England in the same minority. It is sup- 
posed that he died by violence or poison. 

5. Blan(;h ; married, Ist, to Louis, prince palatine 

of B>avaria; 2d, to the king of Arragon; 
and, 3d, to the duke of Barre. 
G. Philippii ; married to Eric, king of Denmark. 

Issue of Henry V. 
Henry, prince of Wales, who succeeded to the 
crown as Henrj^ VI. 

The widow of Henry V. married sir Owen 
Tudor of the principality of Wales, said 
to be of royal lineage, by whom she 
had 



I. Edmund Tudor, created earl of 
Richmond, who married Mar- 
garet, daughter of John, first 
duke of Somerset, and great- 
grand-daughter of John of 
Gaunt ; and left an only son, 
Henry, earl of Richmond, 
who ascended the throne as 
Henry VII. 
II. Jasper Tudor, created earl of 
Pembroke. 
III. Tacina Tudor, married to Regi- 
nald, lord Grey, of Wilton. 

Issue of Henry VI. 
Edward, prince of Wales, born Oct. 31, 1452; 
he married, in 1470, the lady Anne Nevill, 
second daughter and coheiress of Richard 
Nevill, earl of Warwick. This prince was, 
with his mother, taken prisoner at the 
battle of Tewkesbury, in 1471, and was 
murdered a few days afterwards by the 
dukes of Gloucester and Clarence, and lord 
Hastings. His widow, Anne, subsequently 
married Gloucester, one of his murderers, 
who became king, as Richard III. 



lie was drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine, his brother, the duke of Gloucester, as it is said, assisting at 
his death with his own hands. Though the king consented to his death, yet no sooner was the unnatural deed 
accomi)lished, than he repented of it, and so poignantly did it cause him to feel, that whenever he was solicited to 
spare the life of a condemned person, he would exclaim, " Oh ! unfortunate brother ! for whose life no man would 
make suit. ' 



ENGLAND. 



11 



Bo UN OF THE House of York. 



Issue of Edward IV. 

1. Edward, prince of Wales, who succeeded 

his father as Edward V., and 

2. Richard, duke of York. These two princes 

were murdered in the Tower, at the in- 
stance of their uncle Richard, d\dv.e of 
Gloucester, in 1483. 
[The latter prince, Richard, was married 
in his infancy to Anne, heiress of the 
house of MoAvbray, only child of John 
Mowbray, duke of I^orfolk and earl 
marshal of England, she being also an 
infant.] 

3. George ; who died young. 

4. Elizabeth ; married to Henry VII. 



5. Cicely; married, 1st, to John, lord Wells; 

and, 2d, to sir J. Kyme. 

6. Anne, married to Thomas Howard, duke of 

Norfolk. 

This king had four other daughters, namely, 

7. Bridget, who became a nun. 

8. Mary, who died unmarried, though affianced 

to the king of Denmark. 

9. Margaret, and 

10. Katharine, who espoused William Courtenay, 
earl of Devonshire. 

Issue of Richard HI. 
Edward, prince of Wales ; upon whom the 
crown was entailed by parliament ; but he 
died vita pair is. 



Born of the House of Tudor. 



Issue of Henry VII. 

1. Arthur, prince of Wales; born Sept. 20, 1486 ; 

married, Nov. 1501, tlie infanta Catharine, 
daughter of Ferdinand of Arragon ; but died 
in a few months afterwards. His widow be- 
came the first Avife of his brother Henry VIII. ; 
to whom she was married June 3, 1509. 

2. Henry, who succeeded his father on the 

throne as Henry VIII. 

3. Edmund, who died young. 

4. jMargaret, married, 1st, to James IV. of Scot- 

land, by whom she had an only son, James V. 
of Scotland, father of the unfortunate Mary, 
queen of Scots, whose son, James VI., as- 
cended the English throne as James I. Mar- 
garet married, 2d, Arthur Douglas, earl 
of Angus, from whom she was divorced ; 
and, 8d, Henry Stuart, earl of Methven. 
By her second husband she had an only 
daughter, Margaret, who espoused Matthew 
Stuart, earl of Lenox, and was mother of 
Henry, earl of Darnley, the husband of Mary 
of Scots, and father of James I. of England. 

5. Elizabeth, who died in infancy. 

6. Mary; married, 1st, to Louis XII. king of 



France ; and, 2d, to Charles Brandon, duke 
of Suffolk ; by whom she left 

I. Henry, earl of Lincoln, who died ue. 
married. 

II. Frances, married to Henry Grey, mar- 
quess of Dorset, afterwards tluke of 
Suffolk ; and had three daughters, of 
whom the eldest was the amiable and 
unfortunate lady Jane Grey. 

HI. Eleanor, married to Henry Clifford, earl 
of Cumberland, and left a daughter, 
Margaret, who espoused Henry Stan- 
ley, earl of Derby. 

Issue of Henry VIII. 

1. Henry, who died young. 

2. Mary (by Catharine of Arragon) who as- 

cended the throne. 

3. Elizabeth (by his second queen, Anna Bo- 

leyn) who ascended the throne. 

4. Edward (by his third queen, the lady Jane 

Seymour) who ascended the throne. 
[The king had by his first queen, besides 
Henry and Mary, other children not named, 
who died in infancy.] 



Born of the House of Stuart. 



Issue of James I. 

1. Henry- Frederick, created, after his father's ac- 

cession, duke of Cornwall, and in May 1610, 
prince of Wales : died, at the age of eighteen, 
Nov. 6, 1612. 

2. Robert, who died early. 

3. Charles, who succeeded his father on the 

throne as Charles 1. 

4. Elizabeth ^ ; married to Frederick, count pala- 

tine of the Rhine, who, in 1620, was elected 
king of Bohemia ; but afterwards driven from 
his dominions. She had issue : 
I. Frederick-Henry : drowned in 1529, in 
his fifteenth year. 



II. Charles-Lewis II., who, by the treaty of 
Munster, was created the eighth elector 
of the empire. 

III. Rupert, so renowned in the civil war of 

England as "Prince Rupert : " created 
duke of Cumberland. 

IV. Maurice, known in English history as 

" Prince Maurice ; " perished by ship- 
wreck in 1654. 
V. Lewis, died young. 
VI. Edward, count palatine of the Rhine. 
VII. Philip, slain at the battle near St. 

Stephen's in 1640. 
VIII. Gustavus ; died in 1641, in his minority. 



1 This amiable princess, who saw only a phantom of ro3'alty, and had nothing more than the empty title of 
ueen, bore her misfortunes with magnanimity when her husband lost his possessions, which the weak policy of 
ames would not enable him to recover. She was so beloved that in the Low Countries she was called 
" 'J'he Queen of Hearts.'^ After the restoration of Charles II., she visited England, and is supposed to have 
married William, the first lord Craven, whose house was in Drury-hme, where, some years since, was a tavern 
known by the name of the " Queen of Bohemia:' —T. C. Banks. 



12 



PRICES OF EUEOPE. 



IX. Elizabeth, who became abbess of Her- 
vorclen, in Westphalia, and died in 
1680. 

X. Louisa-Hollandia, became abbess of 

Maubisson, near Paris. 
XI. Henrietta; married Sigismund, prince 
of Transylvania, and died a few 
months after. 
XII. Charlotte ; died in infancy. 
XIII. Sophia : on whose descendants the 
crown of England devolved by the 
act of Settlement ; born Oct. 13, 1630 ; 
married, 1658, Ernest- Augustus, duke 
of Brunswick-Lunenburg, afterwards 
elector of Hanover, by whom she had 
issue, GEOKGE-Lewis, who ascended 
the English throne as George I. 

5. ^Margaret ; died young, 1598. 

6. Mary ; died in her third year, 1607. 

7. Sophia; died two days after her birth, 1606. 

Issue of the Princess Sophia 
(^gr and- daughter of James /.). 

1. GEORGE-Lewis, afterwards king George I. 

2. Frederick-Augustus; slain in battle against 

the Turks, 1690. 

3. Maximilian-William ; died Dec. 1666. 

4. Charles -Philip ; slain in battle, 1690. 

5. Christian ; drowned in the Danube, July, 1703. 

6. JErnest -Augustus, bishop of Osnaburg ; created, 

in 1716, duke of York and Albany and earl 
of Ulster: died August, 1728. 

7. Sophia-Charlotte ; married to Frederick- Wil- 

liam, elector of Brandenburg, king of Prussia. 

Issue of Charles L 

1. Charles, who died the day he was born. 

2. Charles, prince of Wales,afterwards Charles II. 

3. James, duke of York, afterwards James II. 

4. Henry, duke of Gloucester, who died unmar- 

ried, in 1660. 
6. Mary, married to William II. of Nassau, 
prince of Orange, by whom she had an only 
son, William, who ascended the throne of 
England, as William III. 

6. Elizabeth, who died of grief, a prisoner in Ca- 

risbrook Castle in Sept. 1650, aged 15 years. 

7. Anne, who died young. 

8. Henrietta-Maria, married to Philip, duke of 

Anjou, afterwards duke of Orleans, only 
brother to Louis XIV. 

Issue of Charles II. 

[This prince left no legitimate issue, but had 
many natural children by various mistresses ; 
among these was the celebrated James, duke 
of Monmouth, by Mrs. Lucy Walters ^] 



Issue of James IL 

1. Charles, duke of Cambridge, who died young. 

2. Mary, married to William- Henry of Nassau, 

prince of Orange : she and her husband 
afterwards ascended the English throne as 
Mary II. and William HI. 

3. James, duke of Cambridge ; born July, 1663 : 

died in 1667. 

4. Anne, who succeeded to the crown. 

5. Charles, duke of Kendal ; died an infant. 

6. Edgar, duke of Cambridge ; born Sept. 14, 

1667 : died June 8, 1671. 

7. Henrietta ; died in infancy. 

8. Catherine, who also died an infant. 

These four sons and four daughters were by 
lady Anne Hyde, and none of them, ex- 
cept Mary and Anne, afterwards queens 
regnant, survived four years of age. By 
his second wife, the princess of Modena, 
James had : 

9. Catherine-Laura, who died in infancy. 

10. Charles, duke of Cambridge ; died an infant. 

11. Isabella; died in her 4th year. 

12. Charlotte-Maria ; died in infancy. 

13. James-Francis- Edward, so well known after 

his father's death as the Pretender, and 
supposed by many to have been of fictitious 
birth; born June 18, 1668; married, in 
1719, Mary-Clementina, daughter of prince 
James Sobieski, and grand-daughter of 
John, king of Poland, by whom he had 
issue : 

I. Charles-Edward, the celebrated 
Chevalier St. George, or Young 
Pretender, born in 1720 ; mar- 
ried the princess Stohlberg; died 
in 1788. 

II. Henry-Benedict, known as Car- 
dinal York; died in 1807, when 
the whole issue of James became 
extinct. 

14. Louisa-Maria-Theresa, born in 1692 : died in 

1712. 

[James had also several natural children, of 
whom was the renowned James Fitz- 
James, duke of Berwick, by lady Arabella 
Churchill ; he followed his father, after his 
abdication, into France ; became general 
of the French and Spanish armies; and 
successfully contended against England 
in the battle of Amanza, in 1707. Killed 
at the siege of Philipsburgh in 1734.] 

Issue of Queen Anne. 

1. A daughter, still-born. 

2. Mary, born June 9, 1685 : died Feb. 8, 1686. 

3. Anne Sophia, born May 12, 1686 : died Feb. 2, 

1687. 



\ In 1G79, a belief very generally obtained throughout the kingdom, that the king had been lawfully married to 
this lady. This belief was countenanced the more on account of the popularity of the duke of Monmouth, who 
was daily gaining on the affections of the people. Some of Monmouth's supposed chief friends began to invite 
him to cast his eyes upon the crown. This so affected the king that his majesty thought himself obliged, both 
in conscience and honour, to cause the following Declaration to be entered in the records of his privy council: 

" Whitehall, March 3, 1679. 
" That to avoid any dispute which may happen in time to come, concerning the succession of the crown, he 
"declares in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was ever 
" married to any woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen Catherine, now living. 

Signed " Charles R." 

With this Declaration some persons not being satisfied, and the duke of Monmouth growing still more popular, 
his majesty thought fit to renew his Protestation, thus: 

" On the word of a King and the faith of a Christian, that he was never married to Mrs. Lucy Barlow, alias 
" Walters, the Duke of Monmouth's mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, besides the now Queen." 
The latter protestation is of record in the Court of Chancery. 



ENGLAND. 



13 



4. William, duke of Gloucester; born July 24, 
1689 ; died July 30, 1700. 



5. Mary, born and died in Nov. 1690. 

6. George, born and died April 17, 1692. 



Born of the House of Hanover. 



Issue of George I. 

1. GEORGE-Augustus ; succeeded his father as 

George II. 

2. Sophia-Dorothea ; born March 16, 1685 ; 

married to Frederick- William, of Prussia, 
Nov. 28, 1706 : died July 5, 1757. 
[Both the above were born long before the 
king ascended the throne: his queen was 
kept confined on the continent during his 
reign, and never came to England.] 

Issue of George II. 

1. Frederick-Lewis, prince of Wales ; born Jan. 

20, 1707; married Augusta, daughter of 
Frederick II., duke of Saxe-Gotha: died 
in the lifetime of his father. For his issue, 
see separate notice below. 

2. Anne, princess-royal; born Oct. 22, 1709; 

married to William-Charles-Henry, prince 
of Orange. 

3. Ameha-Sophia-Eleanora ; bornMay 30, 1711 ; 

died unmarried, Oct. 31, 1786. 

4. Elizabeth-CaroHne ; born May, 1713; died 

unmarried, Dec. 28, 1757. 

5. George- William ; died in infancy. 

6. William-Augustus, duke of Cumberland; 

born April 15, 1721. He commanded at 
the battles of Fontenoy and Culloden : died 
Oct. 31, 1765. 

7. Mary ; born Feb. 22, 1723 ; married to prince 

Frederick of Hesse-Cassel : died Jan. 14, 1771. 

8. Louisa ; born Dec. 7, 1724 ; married to Fre- 

derick V. of Denmark ; died Dec. 8, 1751. 

Issue of Frederick-Lewis 
(^prince of Wales). 

1. Augusta; born July 31, 1737; married 

to Charles -William-Ferdinand, hereditary 
prince of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel. See that 
family. 

2. GEORGE-William-Frederick, who succeeded 

his grandfather on the throne as George III. 

3. Edward- Augustus, duke of York ; born 

March 14, 1739 ; died Sept. 17, 1767. 

4. Elizabeth-Caroline; born Dec. 30, 1740 ; died 

Sept. 4, 1759. 

5. William-Henry, duke of Gloucester; born 

Nov. 25, 1743 ; married Maria, countess 
dowager of Waldegrave, daughter of the 
hon. sir Edward Walpole; died Aug. 25, 
1805 ; he had issue : 
L Sophia-Matilda; bom May 29, 1773; 

died Nov. 29, 1844. 
II. Caroline- Augusta-Maria ; born June 24, 

1774 ; died in infancy. 
III. William-Frederick; bom Jan. 15, 1776; 

married the princess Mary, daughter 

of George III. ; died Nov. 30, 1834. 

6. Henry-Frederick, duke of Cumberland ; born 

Nov. 7, 1745 ; married Anne, daughter of 
the earl Carhampton and widow of Chris- 
topher Horton, esq., of Catton Hall, Derby- 
shire ; died Sept. 18, 1790. 

7. Louisa- Anne; born March 8, 1749; died 

May 13, 1768. 

8. Frederick- William • born May 30, 1750 ; died 

Dec. 1765. 



9. Caroline-Matilda; born (after her father's 

death) July 11, 1751. This was the un- 
fortunate queen of Christian VII. king of 
Denmark. She died imprisoned in the 
castle of Zell, May 10, 1775. 

Issue of George TIL 

1. George- Augustus-Frederick,prince of Wales, 

and, in 1811, prince regent; succeeded his 
father on the throne as George IV. 

2. Frederick, duke of York and Albany ; bom 

Aug. 16, 1763; married Frederica- Char- 
lotte-Ulrique, daughter of William II. 
king of Pmssia. The duchess died Aug. 6, 
1820 ; and the duke Jan. 5, 1827. 

3. WiLLiAi^i-Henry, duke of Clarence ; who suc- 

ceeded to the crown. 

4. Charlotte- Augusta- Matilda, princess royal ; 

bom Sept. 29, 1766 ; married to Frederick 
Charles William, hereditary prince of 
Wurtemburg ; died Oct. 6, 1828. 

5. Edward, duke of Kent and Strathern ; born 

Nov. 2, 1767; married (May 29, 1818) 
Victoria-Mary-Louisa, daughter of Fran- 
cis-Frederick-Anthony, duke of Saxe- 
Coburg Saalfeld, and widow of Emich- 
Charles, prince of Leiningen : the duke 
died Jan. 23, 1820, leaving an only daugh- 
ter, 

Alexandrina- Victoria, her present most 
gracious majesty, the Queen. 

6. Augusta-Sophia; born Nov. 8, 1768; died 

Sept. 22, 1840. 

7. Elizabeth ; born May 22, 1770 ; married to 

Frederick-Joseph-Louis, landgrave cf 
Hesse-Homberg ; died Jan. 10, 1840. 

8. Ernest-Augustus, duke of Cumberland and 

Tiviotdale ; born June 5, 1771. See Han- 
over. 

9. Augustus-Frederick, duke of Sussex; born 

Jan. 27, 1773; married, April 3, 1793, 
lady Augusta Murray, daughter of John, 
earl of Dunmore : this marriage was dis- 
solved (being contrary to the statute 
12 George III. c. 11.) in Aug. 1794. Died 
April 21, 1843. 

10. Adolphus-Frederick, duke of Cambridge; 

born Feb. 24, 1774 ; married Augusta- 
Wilhelmina- Louisa, daughter of Frederick, 
landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, May 7, 1818. 
Died July, 1850, leaving issue 

I. George-Frederick- William-Charles ; 

born March 26, 1819, the present 

duke. 

II. Augusta -Caroline - Charlotte -Eliza- 
beth ; born July 19, 1822 ; married 
to Frederick - William - Gustavus, 
hereditary grand duke of Meck- 
lenburgli-Strelitz, June 28, 1843 ; 
and has issue. 
III. Mary- Adelaide -Wilhelmina - Eliza- 
beth ; born Nov. 27, 1833. 

11. Mary; born April 25, 1776; married to her 

cousin, William-Frederick, duke of Glou- 
cester, July 22, 1816. See Duke of Glou- 
cester. 

12. Sophia ; born Nov. 3, 1777 ; died May 27, 

1848. 



14 



miNCES OF EUROPE. 



13. Octavius; bora Feb. 23, 1779; died May 3, 

1783. 

14. Alfred ; bom Sept. 22, 1780 ; died Aug. 26, 

1782. 

15. Amelia ; bora Aug. 7, 1783 ; died Nov. 2, 

1810. 

Issue of George IV. 
Cliarlotte-Caroline-Augusta ; bora Jan. 7, 
179(3; married, May 2, 181G, to prince 
Leopold-George-Frederick of Saxe-Cobnrg 
Saalfeld, now king of the Belgians. The 
princess died in childbed, deeply lamented 



by the nation, Nov. 6, 1817. Issue, a son, 
still-born, the day before. 

Issue of William IV. 

1. Charlotte-Augusta-Louisa, born March 27, 

1819 ; died the next day. 

2. Elizabeth-Georgina -Adelaide ; bora Dec. 10, 

1820 ; died March 4, 1821. 

Issue of Queen Victoria. 
See the " Present Royal Family of England,^ 
page 7. 



WALES. 

The Britons being driven beyond the Severn, fortified themselves in this country, 
anciently called Cambria, which name the kings of tbe Heptarchy changed into Wallish- 
Land, or Wales. The inhabitants resisted for ages, in their inaccessible mountains, 
the power of the Saxons ; and subsequently fought valorously for their independence 
against the English kings, until the reign of Edward I., by whom the whole country 
was finally reduced into one principality, and made subject to England. Wales was 
united and incorporated with England by act of parliament, 27 Henry Vni. 1535. 

Kings and Princes of Wales. 



Kings of Wales. 

688. Idwallo. 
720. Khodri, or Roderic, 
755. Conan, or Cynan. 
818. Mervyn, or Merfyn. 

843. Roderic, surnamed the Great. This prince 
divided Wales between his three sons, 
allotting to each his part. To the eldest 
he gave North Wales; to the second. 
South Wales ; and to the third, Powys- 
Land. 

Princes of North Wales. 

\_Counties of Merioneth, part of Denbigh, Flint, 
Carnarvon, and the Isle of Anglesey. At Aber- 
fraw, in this last, was the prince's seat, ] 

877. Anarawd. 
913. Edwal Voel. 

939. Howel Dha, or Hywel Dda, surnamed the 

Good, prince of all Wales. 
948. Jevaf or Jevav, and lago. 
972. Howel ap Jevaf, or Hywel ab Jevav. 

984. Cadwallon ab Jevaf. 

985. jNIeredith ap Owen ap Howel Dha, or Me- 

redydd ap Owain ab H;^^el Dda. 
992. Edwal ab Meyric ab Edwal Voel. 
998. Aedan, an usurper. 

1015. Llewelyn ab Sitsyllt, and Angharad his 
wife. 

1021. lago ab Edwal ab Meyric. 
1038. Griffith, or Grufydd ab Llewelyn ab Sit- 
syllt. 

1001. Bleddyn and Rygwallon. 

1073. Trahaern ab Caradoc. 

1079. Griffith ap Conan, or Grufydd ab Cynan. 

1137. Owain Gwynedd. 

1169. David ab Owain Gwynedd. 

1194. Leolinus Magnus. 

1240. David ab Llewelyn. 



1246. Llewelyn ap Griffith, or Grufydd, last prince 
of the blood ; slain after battle, in 1282. 

Princes of South Wales. 

[ This principality contained the counties of Gla- 
morgan, Pembroke, Carmarthen, Cardigan, and 
part of Brecknock. Dynevor Castle was the 
prince's seat. ] 

877. Cadeth, or Cadell. 

907. Howel Dha, or Hywel Dda, the Good, 

prince of all Wales. 
948. Owen ap Howel Dha, or Owain ap Hywel 

Dda, his son. 
987. Meredith ap Owen, or Meredydd ab Owain ; 

all Wales. 

993. Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt, and Angharad his 
v/ife. 

1021. Rytherch, or Rhydderch ab Jestyn; an 

usurper. 
1031. Hywel and Meredydd. 
1042. Rhydderch and Rhys, the sons of the 

usurper. 

1061. Meredydd ab Owain ab Edwyn. 

1073. Rhys ab Owen, or Owain, and Rhydderch 

ab Caradoc. 
1077. Rhys ab Tewdwr Mawr. 
1092. Cadwgan ab Bleddyn. 
1115. Griffith, or Grufydd ab Rhys. 
1137. Rhys ab Grufydd, or Griffith, called the 

lord Rhys. 
1196. Grufydd ab Rhys. 
1202. Rhys ab Grufydd. 
1222. Owain ab Grufydd. 

1235. Meredith, or Meredydd ab Owain ; he died 
in 1267. 

Princes and Lords of Po^vys-Land. 

\_Powys-Land comprehended the whole counties of 
Montgomery and Radnor, with part of Denbigh, 



SCOTLAND. 



15 



Brecknock^ 3ferioneth, and Shropshire. The 
prince's seat was at Matraval, in the first-named 
county. ] 
877. Merfyn, or Mervyn. 

900. Cadeth, or CadcU; also prince of South 
Wales. 

927. Howel Dha, or Hywel Dda, the Good, 
prince of all Wales. 
****** 

985. Meredydd ab Owain. 

****** 



lOGl. Bleddyn ab Cynvyn. 
1073. Meredydd ab Bleddvn. 
1087. Cadwgan ab Bledd^ni. 
1132. Madoc ab Meredydd. 
1160. Griffith, or Grufydd ab Meredydd. 
****** 

125G. GAvenwinwin, or Gwenwynwyn. 
1256. Owain ab Grufydd. 

The last prince who held this dominion entire, was 
Meredydd ab Bleddyn. He divided it between 
his two sons, Madoc and Grufydd. 



The Welcli having finally submitted to Edward I., and Llewelyn, their last prince 
of the blood, having been slain, the king resolved to gain, if possible, the hearts of his 
new subjects; and with this intention, he sent for his queen, Eleanor, then with child, 
to Carnarvon Castle, where she was soon afterwards delivered of a son. He thereupon 
convened the Welch chieftains, who were, he perceived, much indisposed to being 
governed by strangers, and told them, he was about to offer them " a prince for their 
ruler, who was of tlieir own nation, who could not speak a word of English, and whose 
life was free from reproach." The chieftains joyfully accepting this proposal, the king 
named his new-born offspring as their prince ; and the eldest sons of the sovereigns of 
England have been created princes of Wales soon after their birth, from this time. 



Princes of Wales of the Blood-Royal of England. 



1284. Edward, of Carnarvon, son of Edward I. ; 
afterwards Edward II. 

1343. Edward, the renowned Black Prince, eldest 
son of Edward III. 

1377. Richard, of Bourdeaux, only sur^dving son 
of the Black Prince. 

1399. Henry, of Monmouth, eldest son of Henry 
IV. ; afterwards king, as Henry V. 

1454. Edward, of Westminster, only son of 
Henry YI. This prince was murdered 
by the dukes of Gloucester and Cla- 
rence, in 1471. 

1472. Edward, of Westminster, eldest son of Ed- 
ward IV. ; afterwards Edward V. 

1483. Edward, earl of Salisbury, only son of 
Richard III. ; created Sept. 8, 1483 ; 
died in April, 1484. 

1490. Arthur Tudor, eldest son of Henry VII. ; 
died in 1502. 

1503. Henry Tudor, duke of York, second son of 
Henry VII. ; created prince of Wales on 
his brother's death ; afterwards ascended 
the throne as Henry VIII. 

1537. Edward Tudor, son of Henry VIII., after- 



wards Edward VI. ; but the patent of 
creation to the dignity was never ac- 
tually passed. — Sandford. 

1610. Henry- Frederick Stuart, eldest son of 
James I. : died in 1612. 

1616. Charles Stuart, duke of York, second son of 
James I. ; afterwards king as Charles I. 

1630. Charles, eldest son of Charles I. ; aft erwards 
Charles II. 

1714. George- Augustus, only son of George 1. ; 

afterwards George II. 
1729, Frederick-Lewis, eldest son of George IT. ; 

created Jan. 9, 1729 : died, before his 

father, March 20, 1751. 
1751. George-William-Frederick, eldest son of 

the preceding ; afterwards George III., 

April 20, 1751. 
1762. George-Augustus-Frederick, eldest son of 

George III., afterwards George IV., Au- 
gust 17, 1762. 
1841. Albert-Edward, eldest son of her present 

most gracious majesty, queen Victoria ; 

created Dec. 7, 1841. The now Prince 

of Wales. 



SCOTLAND. 



Caledonia. — Tacitus. Alhin (Highland name). — Macbean. Alhine, — Scott. 
This country was governed by a king long before the Romans visited England. It 
continued an independent kingdom until the death of the English queen Elizabeth in 
1603, when James VI. of Scotland, the most immediate heir, was called to the throne 
of England ; he and his successors styling themselves kings of England and Scotland, 
and each country having a separate parliament, until 1707, in the reign of queen 
Anne. In that year and reign both kingdoms were united under the general name of 
Great Britain. 



16 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



Kings of Scotland. 



Before Christ. 
[The early accounts of the kings are, by many 
historians, deemed, in a great measure, fabu- 
lous. The antiquity of the kings is carried as 
far back as Alexander the Great] 
330. Fergus I. ; ruled 25 years : lost in the Irish 
Sea.i 

305. Fritharis, brother of Fergus : supposed to 

have been poisoned. 
290. Main us ; succeeded his uncle ; a just and 

esteemed prince. 
261. Dornadilla, son of Mainus ; a peaceful reign 

of 28 years. 

233. Northatus, brother of the preceding ; cruel 
and avaricious : slain. 

213. Reutherus, son of Dornadilla. 

187. Reutha, brother of Reutherus : resigned in 
favour of his nephew. 

170. Thereus, son of Reutherus, a tyrant : de- 
posed and exiled. 

158. Josina, brother of Thereus. 

134. Finanus; succeeded his father Josina; a 
prosperous reign. 

104. Durstus, son of the preceding ; a sensual 
prince ; murdered many of his nobles at 
a feast, whereupon a civil war arose, and 
he was slain. 
95. Evenus, a just, resolute, and valiant ruler; 

succeeded by 
7 6. Gillus, his illegitimate son, who, usurping 
the royal power, caused the murder of 
the rightful heirs : deposed by his nobles, 
and beheaded. 

75. Evenus II., nephew of Finanus, chosen in 

his room. 
59. Ederus, grandson of Durstus. 
12. Evenus III., sm^ceeded his father Ederus : 

deposed for his enormous crimes, and 

strangled in prison. 
4. Metellanus, nephew of Ederus: eminent 

for his justice and virtues. 

After Christ. 
35. Caratacus or Caractacus, nephew of the 

preceding. 
55. Corbred, his brother. 

72. Dardanus, son of Corbred ; a dissolute ty- 
rant; his subjects slew him. 

76. Corbred II., surnamed Galdus. Some sup- 

pose this king to be the Galgacus whom 
Tacitus mentions as having fought va- 
liantly against Julius Agricola. 
110. Luctacus or Lugthacus, his son, a cruel 
and sensual tyrant; murdered by his 
nobles. 

113. Mogaldus, grandson of Corbred II. : mur- 
dered. 

149. Conams, his son; he conspired in his 
father's murder: deposed, and died in 
prison. 

163. Ethodius I. : slain by an Irish harper in 
revenge for the murder of a kinsman: 



the regicide was torn asunder by wild 
horses. 

195. Satrael or Satrahel, brother of the pre- 
ceding : grown odious for his vices ^nd 
oppression he was strangled by his 
courtiers. 

199. Donald L, brother of the two last. 

216. Ethodius 11. , son of Ethodius I. : slain by 
his guards in a domestic tumult. 

231. Athirco, succeeded his father: an odious 
tyrant; dishonoured the daughters of 
Nathalocus, a noble, who took arms 
against him : slew himself to avoid a 
severer death. 

242. Nathalocus, who usurped the throne on 
the king's death; murdered many of 
his nobles : killed by his domestics. 

253. Findochus, son of Athirco : murdered in a 
conspiracy, in which his brother, Ca- 
rantius, was a principal. 

264. Donald II., a third son of Athirco ; slain 

in a battle with Donald of the Isles, 
who succeeded. 

265. Donald III., lord of the Isles ; usurped the 

throne ; a terror to his people : slain by 
his successor. 

277. Carthilinthus or Crathilinthus, son of Fin- 
dochus ; reigned 24 years. 

301. Fincormachus, son of Donald II. ; reigned 
47 years, and died lamented. 

348. Romachus, nephew of the preceding : slain 
by his nobles, and succeeded by his 
cousin. 

351. Angusianus or ^neanus : fell in battle 
w^th the Pictish king, who was also 
slain. 

354. Fethelmachus, also cousin of Romachus; 
defeated the Picts and mortally wounded 
their new king in battle : murdered by 
a Pictish minstrel who feigned himself 
a Scot, hired by Hergustus, the suc- 
ceeding king of that nation. 

357. Eugenius I., son of Fincormachus: slain 
in battle by Maximus, the Roman ge- 
neral, and the confederate Picts. 

With this battle ended the kingdom of the Scots, 
after having existed from the coronation of Fer- 
gus I., a period of 706 years : the royal family fled 
to Denmark — Boece. Buchanan. 

[Interregnum of 27 years. 1 



404. Fergus 11.^ (I.) great-grandson of Eu- 
genius and 40th king: slain in battle 
with the Romans. 

420. Eugenius II. or Evenus, son of Fergus: 
reigned 31 years. 

451. Dongardus or Domangard, brother of Eu- 
genius : defeated and drow^ned. 

457. Constantine I., brother of Dongardus : as- 
sassinated by Dugall, a noble whose 
daughter he had dishonoured. 



\ Fergus, a brave prince, came from Ireland with an army of Scots, and was chosen king. Having defeated the 
Britons and slain their king Coilus, the kingdom of the Scots was entailed upon his posterity for ever. He went 
to Ireland, and, having settled his affairs there, was drowned on his return, launching from the shore, near 
the harbour, called Corrick-Fergus to this day, 3699 a.m. — Anderson. 

2 Some call this Fergus the first king, and suppose that either the foregoing kings are fabulous, or that they 
were only chiefs or generals of armies, having no royal authority. The controversy thus arising, I leave to be 
decided by the antiquaries, and must follow the received histories of Scotland. — ^«c?er50». 



SCOTLAND. 



17 



479. Congallus I., nephew of the preceding: 
a just and prudent king. 

501. Goranus, brother of Congallus : murdered. 
— Boece. Died while Donald of Athol 
was conspiring to take his life. — Scott. 

535. Eugenius III., succeeded his uncle Go- 
ranus : " none excelled him in justice." 

558. Congallus II., brother of Eugenius III. 

569. Kinnatellus, brother of the preceding : re- 

-signed in favour of Aidanus. 

570. Aidanus or Aldan, son of Goranus. 

605. Kenneth or Kennett I., son of Congallus II. : 

reigned one year. 

606. Eugenius IV., son of Adianus. 

621. Ferchard or Ferquhard, son of the last: 
confined for misdeeds to his palace, 
where he laid violent hands upon him- 
self. — aS'co^^. 

632. Donald lY., brother of Ferchard : drowned 
in Loch Tay. 

646. Ferchard II., son of Ferchard I.; *'the 
most execrable of kings : " died from 
the bite of a mad wolf. 

664. Malduinus, son of Donald IV. : strangled 
by his wife for his supposed infidelity, 
for which crime she was immediately 
afterwards burnt. 

684. Eugenius V., brother of Malduinus. 

688. Eugenius VL, son of Ferchard II. 

698. Amberkeletus, his nephew: fell by an 

arrow from an unknown hand. 

699. Eugenius VII., his brother : some ruffians 

designing the king's murder, entered 
his chamber, and he being absent, 
stabbed his queen, Spontana, to death. 
—Scott. 

715. Mordachus, son of Amberkeletus. 

730. Etfinus, son of Eugenius VII. 

761. Eugenius VIII., son of Mordachus ; sensual 
and tyrannous: put to death by his 
nobles, and his parasites strangled. 

764. Fergus III., son of Etfinus : killed by his 
queen in a fit of jealousy; she imme- 
diately afterwards stabbed herself to 
escape a death of torture. 

767. Solvathius, son of Eugenius VIII. 

787. Achaius ; a just and wise prince. 

819. Congallus III., a peaceful reign. 

824. Dongal or Dougal, son of Solvathius: 
drowned in the Spey. 

831. Alpine, son of Achaius : taken prisoner and 
beheaded, with many of his nobles, by 
the Picts. 

834. Kenneth II., son of Alpinus, and sumamed 
Mac Alpine ; defeated the Picts, and slew 
their king and his nobility. United the 
Picts and Scots under one sceptre, and 
became the first sole monarch of all 
Scotland 843. 

854. Donald V., brother of Kenneth : dethroned, 
and terminated an inglorious reign in 
prison, dying by his own hand. 

858. Constantine II., son of Kenneth : taken in 
battle by the Danes, and beheaded. 

874. Eth or Ethus, sumamed Lightfoot: died 
of grief in prison, having been thrown 
into confinement for his sensuality and 
crimes. 

876. Gregory, called the Great; distinguished 
(as a king) for his bravery, moderation, 
and justice. 

893. Donald VL, second son of Constantine ; an 
excellent prince. 



904. Constantine III., son of Ethus : resigned in 
favour of Malcolm, after a long reign, 
and retired to a monastery. 

944. Malcolm I., son of Donald VI. : treache- 
rously murdered in IMoray. 

953. Indulfus or Gondulph : killed by the Danes 
in an ambuscade. 

961. Duff" or Dufi^us, son of Malcolm; basely 
murdered by Donald, the governor of 
Forres Castle. 

965. Cullen or Culenus, son of Indulfus ; avenged 
the murder of his predecessor : assassi- 
nated at Methven by a thane, whose 
daughter he had dishonoured. 

970. Kenneth III., brother of Duff'us : murdered 
by Fenella, the lady of Fettercairn. 

994. Constantine IV., son of Culenus, usurped 

the throne ; slain. 

995. Grimus, or the Grim, son of Duffus : routed 

and slain in battle by Malcolm, the 
rightful heir to the crown, who suc- 
ceeded. 

1003. Malcolm IL, son of Kenneth III. : assassi- 
nated on his way to Glamis ; the assas- 
sins in their flight, crossing a frozen 
lake, were drowned by the ice giving 
way. Malcolm was succeeded by his 
grandson, 

1033. Duncan I. : assassinated by his cousin 
Macbeth, who ascended the throne. 

1039. Macbeth, usurper and tyrant : slain by 
Macduff", the thane of Fife, and the 
rightful heir succeeds. 

*** Historians so differ up to this reign, in the number 
of the kings, the dates of succession, and the cir- 
cumstances narrated, that no account can be 
taken as precisely accurate. 



1057. Malcolm III. (Cean-Mohr or Canmore) 
son of Duncan: killed while besieging 
Alnwick Castle. 

1093. Donald VII. or Donald Bane, brother of 

Malcolm, usurped the throne: fled to 
the Hebrides. 

1094. Duncan IL, natural son of Malcolm ; also 

an usurper : murdered. 
1094. Donald Bane, again : deposed. 
1098. Edgar, son of Malcolm, and rightful heir. 

Henry I. of England married his sister 

Maud, who had taken the vows, but 

not the veil. 

1107. Alexander, surnamed the Fierce, brother 
of Edgar. 

1124. David, brother of the two preceding kings ; 

married Matilda, daughter of Waltheof, 
earl of Northumberland. 
1153. Malcolm IV., grandson to David : succeeded 

by his brother, 
1165. William, surnamed the Lion. 
1214. Alexander IL, son of William; married 
Joan, daughter of John, king of England. 
1249. Alexander III. ; married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Henry III. of England ; dislocated 
his neck, when hunting, near Kinghorn. 
1285. Margaret, called the Maiden of Norway," 
grand- daughter of the last king ; " re- 
cognized by the states of Scotland, 
though a female, an infant, and a fo- 
reigner : " died on her passage to Scot- 
land. 

[On the death of Margaret, a competition 
arose for the vacant throne, which Ed- 
ward 1. of England decided in favour of] 



18 



PEINCES OF EUROPE. 



1292. 



1306. 



1329. 

1332. 
1342. 

1371. 
1390. 

1406. 



John Baliol, who afterwards surrendered 

his crown, and died in exile. 
[Interregnum.] 

Eobert (Bruce) I. ; the Bruce of Bannock- 
burn; a brave prince, beloved by his 
people. 

David (Bruce) IT., son of Robert. Edward 
BaHol disputed the throne with him. 

Edward Bahol, son of John: resigned. 

David II. again; eleven years a prisoner 
in England ; succeeded by his nephew, 

Eobert (Stuart) II. ; succeeded by his son, 

Robert III.,' whose proper name was 
John, changed on his accession. 

James I., second son of the preceding ; im- 
prisoned 18 years in England; set at 
liberty in 1423 : conspired against and 
murdered, 1437. Assassinated in his 
bed-chamber, Feb. 21, U^l-^. — Banks. 



1437. James II., son of James I., whom he suc- 
ceeded at fe-even years of age : killed at 
the siege of Roxburgh Castle by a can- 
non bursting. 

1460. James III. ; succeeded his father : killed in 
a revolt of his subjects at Bannock- 
burn-field. 

1488. James IV.; married Margaret Tudor, 
daughter of Henry VII. of England : 
killed at the battle of Flodden. 

1513. James V. ; son of the last king : succeeded 
when little more than a year old; a 
sovereign possessing many virtues. 

1542. Mary, daughter of James V. ; succeeded in 
her infancy : put to death in England. 

1567. James VI. ; son of Mary. In 1603, on the 
death of queen Elizabeth, he succeeded 
to the throne of England, and the king- 
doms became united. See England, 



IRELAND. 

Hihernia. Tacitus. lerne. — Strabo.^ It is disputed by historians from what 

nation this country was originally peopled. It seems, however, to be satisfactorily 
shown that the first colonists were Phoenicians. The Partholani landed in Ireland 
about 2048 b. c. The descent of the Damnonii was made about 1463 b. c. This was 
followed by the descent of Heber and Heremon, Milesian princes, from Galicia, in 
Spain, who conquered Ireland, and gave to its throne a race of 171 kings. Ireland 
was formerly divided among a number of petty sovereigns, or chiefs, which circum- 
stance facilitated the conquest of the whole by Henry II. in A. d. 1 172; but the 
English did not remain quiet possessors of the entire kingdom until the reign of 
James I., or after the year 1 6 14. 



Kings of 
{According 

Before Christ. 
[So much fable is mixed up with the early 
history of this country, and the dates and the 
orthography of names so vary in every ac- 
count, it is impossible to do more than compile 
from accepted authorities. ^ ] 

From the Milesian Conquest. 
1300. Heber and Heremon. 
1291. Heremon, alone. 

1285. Muirmhne, Luighne, and Laighne, suc- 
ceeded their father, Heremon ; reigning 
jointly: the first died, and the other 
two were slain in battle by the sons of 
Heber. 



Ireland 
to Keating), 

1282. Er, Orbha, Fearon, and Feargna, sons of 
Heber, succeeded the sons of Heremon : 
all slain in battle by their successor. 

1281. Irial, or Irial-Faidh ; slew and succeeded 
the four sons of Heber. 

1271. Eithrial: slain in battle by his successor. 

1251. Conmaol, or Conveal, " first absolute mo- 
narch of the Hibernian race :" slain in 
battle. 

1221. Tigermas ; introduced idolatry into Ireland. 
1171. Eochaidh-Eadgothac. 
1147. Cearmna and Sobhair, brothers; parti- 
tioned Ireland into south and north. 
1107. Fiachade-Labhruin : slain by his successor. 
1083. Eochaidh-Mumho : slain by his successor. 



1 David, eldest son of this sovereign, was created duke of Rothesay in 139S, from which time the principality 
and stewartcy of Scotland, the dukedom of Rothesay, the earldom of Carrick, lordship of the Isles, and barony 
of Renfrew, have been vested in the heir-apparent of the sovereign, who from his birth or his father's accession 
to the throne, enjoys those honours. 

'•^ The appellation lerne comes nearest the original name Erin, or rather lar in, which, in the Celtic, denotes 
a western country. Mela says, " Ireland had no corn, but had excellent pasture land." Several colonies of 
Scoti settled in the northern counties ; the native Irish called them Daone Gaul or Gaulte, signifying " foreign 
or barbarous men ; " and to this day one of the counties in that quarter is called Donegal. — Macbean. The 
inhabitants of lerne were a wilder people than the Britons. — Strabo. 

The Irish writers carry their succession of kings very high, as high as even before the Flood. The learned 
antiquary, Thomas Innes, of the Scots' College of Paris, expresses his wonder that " the learned men of the Irish 
nation, have not, like those of other nations, yet published the valuable remains of their ancient history whole 
and entire, with just translations, in order to separate what is fabulous and only grounded on the traditions of 
their poets and bards, from what is certain history." " O'Flaherty, Keating, Toland, Kennedy, and other 
modern Irish historians have rendered all uncertain by deducing their history from the Deluge, with as much 
assurance as they deliver the transactions of Ireland from St. Patrick's time." — Anderson. 



IRELAND. 



19 



1061. Aongus-Olmuchac : slain by his successor. 

1043. Eadna-Airgtheach, and 

1016. Rotheachta : both slain by their successors. 

991. Seadhna: slain by his own son. 

986. Fiachadh-Fionsgothach : slain by his suc- 
cessor. 

966. Muinheamhoin, or Muinimone: died of 
the plague. 

961. Aildergoidh ; succeeded his father ; slain 

by his successor. 
934. Odlamh-Fodhla, " the wisest and most 

virtuous prince that ever mounted the 

Irish throne." 
924. Fionachta, his son. 

909. SlanoU, succeeded his brother : died at Tara. 

894. Geide-Olgothach, also a son of Odlamh- 
Fodhla : slain by his nephew. 

877. Fiachadh : slain by his successor. 

853. Bearngall : slain by his successor. 

841. Oilliol : slain hy his successor. 

825. Siorna-Saoghalach : slain by his successor. 

804. Rotheachta: burnt. 

[Six succeeding kings, among whom was 
Nuadha-Fionn-Fail, died violent deaths. ] 

735. Fion-Fin, of the line of Er, or Ir. 

715. Seadhna ; " invented banners to distin- 
guish his troops tortured and cut into 
quarters by his successor. 

695. Simeon Breac : suffered the same fate. 

689. Duach-Fionn or Fin : slain by his successor. 

684. Muireadach, and two succeeding kings, 
died violently. 

659. Siorlamh : " he had such long hands and 
arms that when he stood upright his 
fingers touched the ground:" slain by 
his successor. 
[Eleven princes succeeded, who all died in 
civil wars or broils, or by assassination.] 

540. Aodh-Ruadh: drowned. 

519. Diothorba : died of a malignant distemper. 

498. Coimbaoth : died of the plague. 

478. Machadh-Mongruadh, queen, surnamed 
the Red-haired Princess ; succeeded her 
cousin, and "reigned magnificently:" 
slain by her successor. 

471. Reachta-Righdhearg : slain by his suc- 
cessor. 

451. Ugaine Mor, or the Great : " had 22 sons 
and 3 daughters, among whom he par- 
titioned his kingdom:" slain by his 
brother. 

421. Laoghaire-Lorck : slain by his brother. 
419. Cabhtliaick ; slew his brother and nephew : 
himself slain by his grand-nephew. 
[Ten kings succeeded, of whom three only 
died natural deaths.] 
275. Feargus-Forthamhuil : killed in battle. 
263. Aongus-Tuirimheach : slain at Tara. 

[Of fifteen succeeding princes, eleven died 
in battle, or were murdered.] 
66. Conaire Mor, or the Great: deprived of 

his crown and life by his successor. 
36. Lughaidh-Riebdearg : killed himself by 
falling on his sword. 
[Two kings succeeded, of whom the latter 
died A. D. 4.] 

After Christ. 
4. Fearaidhach-Fionfachtna, "a most just 
and good prince :" slain by his successor. 
24. Fiachadh-Fion : slain by his successor. 
27. Fiachadh-Fionohudh, the Prince with the 
white cows: "murdered by the Irish 
plebeians of Connaught." 

c 



54. Cairbrc-Cinncait : murdered in a con- 
spiracy. 

59. Elim : slain in battle. 

79. Tuathal-Teachtmar : slain by his suc- 
cessor. 

109. Mai or Mail : slain by his successor. 

113. Feidhlimhidh ; "an excellent justiciar:" 

died a natural death. 
122. Cathoire Mor, or the Great : " had thirty 

sons." 

125. Conn Ceadchadhach, called the Hero of the 

hundred battles : slain. 
145. Conaire: killed. 

152. Art-Aonfhir, the Melancholy: slain in 
battle. 

182. Lughaidh, surnamed Mac Conn: thrust 
through the eye with a spear, in a con- 
spiracy. 

212. Feargus, surnamed Black- teeth : murdered 

at the instigation of his successor. 

213. Cormac-Ulf hada, " a prince of most ex- 

cellent wisdom, and kept the most splen- 
did court that ever was in Ireland:" 
choked by the bone of a fish at supper. 

253. Eochaidh-Gunait : killed. 

254. Cairbre-Liffeachair : slain in battle. 

282. Fiachadh; succeeded his father: slain in 
battle by his three nephews. 

315. Cairioll or Colla-Uais: dethroned, and re- 
tired to Scotland. 

319. Muirreadhach-Tireach : slain by his suc- 
cessor. 

352. Caolbhach : slain by his successor. 

353. Eochaidh-Moidhmeodhain : died a natural 

death. 

360. Criomthan : poisoned by his own sister to 
obtain the crown for her son. 

375. Niall, surnamed of the nine hostages : killed 
in France, on the banks of the Loire. 

398. Dathy : killed by a thunderbolt at the foot 
of the Alps. 

421. Laoghaire: killed by a thunderbolt. 

453. Oilioll-Molt : slain in battle. 

473. Lughaidh : killed also by a thunderbolt. 

493. Murtough : died naturally. 

515. Tuathal-Maolgarbh : assassinated. 

528. Diarmuid : fellby the sword of Hugh Dubh. 

550. Feargus, in conjunction with his brother 

Daniel : the manner of their deaths un- 
certain. 

551, Eochaidh, jointly with his uncle Baodan : 

both slain. 

554. Ainmereach : deprived of his crown and life. 

557. Baodan : slain by the two Cuimins. 

558. Aodh or Hugh t killed in battle. 
587. Hugh Slaine : assassinated. 

591. Aodh-Uaireodhnach : killed in battle. 
618. Maolcobha : defeated in a di'eadful battle, 

in which he was slain. 
622. Suibhne-Meain: killed. 
635. Daniel : died a natural death. 
648. Conall Claon, jointly "with his brother 

Ceallach : the first was murdered, the 

other drowned in a bog. 
661. Diarmuid and Blathmac : both died of the 

plague. 

668. Seachnasach: assassinated. 
674. Cionfaola; succeeded his brother: mur- 
dered. 

678. Fionachta-Fleadha : murdered. 

685. Loingseach : killed in battle. 

693. Congal Cionmaghair, " a cruel persecutor 
of the Irish Church, without mercy or 
distinction : " sudden death. 

2 



20 



PKINCES OF EUROPE. 



702. Feargal : routed and slain in battle. 

719. Fogartach: slain in battle. 

720. Cionaoth : defeated, and found dead ©n the 

battle field. 
724. Flaitlibheartagh : became a monk. 
731. Aodh, or Hugh Alain : killed in battle. 
740. Daniel : died on a pilgrimage at Joppa, in 

Palestine. 

782. Niall-Freasach : became a monk. 

786. Donagh, or Donchad : died in his bed." 

815. Aodh, or Hugh : slain in battle. 

837. Connor, or Conchabhar : " died of grief, 
being unable to redress the misfortunes 
of his country." 

851. Niall-Caillie : drowned in the river Caillie, 

866. Turgesius, the Norwegian chief ; possessed 
himself of the sovereign power ; " ex- 
pelled the Irish historians and burnt 
their books : " made prisoner, and thrown 
into a lough, and drowned. 

879. Maol Ceachlin, or Malachy I. 

897. Hugh Fionnliath. 

913. Flann Sionna. 

951. Niall-Glundubh : " died on the field of 

honour." 
954. Donnagh, or Donough. 
974. Congall : slain by the Danes at Armagh. 



984. Daniel : became a monk. 

1004. Maol Ceachlin : resigned on the election 
of Brian Boiroimhe as king of Ireland. 

1027. Brian Boromy, or Boiroimhe ; a valiant 
and renowned prince : defeated the Danes 
in the memorable battle of Clontarf, on 
Good Fridaj^ 1039 : assassinated in his 
tent the same night, while in the atti- 
tude of prayer. 
[Brian Boiroimhe was 30 years king of 
Munster, and 12 king. of Ireland.] 

1039. Maol Ceachlin II. restored. 

1048. Donough, or Denis O'Brian, third son of 
the preceding. 

1098. Tirloch, or Turlough, nephew of Donough. 

1110. Muriertagh, or Murtough: resigned, and 
became a monk. 

1130. Turlough (O'Connor) II., the Great. 

1150. Murtough Mac Neil Mac Lachlin: slain 
in battle. 

1168. Eoderic, or Roger O'Connor. 

1172. Henry II., king of England ; conquered 
the country, and became lord of Ireland. 
[The English monarchs were styled " Lords 
of Ireland," until the reign of Henry 
VIIL, who styled himself king; and this 
title has continued ever since.] 



GERMANY. — AUSTRIA. 

Germania^ and Alemania. Anciently divided into several independent states. The 
Germans withstood the attempts of the Romans to subdue them ; and although that 
people conquered some parts of the country, they were expelled before the close of 
the 3rd century. In the 5th century the might of the Huns and other nations prevailed 
over the greater portion of Germany; it was not, however, totally reduced until 
Charlemagne made himself master of the whole. This great prince took the title of 
emperor, entailing the dignity upon his family ; but after his race became extinct 
in 911, the empire went to the Germans, and the rank was afterwards made elective. 
The house of Austria enjoyed the distinction almost uninterruptedly from 1438 
(when one of its princes was raised to the imperial throne) until 1804. In that year 
Francis II. resigned the honour and office of emperor of Germany, and became 
emperor of Austria only ^ ; the latter title being hereditary. 



Kings and Emperors of Germany. 



Carlovingian Race. 
800. Charlemagne. 

814. Louis le Debonnaire, king of France. 

840. Lothaire, or Lother, son of Louis : died in 

a monastery at Treves. 
855. Louis II., son of Lother. 
875. Charles II., called the Bald, king of France : 

poisoned by his physician, Zedechias, a 

Jew. — Henault. 
877. [Interregnum.] 

880. Charles III., le Gros ; crowned king of 
Italy : deposed ; succeeded by 

887. Arnulf, or Arnoul: crowned emperor at 
Rome in 896. 

899. Louis III., called IV. : the last of the Car- 
lovingian race in Germany, 



Saxon Dynasty. 
911. Otho, duke of Saxony : refused the dignity 

on account of his age. 
911. Conrad L, duke of Franconia. 
918. Henry I., surnamed the Fowler, son of 

Otho, duke of Saxony ; king. 
936. Otho I., styled the Great, son of Henry. 

Many writers withhold the imperial title 

from him until crowned by pope John 

XIL in 962. 

973. Otho II., the Bloody ; so stigmatised for 
his cruelties: massacred his chief no- 
bility at an entertainment to which he 
had invited them : wounded by a poi- 
soned arrow. 



renouSied^he title b^'^f^r^.^.l'^ ^iS^^'^I f emperor of Germany on the 11th of August, 1804; and again 
A^cTt G 180G inrt^fh^^^^^ ^""^ ^"^''^ declaration, m which he assumed the rank of emperor of Austria, on 
protec iSn of i^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^"g <^he Germanic empire, placed themselves under 'the 



GERMANY. — AUSTRIA. 



983. Otho III., surnamecl the Red, his son, yet 
in his minority : poisoned. 

1002. Henry II., duke of Bavaria, surnamed the 
Holy, and the Lame. 

1024. Conrad IL, surnamed the Salique. 

1039. Henry III., the Black, son of Conrad II. 

1056. Henry IV., son of the preceding ; a minor, 
under the regency of his mother Agnes : 
deposed by his son and successor, 

1106. Henry V. ; married Maud or Matilda, 
daughter of Henry I. of England 

1125. Lothaire IL, surnamed the Saxon. 

1138. [Interregnum.] 

1138. Conrad III., duke of Franconia. 

1152. Frederick Barbarossa ; one of the most 
splendid reigns in the German annals : 
drowned by his horse throwing him into 
the river Salphet, or the Cydnus. 

1190. Henry VI., his son, surnamed Asper, or the 
Sharp : it was this emperor that de- 
tained Richard I. of England a prisoner 
in his dominions. 

1198. Philip, brother to Henry: assassinated at 
Bamberg by Otto, of Wittelsbach. 

1208. Otho IV., surnamed the Superb, recognised 
as king of Germany, and crowned as 
emperor the next year : excommunicated 
and deposed. 

1212. Frederick IL, king of Sicily, the son of 
Henry VL : deposed by his subjects, 
who elected Henry, landgrave of Thurin- 
gia. Frederick died in 1250, naming 
his son Conrad his successor, but the 
pope gave the imperial title to William, 
earl of Holland. 

1250. Conrad IV., son of Frederick, i 

1250. William, earl of Holland: died in Dec. 
1255. The electors could not agree in 
the choice of a successor. 

1256. [Interregnum.] 

Houses of Hapsburg, Luxemburg, and 
Bavaria. 

1273. Rodolph, count of Hapsburg ; the first of 
the Austrian family.^ 

1291. [Interregnum.] 

1292. Adolphus, count of Nassau, to the exclu- 

sion of Albert, son of Rodolph : deposed ; 

slain at the battle of Spires. 
1298. Albert, duke of Austria, Rodolph's son: 

killed by his nephew at Rheinfels. 
1308. Henry VII. of Luxemburg. 

1313. [Interregnum.] 

1314. Louis IV. (III.) of Bavaria, and Frederick 

III. of Austria, son of Albert, rival em- 
perors : Frederick died in 1330. 
1330. Louis reigns alone. 

1347. Charles IV. of Luxemburg. In this reign 



was given at Nuremberg in 1356, the 
famous Golden Bull, which became the 
fundamental law of the German empire. 
1378. Wenceslas, king of Bohemia, son of Charles : 
twice imprisoned, and at length forced 
to resign; but continued to reign in 
Bohemia. 

1400. Frederick, duke of Brunswick : assassinated 
immediately after his election, and sel- 
dom placed in the list of emperors. 

1400. Rupert, count palatine of the Rhine; 
crowned at Cologne : died in 1410. 

1410. Jossus, marquess of Moravia ; chosen by a 
party of the electors : died the next year. 

1410. Sigismund, king of Hungary, elected by 
another party. On the death of Jossus, 
he is recognised by all parties ; king of 
Bohemia in 1419. 

House of Austria. 

1438. Albert IL, surnamed the Great, duke of 

Austria, and king of Hungary and Bo- 
hemia : died Oct. 27, 1439. 

1439. [Interregnum.] 

1440. Frederick IV., surnamed the Pacific; 

elected emperor Feb. 2 ; but not crowned 
until J une, in 1442. 
1493. Maximilian I., son of Frederick: died in 
1519. Francis L of France and Charles 1. 
of Spain became competitors for the 
empire. 

1519. Charles V. (L of Spain), son of Joan of 
Castile and Philip of Austria, elected: 
resigned both crowns, and retired to a 
monastery, where he died soon after. 

1558. Ferdinand I., brother to Charles, king of 
Hungary ; succeeded by his son, 

1564. Maximilian IL, king of Hungary and Bo- 
hemia ; succeeded by his son, 

1576. Rodolph II. 

1612. Matthias, brother of Rodolph. 

1619. Ferdinand IL, his cousin, son of the arch- 
duke Charles ; king of Hungary. 

1637. Ferdinand III., son of the preceding em- 
peror ; succeeded by his son, 

1658. Leopold I., son of Ferdinand III. 

1705. Joseph I., son of the emperor Leopold. 

1711. Charles VL, brother to Joseph ; succeeded 
by his daughter, 

1740. Maria-Theresa, queen of Hungary and 
Bohemia, whose right to the empire 
was sustained by England. ^ 

1742. Charles VII., elector of Bavaria, whose 
claim was supported by France : rival 
emperor, and contested succession. 
[This competition for the throne of Ger- 
many gave rise to an almost general 
war. Charles died in Jan. 1745.] 



1 From the death of Frederick II. until the accession of Rodolph, in 1273, the time that elapsed may be re- 
garded as an interregnum, Conrad IV. being opposed; one partj^of the electors at Frankfort choosing Richard, 
earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry III. of England, and the other choosing Alphonsus, king of Castile. The first 
lost the dignity, by attending the civil wars in England ; and the last lost it by negligence ; so neither is reckoned 
in the list of emperors. 

2 The Hapsburg family is supposed to be the most illustrious in Europe. It was founded in 1026, by Radboton, 
grandson of Gontram, count of Brisgau ; and derived its name from the castle of Hapsburg on the river Aar, in 
Switzerland. This was the cradle, as it were, of the house of Austria. The male line of Hapsburg became 
extinct in 1740, in the person of Charles VI., after giving twenty-two sovereigns to Austria, sixteen emperors to 
Germany, eleven kings to Hungary and Bohemia, and six to Spain. 

3 At the decease of the emperor, Charles VI. in 1740, his hereditary dominions devolved of right (by the prag- 
matic sanction) upon his only daughter and heiress the archduchess Maria- Theresa, but were claimed by the 
husband of his niece (Maria- Amelia, daughter of Joseph I.), Charles, elector of Bavaria, who was declared king 
of Bohemia in 1741, and crowned emperor of Germany at Frankfort the following year, as Charles VII. This 
dispute disturbed the tranquillity of Europe, and occasioned a war in which all the great European powers were 
involved, and which did not terminate until three years after the death of Charles VII., when Maria- Theresa 
had her patrimonial dominions guaranteed to her by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. 

c 3 



22 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



1745. Francis I. of Lorraine, grand duke of Tus- 
cany, consort of Maria-Theresa. 

1765. Joseph II., son of the emperor Francis and 
of Maria-Theresa. 

1790. Leopold II., brother to Joseph ; succeeded 
by his son, 

1792. Francis II. In 1804 this prince took the 
style of emperor of Austria only. 

Emperors of Austria. 

1804. Francis I. (late Francis II. of Germany), 
commenced his reijm as emperor of 



Austria only, Aug. 11, 1804: died 
March 2, 1835. 

1835. Ferdinand his son : abdicated in favour of 
his nephew, Dec. 2, 1848. 

1848. Francis- Joseph ; born Aug. 18, 1830; canie 
to the throne on the abdication of his 
uncle (and the relinquishment of his 
right to the succession by his father, 
Francis-Charles-Joseph, the presump- 
tive heir), Dec. 2, 1848. The present 
(1850) Emperor of Austria. 



reign as emperor 

The LATE Emperor. Ferdinand I. (Charles-Leopold- Joseph) born April 19, 1793; married Feb. 

27, 1831, Maria- Anna-Caroline-Pia, ex-empress, daughter of Victor-Emmanuel, lung of Sardmia. 
Present Emperor's Father. Archduke Francis-Charles- Joseph, born Dec. 7, 1802; married 

Nov. 4, 1824, Frederica-Sophia, daughter of Maximihan- Joseph L, king of Bavaria. 
His Brothers. 1 1. Ferdinand-Maximilian- Joseph, born July 6, 1832. 

2. Charles-Louis- Joseph-Mary, born July 30, 1833. 

3. Louis-Joseph-Anthony- Victor, born May 15, 1842. 



FRANCE. 

Gallia, Roman. Galatia, Greek. In the decline of the Roman power Gaul was 
conquered by the Franks, a warlike people, who gave name to the kingdom, and 
whose territcn-y, lying between the Rhine and the Elbe, is still called Franconia. The 
origin of the Franks is a matter of conjecture. It is supposed that they were at first 
a mixed multitude of several ancient nations, who, uniting against the Romans in 
defence of their common liberty, styled themselves Franks, that word in their lan- 
guage signifying/ree. The invaders crossed the Rhine, under the conduct of their 
king Pharamond, who shortly afterwards assumed the royal authority in France, 



Kings of France. 



Merovingian Race. 
418. Pharamond. 

427. Clodion, or Clodius, the Hairy; supposed 
son of Pharamond. 

448. Merovseus, or Merovee, son-in-law of Clo- 
dion: this race of kings called from 
him Merovingians. 

458. Childeric, son of Merovee. 

481. Clovis the Great, his son, and the real 
founder of the monarchy. — Henault. 
He left four sons, who divided the em- 
pire between them : — 

511. Childebert; Paris. 

— Clodomir; Orleans. 

— Thierry ; Metz ; and 

— Clotaire, or Cloth arius ; Soissons. 
634. Theodebert; Metz. 

548. Theodebald, succeeded in Metz. 

658. Clotaire ; now sole ruler of France. Upon 
his death the kingdom was again di- 
vided between his four sons : viz. 

561. Charebert, ruled at Paris. 

— Gontran, in Orleans and Burgundy. 

— Sigebert at Metz, and \ both assassi- 

— Chilperic at Soissons j" nated. 
[France continued at times afterwards to 



be ruled in various divisions by sepa- 
rate kings. ] 

575. Childebert II. 

584. Clotaire II. ; Soissons. 

696. Thierry IL, son of Childebert ; in Orleans. 

— Theodebert II. ; Metz. 

613. Clotaire II., became sole Idng. 

628. Dagobert the Great, son of Clotaire II. : 

he divided the kingdom, of which he 

had become sole monarch, between his 

two sons : — 
638. Clovis II., who had Burgundy and Neu- 

stra; and 

— Sigebert IL, who had Austrasia. 
656. Clotaire III., son of Clovis II. 

670. Childeric IL : he became king of the whole 
realm of France : assassinated, with his 
queen, and his son Dagobert, in the 
forest of Livri. — Henault. 
[At this time Thierry III. rules in Bur- 
gundy and Neustra, and Dagobert 1 1., 
son of Sigebert, in Austrasia. Dago- 
bert is assassinated, and Thierry reigns 
alone. — Henault. ] 

691. Clovis III. Pepin, mayor of the palace 2, 
rules the kingdom, in the name of this 



W e aim, principally, in the following lists, at giving the immediate families of the reigning sovereigns ; those 
pnnces only whose propinquity may indicate the probable succession to the throne ; omitting, where possible, 
2 o>* more remote branches, as being unnecessary in a work of this nature. 

1 he youth and imbecility of the royal race of France had allowed the mayors of the palace, from being 
merely servants of the court, to rise to the important rank of commanding in the kingdom. They were ap- 
pointed to the office by the grandees of the state, and not by the sovereign ; and, after the death of Dagobert I., 
cne mayors assumed the command of the armies and the management of the finances, so that nothing was left to 
the descendants of Merovaeus, but the empty title of king. 



FRANCE. 



23 



sovereign, who is succeeded by his 
brother, 

695. Childebert III., surnamed the Just: in 
this reign Pepin also exercises the royal 
power. 

711. Dagobert III., son of Childebert. 

716. Chilperic II. (Daniel) : he is governed, and 
at length deposed, by Charles Martel, 
mayor of the palace, whose sway is now 
unbounded. 

719. Clotaire IV., of obscure origin, raised by 

Charles Martel to the throne : dies soon 
after, and Chilperic is recalled from 
Aquitaine, whither he had fled for re- 
fuge. — Henault. 

720. Chilperic II., restored: he shortly after- 

wards dies at Noyon, and is succeeded by 
— Thierry IV., son of Dagobert III., sur- 
named de Chelles : died in 737. Charles 
Martel now rules under the new title 
of " duke of the French." — Henault. 
737. Interregnum, till the death of Charles 

Martel, in 741 ; and until 
742. Childeric III., son of Chilperic IL, sur- 
named the Stupid. Carloman and Pepin, 
the sons of Charles Martel, share the 
government of the kingdom, in this reign. 

The Carlovingians. 

752. Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel : 
he is succeeded by his two sons, 

768. Charlemagne and Carloman: the former, 
surnamed the Great, crowned emperor 
of the West, by Leo III., in 800. Car- 
loman reigned but three years. 

814. Louis, le Debonnaire, emperor : dethroned, 
but restored to his dominions. 

840. Charles, surnamed the Bald ; emperor in 
875: poisoned by Zedechias, a Jew 
physician. — Henault. 

877. Louis the Stammerer, son of Charles the 
Bald. 

879. Louis III. and Carloman II. : the former 
died in 882 ; and Carloman reigned alone. 

884. Charles le Gros ; an usurper, in prejudice 
to Charles the Simple. 

887. Eudes or Hugh, count of Paris. 

893. Charles III. the Simple : deposed, and died 
in prison in 929 : he had married Ed- 
gina, daughter of Edward the Elder, 
of England, by whom he had a son, 
who was afterwards king. 

922. Robert, brother of Eudes : crowned at 

Rheims ; but Charles marched an army 
against him, and killed him in battle. 
— Henault. 

923. Rodolf, duke of Burgundy : elected king ; 

but he was never acknowledged by the 
southern provinces. — Henault. 

936. Louis IV. d'Outremer, or Transmarine 
(from having been conveyed by his mo- 
ther into England), son of Charles III. 
and Edgina : died by a fall from his horse. 

954. Lothaire, his son : he had reigned jointly 
with his father from 952, and succeeds 
him, at 15 years of age, under the pro- 
tection of Hugh the Great : poisoned. 



986. Louis V. the Indolent, son of Lothaire : 

also poisoned, it is supposed by his 
queen Blanche. In this prince ended 
the race of Charlemagne. ^ 

The Capets. 

987. Hugh Capet, eldest son of Hugh the Abbot, 

and the Great, count of Paris, &c. : he 
seized the crown, in prejudice to Charles 
of Lorraine, uncle of Louis Transmarine. 
From him this race of kings is called 
Capevingians, and Capetians. 
996. Robert II., surnamed the Sage, son of 
Hugh : died lamented. 

1031. Henry I., son of Robert. 

1060. Philip I. the Fair, and VAmoureux: suc- 
ceeded at eight years of age, and ruled 
at fourteen. 

1108. Louis VI., surnamed the Lusty, or le Gros: 
succeeded by his son. 

1137. Louis VII., surnamed the Young, to dis- 
tinguish him from his father, with whom 
he was for some years associated on the 
throne. 

1180. Philip II. (Augustus) ; succeeds to the 
crown at fifteen: crowned at Rheims 
in his father's lifetime. 

1223. Louis VIII., Cceur de Lion, son of Philip : 
succeeded by 

1226. Louis IX., called St. Louis ; ascended the 
throne at fifteen, under the guardian- 
ship of his mother, who was also regent : 
died in his camp before Tunis, and was 
canonized. 

1270. Philip IIL, the Hardy; son of Louis IX.: 

died at Perpignan. 
1285. Philip IV., the Fair: ascended the throne 

in his 17tli year. 
1314. Louis X., surnamed Hutin, an old French 

word signifying headstrong, or muti- 
nous. — Henault. 
1316. John, a posthumous son of Louis X. : lived 

a few days only. 
— Philip v., the Long (on account of his 

stature) ; brother of Louis X. 
1322. Charles IV., the Handsome: this king, 

and Louis X., John, and Philip V., 

were kings of Navarre. 

House of Valois. 

1328. Philip VI., de Valois, grandson of Philip 
the Hardy. He was called the For- 
tunate ; but this must have been before 
the battle of Cressy. 

1350. John II., the Good : died suddenly in the 
Savoy in London. 

1364. Charles V., surnamed the Wise : the first 
prince who had the title of Dauphin.^ 
— Freret. 

1380. Charles VI., the Beloved. 

1422. Charles VII., the Victorious. 

1461. Louis XI. ; detested for his atrocious cru- 

1483. Charles VlIL, the Afi'able. 
1498. Louis XII., duke of Orleans, surnamed the 
Father of his People. 



1 Towards the end of the second race, the kingdom was held by the law of feudal tenures ; and was governed 
rather as a great fief, than as a monarchy. — Mexeray. 

2 It is a vulgar error to suppose, that by the treaty (1343) which gave the full sovereigiaty of Dauphine to our 
kings, it was stipulated that the eldest son of the king should bear the title of dauphin ; so far from it, the first 
dauphin named In that agreement, was Philip, second son of Philip, of Valois. — Henault. 

c 4 



24 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



1515. Francis I., of Angouleme ; called the 
Father of Letters. 

1547. Henry II. : died of a wound received at a 
tournament, when celebrating the nup- 
tials of his sister with the duke of Savoy, 
accidentally given him by the count de 
Montmorency. 

1559. Francis II. ; married Mary Stuart, after- 

wards queen of Scots ; died the year 
after his accession. 

1560. Charles IX.; Catherine of Medicis, his 

mother, obtained the regency, which 
trust she abused. 
1574. Henry III., elected king of Poland : mur- 
dered Aug. 1, 1589, by Jacques Clement, 
a Dominican friar. In this prince was 
extinguished the house of Valois. 

House of Bourbon. 
Henry IV., the Great, of Bourbon, king of 
Navarre : murdered by Francis Ravillac. 
Louis XIIL, the Just, son of the preceding 
king. 

Louis XIV., the Great, also styled Dieu- 
donne. This was along and splendid reign. 
Louis XV., the Well-beloved; but which 

surname he lost. 
Louis XVI., his grandson: ascended the 
throne in his 20th year; married the 
archduchess Maria-Antoinette, of Aus- 
tria, in May, 1770. Dethroned in the 
great revolution, which commenced with 
the destruction of the Bastile, July 14, 
1789 : the king was guillotined, Jan. 21, 
1793 ; and his queen, Oct. IG, following. 
Louis XVIL, son of Louis XVI. Though 
numbered with the kings, this prince 
never reigned : he- died in prison, sup- 
posed by poison, June 8, 1795, aged ten 
years and two months. 

French Empire. 
Napoleon Buonaparte, born Aug. 15, 1769. 
Elected by the republic consul for ten 
years. May 8, 1802 ; made first consul 
for life, Aug. 2, same year ; and declared 
emperor. May 18, 1804. Divorced his 
first wife, the empress Josephine; and 
married Maria- Lousia of Austria, April 
7, 1810. The reverses of Napoleon com- 
pelled him to renounce the thrones of 
France and Italy, and accept the isle of 
Elba for his retreat, April 5, 1814. 
Napoleon again appears in France, March 1. 
He is defeated at Waterloo ; and finally 



1589. 
IGIO. 
1643. 
1715. 
1774. 



1793. 



1804. 



1815. 



abdicates in favour of his infant son, 
J une 22. Banished -to St. Helena, where 
he dies. May 5, 1821. 

Bourbons restored. 

1814. Louis XVIII. (compte de Provence)^ next 
brother of Louis XVI. ; born Nov. 17, 
1755; married-Maria-Josephine-Louise, 
of Savoy. Entered Paris, and took pos- 
session of the throne. May 3, 1814; 
obliged to flee, March 20, 1815; re- 
turned, July 8, same year: died Sept. 
16, 1824, leaving no issue. 

1824. Charles X. (compte d' Artois)^ his brother; 

born Oct. 9, 1757 ; married Maria-The- 
rese, of Savoy. Conflicts in Paris be- 
tween the populace (ultimately aided 
by the national guard) and the army, 
commence July 27, and the king is de- 
posed, July 30, 1830. He subsequently 
takes refuge in England; and dies at 
Gratz, in Hungary, Nov. 6, 1836. 

House of Orleans. 
1830. Louis-Philippe, son of the celebrated duke 
of Orleans, called Egalite; born Oct. 6, 
1773 ; married, Nov. 25, 1809, Maria- 
Amelia, daughter of Ferdinand I. (IV.) 
king of the Two Sicilies. Raised to the 
throne, as king of the French, Aug. 9, 
1830 : deposed Feb. 24, 1848. Died in 
exile, in England, Aug. 26, 1850 

New Rerublic. 
1848. The revolution commenced in a popular 
insurrection at Paris, Feb. 22, 1848. 
The royal family escaped by flight to 
England, a provisional government was 
established, monarchy abolished, and 
France declared a republic. 

Louis-Napoleon-Charles Buonaparte, 
(born April 20, 1808), son of Louis 
Buonaparte, some time king of 
Holland, and nephew of the late 
emperor Napoleon : elected presi- 
dent of the republic, by 6,048,872 
votes, out of 8,040,604; having a 
majority of 4,600,770 votes over his 
great rival, general Cavaignac, 
Dec. 11, 1848. 
Louis-Napoleon declared bv the na- 
tional assembly (Dec. 19), presi- 
dent of the republic of France ; and 
proclaimed, next day, Dec. 20. The 
now (1850) President. 



Sons and Daughters of the ex-King Louis-Philippe. 



1. Ferdinand - Philippe - Louis - Charles - Henry - 
Joseph, of Orleans, due d'Orleans, prince 
royal : born Sept. 3, 1810 ; married. May 30, 
1837, Helena-Louisa-Elizabeth, daughter of 
Frederic-Louis, hereditary grand duke of 
Mecklenburg- Schwerin : died of a fall from 
his carriage, July 13, 1842 ; leaving issue : 
I. Louis-Philippe-Albert d'Orleans, count 
of Paris ; born Aug. 24, 1838. 



4. 



II. Robert-Philippe-Louis - Eugene - Ferdi- 
nand, of Orleans, due de Chartres; 
born Nov. 9, 1840. 
Louisa-Maria- Therese-Charlotte-Isabel ; born 

April 3, 1812 ; late queen of the Belgians. 
Maria-Christiana-Caroline- Adelaide-Frances 
mademoiselle of Valois ; born April 12, 1813 ; 
died duchess of Wurtemberg, Jan. 2, 1839. 
Louis-Charles -Philippe- Raphael, due de Ne- 



It was this charming and gifted princess who sculptured, among other work?, the beautiful figures of Joan 
ot Arc so well known, from copies, in England. Of her, when she died, her amiable mother, the queen, said, with 
sainted resignation, " O God ! thou hast an angel more ; / have a daughter less." The prince de Joinville, in a 
letter with which his royal highness honoured us, in relation to the death of this sister, says : " Le drxc de 
■^_<^yiours, son fi-ere, en Imfermant les yeux, dit : ' Nous avons perdu un ange sur la /erre, mais une sainte est au 
€ici. 1 lus attecting domestic incident, a natural one, is introduced out of respect for the family, — Editor. 



FKANCE. 



25 



mours, born Oct. 25, 1814; married, April 
27, 1840, Victoria - Augusta - Antoinette, 
daughter of Ferdinand, duke of Saxe- 
Coburg. 

6. Mary-Clementina - Caroline - Leopoldina - Clo- 
tilde ; born June 3, 1817 ; married, April 20, 
1843, to Augustus, prince of Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha. 

6. Francis-Ferdinand-PhiliprLouis-Mary, prince 
de Joinville ; born Oct. 14, 1818 ; married. 
May 1, 1843, donna Frances-Caroline- Jane- 
Charlotte-Leopoldina-Romaine-Xaviera de 



Paula-Micaela-Gabriela-Gonzaga, daughter 
of the emperor Pedro I. of Brazil. 

7. Henry-Eugene-Philip-Louis, duo d'Aumale; 

born Jan. 16, 1822 ; married, Nov. 25, 1844, 
Maria-Caroline, princess of Salerno, daughter 
of John- Joseph, prince of Salerno. 

8. Anthony-Mary-Philip-Louis, due de Mont- 

pensier, born July 31, 1824; married, Oct. 
10, 1846, the infanta Maria-Louisa-Ferdi- 
nanda (born Jan. 30, 1832), sister to the 
queen of Spain ; and has issue a daughter, 
presumptive heiress to the Spanish throne. 



Elder Branch of the Bourbons. 



Henry-Charles-Ferdinand-Mary-Z>iew-Z)owwe, 
of Artois, duke of Bordeaux ; born Sept. 29, 
1820; 

and 

Louisa-Maria-Theresa, Mademoiselle ; born 

Sept. 21, 1819. 
Maria-Theresa-Charlotte, daughter of Louis XVI, 

Louis-Anthony, due d'Angouleme (born Aug. 6. 1775), son of Charles X. 

Goritz, in Illyria, June 3, 1844. 



Son and daughter of Charles-Ferdinand d'Artois, 
due de Berry (who was son of Charles X.), 
and Caroline-Ferdinanda-Louisa, daughter 
of Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies. The 
duke de Berry was assassinated in Paris, 
Feb. 14, 1820. 

born Dec. 19, 1778; married, June 10, 1799, 
The duke died at 



Late Imperial Family op France. 



Napoleon's Empresses. 
Josephine, daughter of Tascher de la Pagerie, 
born June 24, 1768 ; married, 1st, to M. de 
Beauharnois ; 2dlv, to the emperor, March 8, 
1796 ; divorced Dec. 16, 1809 ; and died May 
29, 1814. 

Maria-Louisa, archduchess of Austria; born 
Dec. 12, 1791 ; married to the emperor, April 
2, 1810; survived him, and died Dec. 18, 
1847. See Parma. 

His Son. 

Francis - Joseph - Charles - Napoleon ; born 
March 20, 1811. Created king of Rome, and 
afterwards made duke of Reichstadt: died 
July 22, 1832. 

Brothers of Napoleon. 

1. Joseph Buonaparte, king of Naples, afterwards 

king of Spain ; married Maria- Julia de Clary. 
Died July 28, 1844. 

2. Lucien Buonaparte, prince of Canino ; a great 

republican ; refused a crown : died June 30, 
1840. 

3. Louis Buonaparte, king of Holland ; married 

IIortensia-Eugenia de Beauharnois, daughter 
of the empress Josephine: died July 25, 
1846 



4. Jerome Buonaparte, king of Westphalia ; mar- 
ried Miss Patison, an American, whom he 
divorced by command of the emperor, to 
marry Frederica, daughter of the king of 
Wurtemberg. 

His Sisters. 

1. Elizabeth, grand duchess of Florence, and 

princess of Piombino; married to general 
Felix Bacciochi, actual prince of Piombino. 

2. Maria-Paulette, or Pauline ; married, 1st, to 

general Leclerc ; 2d, to the prince Borghese. 

3. Annonceade- Caroline ; married to Joachim 

Murat, aftervvards king of Naples. 

His other Relatives. 

Cardinal Fesch, archbishop of Lyons; uncle 
to Napoleon. 

Eugene de Beauharnois, son of Josephine; 
viceroy of Italy, grand duke of Frankfort, 
and afterwards duke of Leuchtenberg and 
prince of Eichstadt; married Amelia-Au- 
gusta, princess of Bavaria. 

Stephanie de la Pagerie, niece of Josephine, 
princess of Baden. 

Louis-Napoleon (son of Louis, king of Hol- 
land), now president of the French republic ; 
and other nephews. 



Napoleon's Great Officers of State, Marshals, &c. 



Officers of State. 
Cambaceres, duke of Parma. 
Caulaincourt, duke of Vicenza. 
Champagne, duke of Cadore. 
Duroc, duke of Friuli. 
Fouche, duke of Otranto. 
Le Brun, duke of Piacenza. 
Maret, duke of Bassano. 
Savary, duke of Rovigo. 
Talleyrand de Perigord, prince of Benevsnto. 

Marshals. 
Arrighi, duke of Padua. 
Augereau, duke of Castiglione. 



Bernadotte, prince of Ponte Corvo ; afterwards 

king of Sweden. 
Berthier, prince of Neufchatel and Wagram. 
Bessieres, duke of Istria. 

Davoust, prince of Eckmuhl and duke of Auer- 
stadt. 

Jourdan, peer of France. 

Junot, duke of Abrantes. 

Kellerman, duke of Valm.y. 

Lannes, duke of Montebello. 

Lefebre, duke of Dantzic. 

Macdonald, duke of Tarento. 

Marmont, duke of Ragusa. 

Massena, prince of Essling and duke of Rivoli. 



26 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



Moncey, duke of Conegliano. 
Mortier, duke of Treviso. 
Murat, king of Naples. 

Ney, prince of Moskwa and duke of Elchingen. 
Oudinot, duke of Reggio. 
Soult, duke of Dalmatia. 
Suchet, duke of Albufera. 



Victor, duke of Belluno. 

Remarkable Generals. 
Andreossi, Gouvion St. Cyr, Grouchy, Hulin, 
Rapp, Regnier, Sebastiani, Serrurier, Van- 
damme, &c. 



SPAIN. 

The name, Hispania, is of Phoenician origin. Spain was called Iberia by the Greeks, 
from the river Iber ; and Hesperia Ultima by the Romans, because the westernmost 
part of Europe, and to distinguish it from Italy. — Horace, The Phoenicians and 
Carthaginians successively planted colonies on the coasts ; and the latter people 
extended their conquests under Hannibal. The Romans afterwards became masters 
of the whole country ; but in the decline of their power they were expelled by the 
Yandals, Alans, and Suevi, who, in their turn, were conquered by the Saracens, in 
711. Spain was anciently divided into a number of petty states. The counts of 
Castile became possessed of Leon, Oviedo, and Toledo, which had been separate 
territories; and, after many wars, the kingdom of Castile was united to that of 
Arragon by the marriage of Isabella, queen of Castile, with Ferdinand, king of 
Arragon, in 1474. Ferdinand, by the conquests of Navarre and Granada, entirely 
put an end to the dominion of the Moors ; and we may hence date the foundation 
of the present monarchy. 

Kings of Spain. 



A.D. Reign of the Goths. 
406. Alaric, king of the Goths. 
411. Ataulfo : murdered by his soldiers. 
415. Sigerico : reigned a few weeks only. 
415. Valia, or Wallia. 

420. Theodoric I. : killed in a battle, which he 

gained, against Attila. 

421. Thorismund, or Torrismund : assassinated 

by his favourite. 
452. Theodoric II. : assassinated. 
466. Euric, or Evarico. 
484. Alaric II. : killed in battle. 
507. Gesalric ; his bastard son. 
511. Amalric, or Amalaric: legitimate son of 

Alaric. 

531. Theudis, or Theodat: assassinated by a 
madman. 

548. Theudisela, or Theodisele: murdered for 

female violation. 

549. Agila : taken prisoner, and put to death. 
554. Atanagildo. 

567. Liuva, or Levua I. 

568. Leuvigildo : associated on the throne with 

Liuva, in 568 ; and sole king in 572. 
585. Recaredo I. 
601. Liuva II. : assassinated. 
G03. Vitericus : also murdered. 
610. Gundemar. 

612. Sisibut, or Sisebuth, or Sisebert. 

621. Recaredo IL 

621. Suintila: dethroned. 

631. Sisenando. 

640, Tulga, or Tulca. 

641. Cindasuinto : died in 652. 

649. Recesuinto : associated on the throne this 
year, and in 652 became sole king. 

672. Vamba, or Wamba : dethroned, and died 
in a monastery. 



680. Ervigius, or Ervigio. 
687. Egica, or Egiza. 

698. Yitiza, or Witiza : associated on the throne ; 

in 701 sole king. 
711. Rodrigo, or Roderic : slain in battle. 

Second Monarchy. 

718. Pelagius, or Pelayo : overthrew the Moors, 
and put a stop to their conquests. 

737. Favila : killed in hunting. 

739. Alfonso the Catholic. 

757. Froila : murdered his brother Samaran, in 
revenge for which he was murdered by 
his brother and successor, 

768. Aurelius, or Aurelio. 

774. Silo, the Saracen. 

783. Mauregato, the Usurper. 

788. Veremundo (Bermuda) I. 

791. Alfonso IL, the Chaste. Refusing to pay 
the Saracens the annual tribute of 100 
virgins, war is declared: Alfonso is 
victorious, and obtains the appellation 
of the Chaste, and the Victorious. — 
Rabhe. 

842. Ramiro I. : he put 70,000 Saracens to the 

sword in one battle. — Rabhe. 
850. Ordogno, or Ordono. 

866. Alfonso III., surnamed the Great: relin- 
quished his crown to his son, 
910. Garcias. 

914. Ordogno, or Ordono II. 
923. Froila II. 

925. Alfonso IV., the Monk : abdicated. 
927. Ramiro II. : killed in battle. 
950. Ordogno, or Ordono III. 

955. Ordogno, or Ordono IV. 

956. Sancho L, the Fat : poisoned with an 

apple. 



SPAIN. 



27 



967. Ramiro III. 

982. Veremundo II. (Bermuda) the Gouty. 

999. Alfonso V. : killed in a siege. 

1027. Veremundo III. (Bermuda) : killed. 

The above were kings of Asturias, of Oviedo, or of 
Leon. 

Kings of Navarre. 
905. Sancho Garcias ; a renowned warrior. 
926. Garcias I. 
970. Sancho II. 

994. Garcias II., surnamed the Trembler. 
1000. Sancho III., surnamed the Great. 
1035. Garcias III. 
1054. Sancho IV. 

1076. Sancho Ramirez, king of Arragon. 

1094. Peter of Arragon. 

1104. Alfonso I. of Arragon. 

1134. Garcias Ramirez. 

1150. Sancho VI., surnamed the Wise. 

1194. Sancho VII., surnamed the Infirm. 

1234. Theobald I., count of Champagne. 

1253. Theobald II. 

1270. Henry Crassus. 

1274. Juanna; married to Philip the Fair of 
France, 1285. 

1305. Louis Hutin, of France. 

1316. John : lived but a few days. 

1316. Philip V. the Long, of France. 

1322. Charles 1. the IV. of France. 

1328. Juanna I. and Philip count d'Evereux. 

1343. Juanna alone. 

1349. Charles II., or the Bad. 

1387. Charles III., or the Noble. 

1425. John II., afterwards king of Arragon. 

1479. Eleanor. 

1479. Francis Phoebus. 

1483. Catharine and John d'Albret. 

1512. Navarre conquered by Ferdinand the Ca- 
tholic. 

Kings of Castile. 

1035. Ferdinand the Great, of Leon and Castile. 

1065. Sancho 11. the Strong, son of Ferdinand. 

Alfonso in Leon and Asturias, and Gar- 
cias in Galicia. 

1072. Alfonso VI. the Valiant, king of Leon. 

1109. Urraca and Alfonso VII. 

1126. Alfonso VIIL, Raymond. 

1157. Sancho III., surnamed the Beloved. 

1158. Alfonso IX., the Noble. 

[Leon is separated from Castile, and Fer- 
dinand king.] 
1214. Henry L 

1217. Ferdinand III., the Saint, and the Holy. 

In him Leon and Castile were per- 
petually annexed, 

1252. Alfonso X., the Wise. The Alphonsine 
Tables were drawn up under the di- 
rection of this prince. 



1284. Sancho IV., the Great, and the Brave. 
1294. Ferdinand IV. 

1312. Alfonso XL 

1350. Peter the Cruel : deposed. Reinstated by 
Edward the Black Prince of England ; 
afterwards slain by his subjects.^ 

1368. Henry II., the Gracious: poisoned by a 
monk. 

1379. John I. : he united Biscay to Castile. 

1390. Henry III. 3, the Sickly. 

1406. John IL, son of Henry. 

1454. Henry IV., the Impotent. 

1474. Ferdinand v., the Catholic, in whom, by 
his marriage with Isabella, now queen 
of Castile, the kingdoms of Castile and 
Arragon were united. 

1504. Joan, or Jane, daughter of Ferdinand and 
Isabella, and 
Philip I. of Austria. On her mother's 
death Joan succeeded, jointly with her 
husband Philip ; but Philip dying in 
1506, and Joan becoming an imbecile, 
her father Ferdinand continued the 
reign ; and thus perpetuated the union 
of Castile with Arragon. 

Kings of Arragon. 
1035. Ramiro 1. 
1063. Sancho Ramirez. 
1094. Peter, of Navarre. 
1104. Alfonso, the Warrior, king of Navarre. 
1134. Ramiro IL, the Monk. 
1137. Petronilla, and Raymond, count of Barce- 
lona. 
1162. Alfonso II. 
1196. Peter IL 

1213. James 1. ; succeeded by his son, 

1276. Peter III. This prince contrived the 

horrible massacre known as the Sicilian 

Vespers, in 1282. 

1285. Alfonso III., the Beneficent. 
1291. James IL, surnamed the Just. 
1327. Alfonso IV. 

1336. Peter IV., the Ceremonious. 

1387. John L 

1396. Martin L 

1410. [Interregnum.] 

1412. Ferdinand the Just, king of Sicily. 

1416. Alfonso V., the Wise. 

1458. John IL, king of Navarre, brother of Al- 

phonso : died 1479. 
1479. Ferdinand V., the Catholic, the next heir : 

by his marriage with Isabella of Castile, 

the kingdoms were united. 

Spain. 

1512. Ferdinand V., the Catholic. This prince 
having conquered Granada and Navarre, 
became king of all Spain : succeeded by 
his grandson, 



1 Being observed one day to tremble while he was putting on his armour, he exclaimed, *' My body trembles 
at the dangers into which my courage plunges me." — Rabbe. 

It is just to the memory of our illustrious prince to state, that he soon deeply regretted his interference on 
behalf of this wicked and ungrateful king, who justly merited the infamous epithet he bore. Peter succeeded to 
the throne at sixteen years of age, and commenced his reign by several wanton acts of barbarity. Having mar- 
ried Blanche, daughter of Philip de Bourbon and sister to the queen of France, he repudiated her three days 
afterwards, and sent her to prison that he might renew his connexion with Maria de Padilla, his former mistress, 
whom he married, making way for his union with her by poisoning his consort. His cruelties provoked his 
subjects to take up arms against him in 1366, and they placed at their head Henry of I ranstamare, his natural 
brother, who slew Peter with his own hand in 1368, and was placed on the throne of Castile, which he transmitted 
to his posterity. 

3 Henry HI. of Castile used to say, that " he feared the curses of his people more than he did the arms of his 
enemies.'''' An ancient writer forcibly and eloquently adds, " In this he showed as much wisdom as humanity, 
since while he was beloved at home, he had nothing to fear from abioad; the curses of his subjects were the 
likeliest means of bringing upon him the arms of his foes." 



28 



PEINCES OF EUROPE. 



1516. Charles L, son of Joan of Castile and Philip 
of Austria; became emperor of Ger- 
many, as Charles V. in 1519 : resigned 
both crowns, and retired to a mo- 
nastery. 

1556. Philip XL, his son, king of Naples and 
Sicily ; a merciless bigot ; married Mary, 
queen-regnant of England : died a most 
dreadful death, being covered with 
ulcers from which vermin swarmed. 
[This reign is made memorable by the 
Spanish armament, called the Armada, 
designed to reduce England.] 

1598. Philip III., son of the preceding : he drove 
all the descendants of the Moors from 
Granada and the adjacent provinces, to 
the number of 900,000. 

1621. Philip IV., his son ; a reign of nearly con- 
tinuous and unfortunate wars with the 
Dutch and France : he lost Portugal in 
1640. 

1665. Charles II., son of Philip IV., the last 
prince of the Austrian line : nominated, 
by will, as his successor, 

1700. Philip v., duke of Anjou, grandson of 
Louis XIV. of France : hence arose the 



war of the succession, terminated b}^ the 

treaty of Utrecht in 1713. 
1724. Louis 1. ; who reigned only a few months. 
1724. Philip V. ; again. 

1745. Ferdinand VL, surnamed the Wise: he 
distinguished his reign by acts of libe- 
rality and beneficence. 

1759. Charles III., king of the Two Sicilies, and 
brother of Ferdinand VI. : on ascending 
the Spanish throne he renounced the 
Sicilies to his third son Ferdinand. 

1788. Charles IV., son of Charles III. ; the in- 
fluence of Godoy, prince of peace, reached 
to almost royal authority in this reign : 
Charles abdicated in favour of his son 
and successor, 

1808. Ferdinand VIL, whom Napoleon, of France, 
also forced to resign. 

1808. Joseph Buonaparte, brother of Napoleon : 
deposed. 

1814. Ferdinand VII. : restored ; succeeded by 

his daughter, 
1833. Isabella II., who ascended the throne 

Sept. 29. The present (1850) Queen of 

Spain. 



The Queen. Maria Isabella II. (Louisa) born Oct. 10, 1830 ; succeeded her father, Ferdinand VIL, 
Sept. 29, 1833, while yet in her 3d year. The Sahc law, existing in Spain, had been formally 
abolished by Ferdinand, under a decree March 29, 1830, by virtue of which the order of suc- 
cession was altered in favour of his daughter, to the exclusion of his brothers, Don Carlos 
and Don Francis. Declared by the Cortes to be of age at 13, Nov. 8, 1843; married, Oct. 10, 
1846, to her cousin, the infant Don Francis d'Assis, duke of Cadiz (born May 13, 1822), son of 
Don Francis de Paula : issue, 

A son, born July 12, 1850, who died a few minutes after his birth. 

The Queen's Sister : The infanta Maria-Louisa-Ferdinanda, born Jan. 30, 1832 ; married, Oct. 10, 
1846, to prince Anthony- Mary-Pliilip-Louis d'Orleans, due de Montpensier, son of Louis- 
Philippe, of France ' ; and has issue, a daughter, 

Maria-Isabella-Francisca- Adelaide, born at Seville, Sept. 21, 1848. 

Her Mother : Queen dowager Maria-Christina, daughter of Francis L, king of the Two Sicilies, 
born April 27, 1806 ; married, Dec. 11, 1829, to the late king, Ferdinand VIL, who died Sept. 29, 
1833. Regent of the kingdom during the minority of the queen, in virtue of the will of her 
father ; which office she resigned by a manifesto dated Oct. 12, 1840. Her marriage with don 
Fernando Munoz, duke of Rianzares (since Dec. 28, 1833), received the " nuptial benediction," 
Oct. 13, 1844. 

Uncles : 

1. Charles-Maria-Isodore, born March 28, 1788 ; married, 1st, Sept. 29, 1816, Maria-Frances 

d'Asis, daughter of John VL, king of Portugal ; 2nd, Maria-Theresa, of Bourbon and 
Braganza, princess of Beira, widow of the infant Peter of Spain : issue, 

I. Charles-Louis-Maria-Ferdinand (comte de Montemolin), born Jan. 31, 1818. 
II. John-Charles-Maria- Isodore, born May 15, 1822; married, Feb. 6, 1847, Mary-Bea- 
trice-Anne-Frances, daughter of Francis IV. of Modena. 
IIL Ferdinand-Maria- Joseph, born Oct. 19, 1824. 

2. Francis de Paulo-Anthonj^-Maria, born March 10, 1794; married, June 12, 1819, Louisa- 

Charlotte, daughter of the late Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies ; she died Jan. 29, 1844 ; 
leaving issue, 

I. Isabella- Ferdinanda, born May 18, 1821 ; married, June 26, 1841, to Ignatius, count 
Gurowski. 

11. Francis d'Asis-Maria-Ferdinand, born May 13, 1822 ; married, Oct. 10, 1846, to 
the queen, Isabella 11. 

IIL Henry-Mary- Ferdinand, duke of Seville, born April 17, 1823; married, May 6, 1847, 
to Helena de Castella. 

IV. Louisa-Theresa- Frances, born June 11, 1824; married, Feb. 10, 1847, to Joseph, comte 
de Transtamare. 
V. Josephine- Ferdinanda-Louisa, born May 25, 1827. 
VL Ferdinand- Mary, born April 11, 1832. 
VII. Maria-Christina-Isabella, born June 5, 1833. 
VIII. Amelia-Philippina, born Oct. 12, 1834. 



The marriage of this princess with a son of Louis-Philippe, occasioned great displeasure at the court of 
St. James's, and disturbed the friendly relations between the French and English governments. However, not- 
withstanding much remonstrance, this union was persisted in ; and the two marriages of the queen of Spain and 
her sister Maria- Louisa, were solemnized at the same time, at 10 at night, by the patriarch of the Indies, in the 
palace at Madrid. o » j t- , 



PORTUGAL. 



29 



POETUGAL. 



The ancient Lusitania. The name is derived from Porto Cale^ or Callo^ the original 
appellation of the city of Oporto. It submitted to the Roman arms about 250 b. c, 
and underwent the same changes as Spain on the fall of the Roman empire. Conquered 
by the Moors a. d. 713. They kept possession till they were vanquished by Alfonso VI. 
the Valiant, of Castile, assisted by many other princes and volunteers. Among those 
who shone most in this celebrated expedition was Henry of Burgundy, grandson 
of Robert, king of France. Alfonso bestowed upon him Theresa, his natural 
daughter, and, as her marriage portion, the kingdom of Portugal, which he was to 
hold of him. Portugal fell under the Spanish yoke in 1580, but shook it off in 1640, 
since which time the Braganza family has reigned. 

Kings of Portugal. 

1093. Henry, count or earl of Portugal. 
1112. Alfonso, his son, and Theresa. 
1128. Alfonso, count of Portugal, alone. 
1139. Alfonso declared king, having obtained a 

signal victory over a prodigious army of 

Moors on the plains of Ourique. 
1185. Sancho I., son of Alfonso. 
1212. Alfonso II., surnamed Crassus, or the Fat. 
1223. Sancho II., or the Idle : deposed. 
1248. Alfonso III. 

1279. Denis or Dionysius, styled the Father of 

his Country. 
1825. Alfonso IV. 

1357. Peter the Severe : succeeded by his son, 
1367. Ferdinand I. : succeeded by his natural 
brother, 

1384. John I., the Bastard, and the Great : mar- 
ried Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt, 
duke of Lancaster. 

1433. Edward. 

1438. Alfonso V., the African. 
1481. John II., whose actions procured him the 

titles of the Great, and the Perfect: 

succeeded by his cousin, 
1495. Emmanuel, the Fortunate. 
1521. John III., son of Emmanuel : he admitted 

into his kingdom the religious insti- 
tution of the inquisition. 
1557. Sebastian : slain in the great battle of 

Alcazar, in Africa, Aug. 4, 1578; 

when the crown reverted to his great 

uncle, 

1578. Henry, the Cardinal, son of Emmanuel. 
1580. Anthony, prior of Crato, son of Emmanuel : 

deposed by Philip II. of Spain, who 

united Portugal to his other dominions, 

till 1640. 

1640. John IV., duke of Braganza : dispossessed 



the Spaniards in a bloodless revolution, 
and was proclaimed king, Dec. 1. 
1656. Alfonso VI. : deposed in 1668, and his 
brother and successor Peter made re- 
gent ; the latter ascended the throne in 
1683. Peter II. ; succeeded by his son, 
1706. John V. ; succeeded by his son, 
1750. Joseph. The daughter and successor of this 
prince married his brother, by dispen- 
sation from the pope, and they ascended 
the throne, as 
1777. Maria (Frances-Isabella) and Peter IIL, 
jointly. 

1786. Maria, alone : this princess afterwards falls 
into a state of melancholy and derange- 
ment. 

1792. Regency. John, son of the queen, and 
afterwards king, declared regent of the 
kingdom. 

1816. John VI., previously regent. He had 
withdrawn in 1807, owing to the French 
invasion of Portugal, to his Brazilian 
dominions ; but the discontent of his 
subjects obliged him to return in 1821 : 
died in 1826. 
1826. Peter IV. (Dom Pedro) son of John VL : 
making his election of the empire of 
Brazil, abdicated the throne of Portugal 
in favour of his daughter, 
1826. Maria II. (da Gloria), who became queen 

at 7 years of age. 
1828. Dom Miguel, brother to Peter IV. : usurped 
the crown, which he retained, amid 
civil contentions, until 1833. 
1833. Maria II. restored : declared in Sept. 1834 
(being then 15) to be of age, and as- 
sumed the royal power accordingly. 
The PRESEJ^T (1850) Queen of Portugal. 



The Queen. Donna-Maria II. da Gloria, daughter of Peter IV. (ex-emperor of Brazil) and of 
Leopoldine-CaroHne, archduchess of Austria, born April 4, 1819; married, Jan. 26, 1835, to 
Augustus-Charles-Eugene-Napoleon, duke of Leuchtenberg, who died March 28, same year ; 
2nd, April 9, 1836, Ferdinaiid-Augustus-Francis-Anthony, prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 
born Oct. 29, 1816 ; and has issue : 

1. Dom Pedro de Alcantara, prince royal, born Sept. 16, 1837. 

2. Louis-Philippe-Mary, duke of Oporto, born Oct. 31, 1838. 

3. Joao-Maria-Fernando-Gregorio, born March 16, 1842. 

4. Maria-Anna-Fernanda-Leopoldina, born Jul ' 21, 1843. 

5. Antonio, born Feb. 18, 1845. 

6. Fernando, born July 23, 1846. 

7. Augosto, born Nov. 4, 1847. 

Uncle. Prince Michael-Mary-Evariste (Dom Miguel), born Oct. 26, 1802. 

Aunts. Maria-Theresa, princess of Beira ; married, 1st, to the infant Peter-Charles, of Spain ; 2nd, 
Feb. 1838, to Don Carlos, of Spain, being his second consort. 

Isabella-Maria, regent of Portugal, from March 1826 to Feb. 1828. 
Anna de Jesus-Maria, married to the duke of Louie. 



30 



PHINCES OF EUROPE. 



EMPIRE OF BRAZIL. 

The Frencli having seized on Portugal in 1807, the royal family of that kingdom 
embarked for Brazil at the close of the same year. Brazil was erected into an empire 
in Nov. 1825, when Dom Pedro took the title of emperor, soon after his abdication 
of the throne of Portugal. 

Emperors. 



1825. Pedro I. (of Portugal) Nov. 18 ; first em- 
peror: abdicated the throne of Brazil, 
in favour of his infant son, April 7, 1831. 
Died Sept. 24, 1834. 



1831. Pedro II. ; succeeded on his father's abdi- 
cation; assumed the government Jul}'- 
23, 1840 ; and was crowned July 18, 
1841. The PRESENT emperor. 



The Emperor. Dom Pedro de Alcantara, born Dec. 2, 1825 ; became emperor in his sixth year, and 
was crowned in his sixteenth. Married (Sept. 4, 1843) Theresa-Christiana-Mary, daughter of 
Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies, and has issue : 

1. Isabella-Christina-Leopoldine- Augusta, born July 29, 1846. 

2. Leopoldine-Therese-Frances-Caroline, born July 13, 1847. 

3. The Prince Royal (not yet named), born July 19, 1848. 
Sisters : 

1. Donna Maria II. da Gloria, queen of Portugal. 

2. Donna Januaria, born March 11,1822; married, April 28, 1844, Louis Charles, comte 

d'Aquila, son of Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies. 

3. Donna- Frances, born Aug. 2, 1824 ; married, May 1, 1843, to Francis d'Orleans, prince 

de Joinville, son of the late Louis-Philippe, of France. 

4. Donna- Maria- Amelia- Augusta- Josephine, born Dec. 1, 1831. 



SICILY.— NAPLES.— THE TWO SICILIES. 

Sicily, anciently Sicania. — Virgil; and Sicilia. — Pliny. Naples, the continental 
division of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, was called, at first Parthenope^ afterwards 
Neapolis. — Strabo. The Greek emperors, upon the expulsion of the Ostrogoths by 
Belisarius in the 6th century, took possession of Lower Italy, and retained it for more 
than 200 years. The duchy of Benevento (Naples), however, founded by the Lom- 
bards in the same century, attained such importance and territorial extent, that it 
possessed, within 120 years, the greater part of the country now comprising the 
kingdom of Naples. In the 9th century the Arabs conquered the island of Sicily, 
which was wrested from them in the 1 1th by count Roger I., who inherited Naples 
from his elder brother, Robert Guiscard, by whom it had been acquired by conquest. 

Kings of Sicily. 



Counts and Dukes of Apulia. 
1043. William I., Bras de Fer, or Iron Arm. 
1046. Drogo. 
1051. Humfrey. 

1054. Robert Guiscard ; duke in 1060. 
1085. Koger. 

Sicily. 

1072. Roger I. ; count of Sicily. 

1101. Roger II., his son; obtained from pope 

Honorius II., in 1130, the style oi^'king 

of Sicily." 
1154. William, sumamed the Wicked. 
1166. William II., surnamed the Good. 
1189. Tancred, count de Leccs, grandson of 

Roger II., succeeded by 
1194. William III., his son: dethroned. 



1194. Henry (husband of Constantia, daughter 
of William III.), emperor, as Henry VI., 
in 1190. 

1197. Frederick I., his son, crowned emperor in 

1212, as Frederick 11. 
1250. Conrad I., son of Frederick I. ; emperor as 

Conrad IV. : succeeded by 
1254. Conrad II., or Conradin, his infant son: 

deposed in his minority by his uncle 

Manfred ; afterwards beheaded. 
1258. Manfred or Mainfroy, tyrant and usurper : 

slain in battle by his successor. 
1266. Charles of Anjou, youngest son of Louis 

VIII. of France: deposed in 1282 by 

the bloody revolution known as the 

" Sicilian Vespers." ^ 
1282. [ Sicily now separated from Naples ; Charles 



The memorable massacre of the French in Sicily, known by this name, commenced at Palermo, March 30, 
" vT fS'^^i'". become hateful to the Sicilians, and a conspiracy against Charles of Anjou was already 

, when the followmg occurrence led to develop and accomplish it. On Easter Monday the chief conspirators 
assembled at Palermo; and while the French were engaged in festivities, a Sicilian bride happened to pass 



THE TWO SICILIES. 



31 



of Anjou, retaining the style of lord 
paramount of Naples, and governing 
there.] 

1282. Peter, the Great, king of Arragon, consort 
of Constantia, daughter of Manfred, the 
Usurper. 

1285. James I. : succeeded to the kingdom of 
Arragon as James II. in 1291. 

1295. [Interregnum.] 

1296. Frederick 11. 
1337. Peter II. 
1342. Louis I. 

1355. Frederick III., surnamed the Simple. 
1377. Mary, daughter of Frederick; afterwards 

jointly with her consort. 
1391. Mary, and Martin, prince of Arragon. 
1402. Martin, alone. 



1409. Martin the Elder. 

Sicily united to Arragon. 

1410. Ferdinand, king of Arragon. 
1435. Alfonso, king of Arragon. 
1458. John, king of Arragon. 
1479. Ferdinand the Catholic. 

[In 1503 this prince took entire possession 
of Naples (which he had previously 
seized, and divided with Louis XII. of 
France), and Sicily remained subject 
to the sovereigns of Spain until 1713.] 

1713. Victor Amadeus, duke of Savoy, obtained 
the crown of Sicily from Spain. 

1718. He exchanged Sicily with Austria for Sar- 
dinia, which became a kingdom. See 
Naples and Sardinia. 



Kings of Naples. 



1282. Charles of Anjou, lord paramount. 
1285. Charles II., the Lame. 
1309. Robert, the Wise. 
1343. Joanna I. : dethroned by her cousin, 
1382. Charles IIL, Durazzo. 
1386. Ladislas, his son, and father of 
1414. Joanna II., or Janella, or Johannilla, of 
Bourbon. 

1435. Alfonso, the Wise ; Alfonso V. as king of 
Arragon. Succeeded by his natural son, 
1458. Ferdinand I., the Bastard. 

1494. Alfonso IL 

1495. Ferdinand IL 

1496. Frederick III., his son. 

1501. [Partitioned by France and Spain; but 
two years after Ferdinand the Catholic 
became master of the whole, and it re- 
mained under the dominion of Spain 
until 1707.] 

1707. Charles, of Austria,'afterwards the emperor 
Charles YI. 

1713. The possession of Naples confirmed to 
Austria by the treaty of Utrecht. 



1734. [Sicily and Naples (the Two Sicilies), lost 

to Austria, became vested in the royal 
family of Spain.] 

1735. Charles, son of Philip V. of Spain : he suc- 

ceeded to his father's dominions, and 
ceded the Two Sicilies to his third son, 
Ferdinand. 

1759. Ferdinand IV"., ascended at eight years of 
age: deposed by the French in 1798; 
again in 1806. In the latter year, the 
emperor Napoleon placed his brother 
Joseph on the throne of Naples. 

1806. Joseph Buonaparte : advanced in 1808 to 
the throne of Spain. 

1808. Joachim Murat, brother-in-law to Na- 
poleon, succeeded as king. 

1815. Ferdinand IV., restored. 

[It was now decreed that Naples and Si- 
cily should, as formerly, be united in one 
monarchy, under the designation of the 
" Kingdom of the Two Sicilies."] 



Kings of the Two Sicilies. 



1815. Ferdinand I. (late IV.), king of the Two 

Sicilies. 
1826. Francis I., his son. 

1830. Ferdinand IL, son of the last king. Suc- 



ceeded Nov. 8, 1830. The present 
(1850) King of the Two Sicilies and of 
Jerusalem. 



The King. Ferdinand (II.) Charles, born Jan. 12, 1810 ; succeeded his father, the late king, 
Francis L, Nov. 8, 1830; married, Nov. 21, 1832, Maria-Christina-Carohne- Josephine (born 
Nov. 14, 1812), daughter of the late Victor-Emmanuel, king of Sardinia ; and 2nd (Jan. 9, 
1837), Maria- Theresa-Isabelle (born July 31, 1816), daughter of the late archduke Charles, of 
Austria ; and has issue : — 

1. Francis-Mary-Leopolil, prince-royal, duke of Calabria ; born (of first marriage) Jan. 16, 1836. 

2. Louis-Mary, comte de Trani, born (of second marriage, with the following) Aug. 1, 1838. 

3. Alphonso-Mary- Joseph- Albert, comte de Caserta, born March 28, 1841. 

4. Mary-Annonciate-Isabelle, bom March 24, 1843. 

5. Mary-Immaculee-Clementina, born April 14, 1844. 

6. Gaetan-Mary-Frederick, comte de Girgenti, born Jan. 12, 1846. 

7. Joseph-Mary, comte de Lucera, born March 4, 1848. 

8. A prince, born Aug. 3, 1849. 



by with her train. She was observed by one Drochet, a Frenchman, who, advancing towards her, used her 
rudely, under pretence of searching for arms. A young Sicilian, exasperated at this affront, stabbed him with 
his own sword ; and a tumult ensuing, 200 French were instantly murdered. The enraged populace now ran 
through the city, crying out " Let the French die !" and, without distinction of rank, age, or sex, they slaugh^ 
tered all of that nation they could find, to the number of 8000. Even such as had fled to the churches found no 
sanctuary there — the massacre became general throughout the island. 



32 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



Brothers and Sisters : 

1. Caroline- Ferdinanda-Louisa, born Nov. 5, 1798 ; dowager-duchess of Berry. 

2. Maria-Christina, born April 27, 1806 ; dowager queen of Spain. 

3. Charles-Ferdinand, prince of Capua, born Oct. 10, 1811. 

4. Leopold- Benjamin- Joseph, comte de Syracuse, born May 22, 1813 ; married, May 15, 1837 

Mary-Victoria-Louisa-Philiberta, of Savoy-Carignan. 

5. Maria- Antoinette, bom Dec. 19, 1814 ; grand-duchess of Tuscany. 

6. Maria- Amelia, born Feb. 25, 1818 ; married, May 26, 1832, don Sebastian, of Bourbon and 

Braganza. 

7 Maria-Caroline-Ferdinanda, born Feb. 29, 1820. 

8. Theresa-Maria-Christina, born March 14, 1822 ; empress of Brazil. 

9. Louis-Charles, comte d'Aquila, born July 19, 1824; married, April 28, 1844, the princess 

Januaria, daughter of the late emperor, dom Pedro, of Brazil. 

10. Francis de Paulo-Louis-Emmanuel, comte de Trepani, born Aug. 13, 1827 ; affianced, 
July 1849, to Mary-Isabella (born May 21, 1834), daughter of the grand-duke, Leo- 
pold II., of Tuscany. 



SAVOY.— SARDINIA. 

Savoy, m the time of the Romans, formed a part of the province of Gallia Narhon- 
nensis, and remained in possession of the Romans several hundred years. Sardinia 
(Latin) was called by the Greeks Sandaliotes and Ichnusa, from its resemblance to the 
print of a sandal or sole of a human foot. The former country, after various changes, 
was erected into a county in the beginning of the 11th century, and at the close of 
the 14th, the governing count obtained the title of duke. The same ancient family 
continuing to rule, exchanged, in 1718, with Austria, its then recent acquisition of 
Sicily, for Sardinia, and became kings of Sardinia. This state became involved in the 
great war between France and Austria, that closed with the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 
in 1748. After enjoying a long term of peace, it took part in the war of the French 
revolution, and in 1 798 the continental territories were parcelled out into departments 
of the French empire, and were not restored to the legitimate sovereign until the over- 
throw of Napoleon in 1814. Genoa was added to Sardinia by the congress of Vienna 
in 1815. 

Counts and Dukes of Sayoy. 



1020. 
1027. 
1048. 
1072. 



1108. 
1148. 
1188. 
1233. 
1253. 
1263. 
1268. 
1285. 



1323. 
1329. 
1343. 
1383. 



1391. 



Counts of Maurienne. 
Beroald, surnamed the Saxon. 
Humbert I., " with the White Hands." 
Amadeus I., Longtail. 
Humbert II., le Renforce. 

Counts of Savoy. 
Amadeus II. 

Humbert III., surnamed the Saint. 

Thomas. 

Amadeus III. 

Boniface-Rolando. 

Peter, or Charlemagne le Petit, 

Philip. 

Amadeus IV., styled the Great; famous 
for his defence of the isle of Rhodes 
agamst the Turks. 

Edward. 

Aimon, styled the Peace-maker. 
Amadeus Y. (or YI.), the Green Count. 
Amadeus YII., the Red Count. 

Dukes of Savoy. 
Amadeus YIII., surnamed the Pacific; 
duke in 1416. Elected pope in 1439, as 
Felix Y. ; antipope. 



1451. 
1465. 



1472. 
1482. 
1489. 
1496. 
1497. 
1504. 
1553. 

1580. 



1630. 
1637. 
1638. 
1675. 
1713. 



Louis. 

Amadeus IX., suraamed the Benevolent, 
and, by his subjects, the "Blessed Ama- 
deus." 

Philibert, the Hunter. 

Charles I., the Warrior. 

Charles II. 

Philip II., Sans Terre, or Lackland. 
Philibert II., surnamed the Beau. 
Charles IIL, the Good. 
Emmanuel-Philibert, surnamed the Iron- 
hand. 

Charles Emmanuel, styled the Great ; but 
falsely, for though brave, he violated 
the laws of nations. 

Yictor- Amadeus I. 

Francis-Hyacinth. 

Charles-Emmanuel 11. 

Yictor- Amadeus II. 

[He obtained Sicily this year, and in 1718 
exchanged it with the emperor for Sar- 
dinia, taking the title of king. Of this 
dominion. Piedmont and Savoy formed 
the continental part.] 



Kings of Sardinia. 



1718. Yictor- Amadeus I., king (II. as duke) : 
resigned in 1730, in favour of his son ; 
died in 1732. 



1730. Charles-Emmanuel I., his son. 

1773. Yictor-Amadeus II., his son. 

1796. Charles-Emmanuel II., son of the 



pre- 



TUSCANY. 



33 



ceding : resigned his crown in favour of 
his brother, 
1802. Victor-Emmanuel 1. 

1805. [Sardinia merged in the kingdom of Italj^ 
of which the emperor Napoleon was 
crowned king, May 26, 1805.] 

1814. Victor-Emmanuel, restored. Resigned in 
March 1821 ; and died in 1824. 



1821. Charles-Felix ; succeeded by his nephew, 
1831. Charles- Albert. This prince provoked a 
war with Austria; was defeated in 
battle, and abdicated in favour of his 
son, March 23, 1849. Died at Oporto, 
July 28, 1849. 
1849. Victor-Emmanuel II. The present (1850) 
King of Sardinia. 



The King. Victor-Emanuel (II.)-Mary- Albert-Eugene-Ferdinand, born March 14, 1820 ; succeeded 
his father, the late king, Charles- Albert, in virtue of the abdication of the latter, announced at 
Novara, March 23, 1849, and confirmed at Tolosa, in Spain, April 3, following ; married, April 
12, 1842, the archduchess Mary-Adelaide-Frances-Reniere-Elizabeth (born June 3, 1822), 
second daughter of the archduke Reniere, of Austria : issue, 

1. Maria-Clotilda-Theresa-Louisa ; born March 2, 1843. 

2. Humbert-Reniere-Charles-Emmanuel-Ferdinand, prince-royal, prince of Piedmont ; born 

March 14, 1844. 

3. Amedee-Ferdinand-Marie, due d'Aosta, born May 30, 1845. 

4. Otho-Eugene-Marie, due de Montferrat, born July 11, 1846. 

5. Marie-Pie, born Oct. 16, 1847. 

His Brother. Ferdinand-Marie- Albert, due de Genes, born Nov. 15, 1822. 

Branch of Savoy- Carignan. 

1. Eugene-Emmanuel-Joseph-Mary-Paul, born April 14, 1816. Declared prince of Savoy- 

Carignan by royal decretal of April 28, 1834. 

2. Mary- Victoria-Louisa, born Sept. 29, 1814; married to prince Leopold of the Two Sicilies, 

brother of the king. 



TUSCANY. 

The Etruria of the Romans, and Tyrrhenia of the Greeks. It became subject to 
Rome in the 5 th century before the Christian era, and was possessed by that empire 
for about 800 years. Tuscany was governed by a succession of marquesses or dukes 
from the 9th until the 13th century. The continual divisions by which the country 
was agitated led to a change in the form of government, and eventually to the 
ascendancy of the great family of the Medici as Grand Dukes. The ancient name, 
Etruria, was revived for a time in 1801. 

Marquesses or Dukes. 



828. Boniface I., marquess. 

847. Adalbert I., duke and marquess. 

890. Adalbert II., surnamed the Rich, duke and 
marquess. 

919. Guy, duke. 

929. Lambert, duke. 

931. Boson, marquess. 

936. Hubert, duke. 

961. Hugh, surnamed the Great. 
1001. Adalbert III. 
1014. Rinaldo, duke and marquess. 
1027. Boniface 11. , styled the Pious, duke and 

marquess. 
1052. Frederick. 

1055. Beatrice, and Godfrey the Bearded. 



1076. Matilda, styled the Great, countess. 

1119. Ratbod, or Radboton. 

1119. Conrad, president and marquess. 

1131. Rampret, president and marquess. 

1133. Henry of Bavaria, count. 

1139. Ulderic, marquess. 

1153. Guelph. 

1195. Philip; elected emperor in 1198: assassi- 
nated at Bamberg in 1208. 

1208. Florence became a republic, governed 
chiefly by Signori, until 1531. In that 
year Alexander de Medici was appointed 
its chief, as doge of Florence : assassi- 
nated in 1537. 



Grand Dukes. 



House of Medici. ^ 

1537. Cosmo de Medici, son of Alexander ; cre- 
ated grand duke in 1569 by pope Pius V. 

1574. Francis Mary, de Medici, his son ; to whom 
the dignity of grand duke was con- 
firmed by the emperor Maximilian II. 



1587. Ferdinand I., de Medici. 
1609. Cosmo II., de Medici. 
1621. Ferdinand II., de Medici. 
1670. Cosmo III., de Medici. 
1723. John Gastone de Medici; last representa- 
tive of the family. 2 



1 The great family of Medici, illustrious as the restorers of literature and the fine arts in Italy, were chiefs or 
Si'gnori of the republic of Florence from 1434, in which year Cosmo de Medici (the 1st Cosmo) who had been 
banished from the republic, was recalled, and made its chief, presiding over it for 30 years. Several of the family 
were afterwards Signori : among these, was Lorenzo de Medici, styled " the Magnificent" and the " Father of 
Letters," Of this great man, Mr. Roscoe wrote an elegant Life in 2 vols, quarto ; also diLife^ in 4 vols, of pope 
Leo X. (John de Medici), son of Lorenzo. 

^ By the treaty of peace in MZh between France and Austria, the duke of Lorraine was named to succeed to 

D 



34 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



House of Lorraine. 
1737. Francis II., duke of Lorraine ; married 
Maria Theresa, empress, and queen of 
Hungary and Bohemia; elected em- 
peror in 1745. 
[By a decree of this monarch it was settled 
that in future the Grand Duchy should 
be the patrimony of a younger son of 
the Imperial house: the emperor was 
accordingly succeeded in 1765 by his 
second son,] 

17G5. Peter-Leopold : on the demise of his bro- 
ther, the emperor Joseph 11. became 
emperor as Leopold II. ; and was suc- 
ceeded as grand-duke by his youngest 
son, 



1790. Ferdinand III. : deposed by the treaty of 
Luneville, in 1801. 

1801. Louis, prince of Parma, succeeded, by the 
style of "King of Etruria," conform- 
ably with the above-mentioned treaty. 

1803. Charles-Louis, his infant son, under the 
regency of the queen, Maria-Louisa, his 
mother; afterwards duchess of Parma. 
See Parma. 

1807. [Tuscany united by the emperor Napoleon 

to the kingdom of Italy.] 
1814. Ferdinand III. restored : succeeded by his 

son, 

1824. Leopold II. ; succeeded his father, June 18, 
1824. The present (1850) Grand- 
Duke of Tuscany. 



The Grand-Duke. Leopold-John-Joseph-Francis-Ferdinand-Charles, grand-duke of Tuscany and 
duke of Lucca; born Oct. 3, 1797 ; married, 1st (Oct. 28, 1817), Mary- Anne-Caroline, daughter 
of Maximilian, father of the present king of Saxony ; died March 24, 1832. Married, 2nd 
(June 7, 1833), Mary-Antoinette, daughter of Francis L, king of the Two Sicilies ; and has 
issue : 

1. Augusta-Louisa-Mary-Josephine (by first marriage), born April 1, 1825 ; married (April 

15, 1844) the prince Leopold of Bavaria. 

2. Mary-Isabella (with the following, by second marriage), born May 21, 1834. 

3. Ferdinand, hereditary grand-duke, born June 10, 1835. 

4. Charles-Joseph, born April 30, 1839. 

5. Maria-Louisa, born Oct. 31, 1845. 

6. Louis-John, born Aug. 4, 1847. 

His Sisters. 1. Maria-Louisa-Josephine, born Aug. 30, 1798. 

2. Theresa, born March 21, 1801 ; married Sept. 30, 1817, to Charles- Albert, late king 
of Sardinia, who died July 28, 1849. 



LUCCA. 

Charlemagne having destroyed the empire of the Lombards, A. d. 774, Lucca came 
into the possession of the Franks, and in two centuries afterwards was annexed to 
Germany by Otto the Great. After many subsequent revolutions it was sold to 
Florence, and in a short time it obtained its complete freedom by purchase from the 
emperor Charles IV., and retained it until modern times. 

i^apoleon having conferred Piombino upon his sister Elizabeth and her husband 
prince Bacciocchi, as an hereditary principality, the prince was chosen in 1805 
constitutional chief of the republic of Lucca. In 1806, Massa, Carrara, and Garfago- 
rano, were united to the principality of Lucca. Finally, the congress of Vienna 
conferred Massa and Carrara upon the archduchess Beatrice d'Este ; Piombino upon 
prince Ludovisci Buoncampagni ; and the Duchy of Lucca, with an annual pension of 
20,000/. upon 



Maria-Louisa, daughter of Charles IV. of 
Spain, and widow of Louis, king of 
Etruria : she died March 13, 1824, and 
was succeeded by her son, 
1824. Charles-Louis, duke; born Dec. 22, 1799; 



married, Aug. 15, 1820, Maria-Theresa, 
daughter of Victor- Emmanuel L, king 
of Sardinia. Relinquished the duke- 
dom, Oct. 1847. 



On the death of Maria-Louisa, widow of the emperor ISTapoleon, of France, and 
duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla (see Parma)., which took place Dec. 18, 
1847, Charles-Louis, duke of Lucca, was invested with the government of the duchy 
of Parma, as had been agreed upon by the treaty of Paris of June 10, 1817, and 
congress of Frankfort, July 20, 1819; and in conformity with the conditions of 
succession arranged by these' acts, and by the subsequent treaty of Florence (Nov. 28, 
1844), the duke Louis-Charles resio^ned Lucca to the grand-duke of Tuscany, 
Oct. 5, 1847. o ^ Ji 



the grand-duchy of Tuscany on the death of John Gastone de Medici, which took place in 1737; and upon this 
arrangement being effected, the duchy of Lorraine lapsed to the French crown, subject to a life interest of 
btanislas Lezmski, ex-king of Poland. 



MODENA. 



35 



PARMA, PLACENTIA, or PIACENZA, &c. 

In 1346, Parma and Piacenza formed part of the territory of the counts of Milan, and 
were subsequently in the possession of Louis XII. of France ; but were ceded by his 
successor, Francis I., under the league of Cambray, to pope Julius IV., when they 
were attached to the dominion of the Church. In 1545, pope Paul III. erected 
Parma and Piacenza into a duchy, and conferred it upon his natural son, Peter-Louis- 
Farnese, in whose family it continued for nearly two centuries. The subsequent 
details are given below. 

Dukes. 



1545. Peter Louis Farnese ; first duke. 
1547. Octavius Farnese. 
1586. Alexander Farnese. 
1592. Kanutio I. 
1622. Edoard. 

1646. Ranutio II. : Edoard, his eldest son, who 
died vita patris, left a daughter, Eliza- 
beth, who married Philip V. of Spain. 

1694. Francis I. 

1727. Antony. 

[Upon the extinction of the male line of 
the old dukes, the duchy devolved upon 
the grandson of Edoard.] 

1731. Don Carlos, who, upon ascending the 



throne of the Sicilies, ceded the duchy 
to the house of Austria, with whom it 
remained until the treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Oct. 18, 1748. 

1749. Don Philip, brother of Don Carlos. 

1765. Don Ferdinand. 

1803. [The duchy now passed under the do- 
minion of France, and prince Louis, son 
of Ferdinand, became king of Etruria.] 

1814. Maria-Louisa of Austria, widow of the 
emperor Napoleon. The duchy was con- 
ferred upon her by the treaty of Paris, 
and she became duchess of Parma, Pia- 
cenza, and Guastalla. Died Dec. 18, 1847. 



Parma, &c. were given by the convention of April 11, 1814, to the arch-duchess 
Maria-Louisa, ex- empress of France. After her death (Dec. 18, 1847) Charles- 
Louis, duke of Lucca, was given the government of this duchy, as had been 
arranged by the treaty of Paris, June 10, 1817, and by the congress of Frankfort, 
July 20, 1819; and conformably with these acts, and with a subsequent treaty (that 
of Frankfort, Nov. 28, 1844), Charles-Louis, of Lucca, relinquished that duchy to 
the grand-duke of Tuscany. 



MODENA, &c. 

Albert-Azon, or Azzo II. (great-grandson of Albert-Azon I., who died a. d. 964), 
espoused Cunegunda, daughter of Guelph II., count of Altdorf and duke of Lower 
Bavaria, and dying in 1097, left two sons. Of these, the elder, Guelph, inherited the 
states of Altdorf at the decease of his uncle, Guelph, duke of Carinthia ; and from him 
sprang the branch of Guelph- Este. From the second son, Fulke, emanated the 
branch of Fulke-Este. The illustrious house of Este governed as Signori of Ferrara 
in the 12th century; and Modena, Reggio, and Ferrara became ducal territories, by 
concession, partly of the emperor and partly of the pope, in favour of Borso and 
Hercules d'Este, in 1452. 



Signori and Marquesses of Ferrara. 

1067. Frederic I. 

1118. Guy Salinguerra. 

1150. Taurello. 

1196. SaHnguerra II. 

Azzo VI., marquess d'Este ; to the ascen- 
dancy of whose house the Torrelli after- 
wards give way. 

1212. Aldovrandino. 

1215. Azzo VII. D'Este. 

1264. Obizzo 11. 

1293. Azzo VIII. D'Este. 

1308. Folco or Fulke D'Este. 

D 



rRinaldo. ") On the death of Einaldo 
1317. Obizzo III. V (1335) and Niccolo (1344) 

( Niccolo I. J Obizzo ruled alone. 
1352. Aldovrandino II. 
1361. Niccolo II. 
1383. Alberto. 
1393. Niccolo III. 
1441. Lionello. 

Dukes of Modena, &c. 
1450. Borso; elevated by the emperor Frederick 
II. and the pope, 1452, to the dukedom 
of Modena and Reggio. 

2 



36 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



1780. 



1803. Maria-Beatrix, duchess of Modena and 
princess of Massa and Carrara. 
[She espoused the archduke Ferdinand of 
Austria, and conferred the dukedom 
upon her husband; he died Dec. 24, 
1806; and was succeeded in the duke- 
dom by their son, 
1806. Francis IV., duke : the duchess, his mother, 
retaining the principalities. 
[Modena, which had been incorporated 
with the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, 
was restored to Francis IV. upon the 
dissolution of the kingdom of Italy in 
1814.] 

1829. Francis IV., now inherited Massa and 
Carrara, on the death of his mother, 
Maria-Beatrix, Nov. 14. 
1846. Francis V., son of the preceding; suc- 
ceeded Jan. 21, 1846. The present 
(1850) Duke of Modena. 

The Duke. Francis V. Ferdinand-Gemenien, arch-duke of Austria-Este, prince-royal of Hungary 
and Bohemia, duke of Modena, of Reggio, Mirandola, Massa, Carrara, Guastalla, &c. ; born 
June 1, 1819 ; succeeded his father, Jan. 21, 1846; married March 30, 1842, Adelgonda- 
Augusta-Charlotte-Caroline-Elizabeth (born March 19, 1823), daughter of Louis, king of 
Bavaria : no issue. 

Brother and Sisters. 1. Mary-Theresa-Beatrice-Gaetana, born July 14, 1817; married Nov. 7, 
1846, to prince Henry of Bourbon, comte de Chambord. 

2. Ferdinand-Charles- Victor, born July 20, 1821 ; married, Oct. 4, 1847, 

Frances-Mary-Elizabeth, daughter of the late arch-duke Joseph, 
palatine of Hungary. 

3. Mary-Beatrice- Anne-Frances, bom Feb. 13, 1824 ; married Feb. 6, 1847, 

John-Charles -Mary, of Spain. 



1471. Ercole (Hercules) I. 
1505. Alfonso I. 
1534. Ercole (FTercules) 11. 
1559. Alfonso II. Tasso was imprisoned in this 
reign, 1579. 

1597. Caesar D'Este. This prince obtained pos- 
session ( f Modena as a fief of the em- 
pire. Ferrara was attached to the 
Church by Clement VIII. 

1628. Alfonso HI. 

1629. Francis T. 
1658. Alfonso IV. 
1662. Francis II. 
1694. Reginald. 
1737. Francis III. 

Ercole (Hercules) III. This prince ac- 
quired, in dowry with his consort, the 
principalities of Massa and Carrara. He 
was expelled in 1796, and died in 1803, 
leaving an onl}^ child and heiress. 



HOLLAND. THE NETHERLANDS. BELGIUM. 

The original inhabitants of Holland were the Batavi, a brancli of the Catti, a people 
of Germany, who, being expelled their own country on account of sedition, established 
themselves in this territory. — Tacitus. Gallia Belgica (the Roman name for the 
provinces now known as the Netherlands) was attached to the Roman empire until 
its fall ; and for several ages afterwards it formed part of the kingdom of Austrasia. 
About the 10th century, Holland and other provinces were governed by their own 
counts or dukes. The Netherlands subsequently fell to Burgundy, next to Austria ; 
and the emperor Charles V. annexed them to Spain. The tyranny of the bigot 
Philip II. and the barbarities of the duke of Alva exasperated the people to a great 
height, and under the conduct of William, prince of Orange, was formed the famous 
League of Utrecht, which proved the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United 
Provinces. The other ten provinces (there being seventeen) returned under the then 
dominion of Spain. The Netherlands became a kingdom in 1815 ; the southern part, 
Belgium, separated from it, and became a kingdom in 1831. 

Counts of Holland, &c. 



Counts of Friesland. 

* * Thierry I. 

* * * * 

963. Thierry II. 

988. Arnulph the Great. 
1003. Thierry IIL, of Jerusalem. 
1039. Thierry lY. 

1049. Florence L, of Holland ; in whom the title 
became merged. 

Coitnts of Holland. 
1 019. Florence I. 
lOGl. Thierry V. 

[The previous counts of this name, Thierry 



I. II. III. and IV., were counts of Fries- 
land. See above.~\ 

1091. Florence II., surnamed the Fat. 

1122. Thierrv VI. 

1157. Florence III. 

1190. Thierry VIL 

1203. William I. 

1223. Florence IV. 

1234. William II. The pope gave the imperial 
title to this prince on the death of the 
emperor Frederick II. 

1256. Florence V. 

1296. John 1. : on his death, the ancient house 
of the counts of Holland became extinct. 



HOLLAND. 



37 



1299. Jolin II. (John d'Avennes) count of Hai- 
nault, succeeded ; and the provinces 
became united. 

Holland and Hainault. 
1304. William III., surnamed the Good. 
1337. William IV. 
1345. Margaret, countess. 



1356. William V., surnamed the Senseless. 
1389. Albert. 
1404. William VI. 

1417. Jacquelina of Bavaria, countess. 

1433. [Holland and Hainault came under the 
dominion of Philip the Good, of Bur- 
gundy.] 



Governors of the Netherlands. 



1477. Adolphus of Cleves. 

1485. Engilbert, count of Nassau. 

1489. Albert of Saxony. 

1494. Philip le Beau, assumes the government. 
1505. William de Croi. 
1507. Margaret of Austria. 

1531. Mary of Austria, dowager queen of Hun- 
gary, and niece of Margaret. 
1555. Emmanuel, duke of Savoy. 
1559. Margaret of Austria, duchess of Parma. 
1567. Ferdinand, duke of Alva.^ 
1573. Louis de Requisens. 
1576. John of Austria. 
1578. Alexander of Parma. 
1592. Peter-Ernest, count of Mansfeldt. 

1594. Archduke Ernest. 

1595. Pedro de Fuentes. 

1596. Albert, of Austria. 

1599. The infanta of Spain, Isabella, married the 
archduke Albert, and both were invested 
with the sovereign power. 

1621. Isabella, alone. 

1633. Ferdinand. 

1641. Francisco Mello. 

1644. Maj-quess de Castel Rodrigo. 



1647. Archduke Leopold. 

1656. John, of Austria. 

1659. Marquess de Fromiata. 

1664. Marquess de Castel Rodrigo. 

1668. Duke de Feria. 

1670. Comte de Monterei. 

1675. Duke de Villahermosa. 

1678. Prince of Parma. 

1682. Marquess de Castanaga. 

1692. The elector of Bavaria. 

1701. M. Bedmar. 

1702. The elector of Bavaria, again. 
1706. Council of state. 

1710. Conseil la Conference. 
1714. Comte de Koenigseck. 
1716. Prince Eugene, of Savoy. 
1725. Mary-Elizabeth, of Austria. 
1741. Count de Harrac-Rohrau. 

1744. Mary- Anne, of Austria. 

1745. Charles, prince of Lorraine. 

1781. Mary-Christina, of Austria, and Albert of 

Saxony, jointly. 
1793. The archduke Charles. 
1795. United to France. 



Dutch Stadtholders. 



1579. William of Nassau ; first stadth older. See 
article " Princes of Orange," below. 

1587. Prince Maurice, of Nassau. 

1625. Frederick Henry, of Orange. 

1647. William 11., of Orange. 

1650. The stadtholderat suppressed, and the 
office administered by the states. 



1672. William III., prince of Orange. In 1689 

he became king of England. 
1702. The stadtholderat again resumed by the 

states, on the death of William. 
1747. William IV. The stadtholderat revived 

in William IV., and made hereditary in 

the house of Orange. 



Princes of Orange. 



[The years of the stadtholderat are not 
always in unison with those of the 
princes of Orange.] 

1502. Philibert de Chalons. 

1530. Rene de Nassau. 

1544. William of Nassau, styled the Great, cousin 
to Rene. To this illustrious prince the 
republic of the Seven United Provinces 
owed its foundation. Elected stadtholder 
in 1579 : killed by an assassin hired by 
Philip II. of Spain, June 30, 1584. 

1584. Philip-William, his son : stolen away from 
the university of Louvaine ; the Dutch 
would never suffer him to reside in their 
provinces : died in 1618. 

1618. Maurice, the renowned general ; stadt- 



holder in 1587 : he was a younger son 
of William by a second marriage. 
1625. Frederick Henry. 

1647. William II. : married Mary, daughter of 
Charles L, of England, by whom he had 
a posthumous son, who succeeded as 

1660. William III.; stadtholder in 1672. This 
prince married Mary, eldest daughter of 
James II. of England, and both after- 
wards ascended the English throne. 

1702. William IV. 

1711. William V. 

1751. William VI. ; retired on the invasion of 
the French in 1795 : died in 1806. 

1795. [Holland and Belgium united to the French 
republic.^] 



1 This duke is better remembered for his dreadful persecutions in the Low Countries, than for his exceeding 
bravery and deeds of arms. His barbarities and cruelty drove many thousands of artisans to seek an asylum in 
England, and their descendants are among our most useful citizens at this day. He used to say, that " his 
executioners shed more blood than his soldiers." He kindled a war that burned for sixty-eight years, cost Spain 
800 millions of dollars, its finest troops, and seven of its richest provinces in the Netherlands. During half a 
century of warfare, it is said he never lost a battle, and was never taken by surprise. 

2 The title of (irand Pensionary, which belonged to the chief of the Batavian republic in the 16th century, was 
revived in April 1805, while Holland was under French domination, and was conferred on the celebrated Kutger 
Ian Schimmelpennick, who had previously been Dutch ambassador to England. 

D 3 



38 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



180G. William-Frederick succeeded liis father, 

the last king, as the rightful heir to the 

usurped throne. 
1806. Louis Buonaparte ; made king of Holland 

by his brother Napoleon ; June 5, 1806 : 

abdicated, July 1, 1810. 
1810. [Holland again united to France.] 



1813. House of Orange restored. William-Fre- 
derick, prince of Orange, proclaimed 
Dec. 6, 1813 ; took the oath of fidelity 
as sovereign prince, March 30, 1814; 
and assumed the style of King of the 
Netherlands, March 16, 1815. 



Kings of the Netherlands. 



on his father's abdication ; died March 
17, 1849. 

William III., son of the preceding; born 
Feb. 19, 1817. The present (1850) 
king. 



1815. William (late the prince of Orange), first 
king : formally abdicated in favour of 
his son, Oct. 7, 1840 ; died Dec. 12, 1849. 
1843. 

1840. William H. ; born Dec. 6, 1792 ; succeeded 

The King. William (IH.) -Alexander- Paul- Frederick-Louis, prince of Orange-Nassau and grand- 
duke of Luxemburg; succeeded on the death of his father, March 17, 1849; married June 18, 
1839, Sophia-Frederica-Matilda (born June 17, 1818), daughter of William, king of Wurtem- 
berg ; and has issue : 

1. William-Nicholas- Alexander-Frederick, prince of Orange, born Sept. 4, 1840. 

2. William-Frederick- Maurice- Alexander-Henry, born Sept. 15, 1843. 

King of the Belgians. 



[Belgium having separated from the 
kingdom of the Netherlands, the sove- 
reignty was offered to Louis-Charles, 
due de Nemours, second son of Louis- 
Philippe, king of the French, but de- 
clined. It was next offered to Leo- 



pold, prince of Coburg, by whom it was 
accepted.] 

1831. Leopold, first king of the Belgians; inau- 
gurated July 20, at Brussels, the capital 
of his kingdom. The present (1850) 
king of the Belgians. 

The King. Leopold-George-Christian-Frederick, son of Francis, late duke of Saxe-Coburg Saalfeld ; 
born Dec. 16, 1790 ; married, 1st, on May 2, 1816, the princess Charlotte of Wales, only daughter 
of George IV., king of Great Britain, who died in childbed Nov. 6, 1817 ; and 2nd, *on Aug. 9, 
1832, Louisa-Maria-Theresa-Charlotte (born April 3, 1812 ; died Oct. 10, 1850), eldest daughter 
of Louis-Philippe, king of the French ; and has issue : 

1. Leopold-Louis-Philip-Mary- Victor, prince royal, duke of Brabant, born April 9, 1835. 

2. Philip-Eugene-Ferdinand-Leopold, count of Flanders, born March 24, 1837. 

3. Mary-Charlotte- Amelia- Augusta- Victoria, born June 7, 1840. 



NASSAU. 

The cradle of tlie house of Nassau was the castle of Laurenburg, on the Lahn. 
Walram III., who possessed, in 1 195, all the territory belonging to Nassau, died in 
1198 ; and his sons, Henry I. and Rupert V., reigned jointly until the latter entered 
into the union of the German knighthood in 1230. The sons of Henry I. (who was 
surnamed the Rich) were Walram and Otho. They governed in common until 1255, 
and became the founders of two distinct principal lines. That of Walram is at present 
possessed of the principality of Kassau, and that of Otho flourishes still in the royal 
Netherlands' dynasty. Walram's successor was his son, 



Adolphus, who was elected emperor in 
1292 : he fell in battle with Albert, of 
Austria, at Gellheim (Spires), in 1298 : 
succeeded by his son, 
1298. Gerlach, who reigned until 1361. This 
prince's two sons, Adolphus II. and 
John I., divided Walram's line again 
into two branches, Nassau-Idstein- 
Weisbaden and Nassau-Weilburg ; the 
latter created by John I., the former by 
Adolphus. 

Line of Nassau-Idstein-Weisbaden. 
(^Eight in number.^ 
Adolphus IT. : succeeded b} his son, 



] 370. Walram : succeeded by his son, 
1393. Adolphus III. : succeeded by his son, 
1426. John, succeeded by his son, 
1480. Adolphus IV. : succeeded by his son, 
1511. Phihp; he introduced the Lutheran re- 
ligion : succeeded by his second son, 
1568. Balthazar : succeeded by his only son, 
same year. 

1568. John-Louis, whose son died vitdpatris, and 
this line and its possessions fell to the 
younger branch. 

Younger Line. 
[Of this branch, John L had enlarged his 
territories by marriage, and had been 
invested by*^ the emperor Charles IV. 



DENMARK. 



39 



with the coronet of a prince : he died in 
1371, and was succeeded by his son.] 
1371. Philip I. : succeeded by his second son : 
the elder, John II., founded a separate 
line. 

1429. Philip II. : succeeded by his grandson, 
1492. Louis I. : succeeded by his son, 
1523. Philip III. : he left two sons, Albert and 
Philip IV., who divided their territory ; 
the line of the latter became extinct in 
1602, and his part fell back to his bro- 
ther's line. 
1559. Albert : succeeded by his son, 
1593. Louis IL, who inherited in 1602 the pos- 
sessions of Philip IV., and after the 
death of John-Louis (see above) he 
inherited all the possessions of the Wal- 
ram line. 

[Louis died in 1627 : his three sons be- 
came founders of three distinct lines, of 
which the most important was that of 
Nassau- Weilburg, ruled by his third 
son, Ernest-Casimir.] 
1629. Ernest-Casimir : succeetled by his son, 
1655. Frederick : succeeded by his son, 
1675. John- Ernest : succeeded by his son, 
1719. Charles- Augustus, who again assumed the 



by the emperor Charles IV.: he was 
succeeded by 
1753. Charles-Christian : succeeded bv 
1788. Frederick- William. This prince lost by the 
peace of Luneville a part of his pos- 
sessions on the left border of the llhine : 
the confederation of the Rhine, how- 
ever, which he joined in 1816, enlarged 
his territory, and conferred upon him 
the ducal title. 

Dukes. 

1806. Frederick- William, the above : died in 
1816 ; succeeded by his son, 

1816. William-George, who inherited in March, 
1816, the possessions of Nassau-Usingen, 
and thus united all the territory of 
the elder Walramian line of the house 
of Nassau. 

[He built a palace at Weisbaden, and 
transferred his seat thither from Bibe- 
rich : died in 1839. 
1839. Adolphus, his son; born July 24, 1817; 

succeeded Aug. 20, 1839 ; married, Jan. 
19, 1844, the grand-duchess Elizabeth 
of Russia, who died Jan. 28, 1845. The 
PRESENT (1850) duke. 



princely title conferred on his ancestors 
The Duke's Brother and Sisters : Therese-Wilhelmine-Frederique-Isabelle, born April 17, 1815 ; 
married (April 23, 1837) to the prince of Oldenburg. Maurice- William- Augustus, born Nov. 
21, 1820. Marie- Wilhelmine, born Jan. 29, 1825. 
His Half-Brother and Sisters : Helene-Wilhelmine-Henriette-Pauline, born Aug. 12, 1831. 
Nicolas-Guillaume, born Sept. 1832. Sophie-Wilhelmine, born July 9, 1836. 



DENMARK. 

The first name given to this country was Chersonesus Cimhinca^ and its earliest 
inhabitants were the Cinibri and the Teutones. About a hundred years before the 
Christian era, these were driven out by the Jutes or Goths, and hence the modern 
name of Jutland. The general name, Denmark, is supposed to be derived from Dan^ 
a founder of the Danish monarchy, and marli^ a German word signifying country, 
id est^ Dan-mark, the country of Dan. The people, hovv^ever, were but little known 
in history until they began to make inroads into Germany and to commit piracies in 
the northern seas under various designations, as Norwegians or Northmen, Swedes, 
Frizans, Jutes or Scuyths, or Danes. Norway was possessed by this country from 
the reign of the celebrated Margaret," the Semiramis of the North," in the I5tli cen- 
tury, until 1814, when it was united, as an integral state, to the sovereignty of Sweden. 

Kings of Denmaek. 



[The Danish Chronicles mention 25 kings 
to the reign of Harald; but the ac- 
counts differ much from the modern 
histories of Denmark by the best au- 
thors.] 

8 J 3. Harald, or Harold. 

850. Eric I. 

854. Eric IL, or the Child. 
883. Gormo, the Old ; reigned 53 years. 
935. Harald II., surnamed Blue-tooth. 
985. Suenon, or Sweyn, surnamed the Forked- 
beard. 

1014. Canute II. the Great, king of Denmark 

and England. 
1036. Canute HI., his son, the Hardicanute of 

England. 

I) 



1042. Magnus, surnamed the Good, of iSTorway. 

1047. Suenon or Sweyn II. 

1073. [Interregnum.] 

1077. Harald, called the Simple. 

1080. Canute ly. 

1086. Olaus IV., the Hungry. 

1095. Eric HI., styled the Good. 

1103. [Interregnum.] 

1105. Nicholas I. : killed at Sleswick. 

1135. Eric IV., surnamed Harefoot. 

1137. Eric V., the Lamb. 

1147. f Suenon or Swevn HI. : beheaded. 

1147. \ Canute V., until 1154. 

1157. Waldemar, styled the Great. 

1182. Canute VI. : surnamed the Pious. 

1202. Waldemar IL, the Victorious. 

4 



40 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



1241. Eric VI. 

1250. Abel: assassinated his elder brother Eric : 
killed in an expedition against the 
Frisons. 

1252. Christopher I. : poisoned. 
1259. Eric VII. 
1286. Eric VIII. 
1320. Christopher II. 
1334. [Interregnum of 7 years.] 
1340. Waldemar III. 

1375. [Interregnum.] 

1376. Olaus V. 

1387. Margaret, styled the " Semiramis of the 
North," queen of Sweden, Norway, and 
Denmark. 

1397. Margaret and Eric IX. (Eric XIII. of 
Sweden) jointly. 

1412. Eric IX. reigns alone: obliged to resign 
both crowns. 

1438. [Interregnum.] 

1440. Christopher III., king of Sweden. 

1448. Christian I., count of Oldenburg, elected 
king of Scandinavia, which compre- 
hended Denmark, Sweden, and Norway ; 
succeeded by his son, 

1481. John ; also succeeded by his son, 

1513. Christian II., called the Cruel, and the 
"Nero of the North;" among other 
enormous crimes he caused all the Swe- 
dish nobility to be massacred : dethroned 
for his tyranny in 1523 ; died in a dun- 
geon in 1559. 
[In this reign, Sweden succeeded in sepa- 
rating itself from the crown of Den- 
mark.] 

The King. Frederick-Charles-Christian ; succeeded his father, Christian VIII., Jan. 20, 1848 ; 
maiTied (March 1, 1828) Wilhelmina, daughter of Frederick VI. of Denmark, from whom he 
was divorced, Sept. 1837 ; married, 2nd (June 10, 1841), Caroline-Charlotte-Marianna (born 
Jan. 10, 1821), daughter of George V., grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, from whom, also, 
he was divorced, Sept. 1846. 

Uncle : Prince Frederick- Ferdinand, born N"ov. 22, 1792 ; married (Aug. 1, 1829) Caroline, daughter 
of Frederick VI. of Denmark, born Oct. 28, 1793. This prince is at present heir-presumptiv3 
to the throne. 



1523. Frederick L, duke of Holstein, uncle to 
Christian II. ; a liberal ruler. 

1534. Christian III., son of Frederick; esta- 
blished the Lutheran religion : esteemed 
the " Father of his People." 

1559. Frederick II., son of Christian III. 

1588. Christian IV., son of the last king; chosen 
head of the Protestant league against 
the emperor. 

1648. Frederick III. : changed the constitution 
from an elective to an hereditary mo- 
narchy vested in his own family. 

1670. Christian V., son of Frederick III. ; suc- 
ceeded by his son, 

1699. Frederick IV. ; leagued with the czar 
Peter and the king of Poland against 
Charles XII. of Sweden. 

1730. Christian VI., his son. 

1746. Frederick V., his son : married the prin- 
cess Louisa of England, daughter of 
George II. 

1766. Christian VII., son of the preceding: 
married Caroline-Matilda, sister of 
George III. In a fit of jealousy he 
banished his queen to Zell (where she 
died in 1775), and put to death his 
ministers Brandt and Struensee. 

1784. Regency. The crown prince Frederick 
declared regent, in consequence of the 
mental derangement of his father. 

1808. Frederick VI., previously regent, now king. 

1839. Christian VIII., son of the preceding. 

1848. Frederick VIL, son of Christian VIII.; 

born Oct. 6, 1808. The present (1850) 
King of Denmark. 



SWEDEN. 

The ancient inhabitants were the Fins, now the inhabitants of Finland, who retired 
to their present territory on the appearance of the Scandinavians or Goths, and these 
latter became masters of Sweden. Hence the country was comprehended under the 
early name of Scandinavia, given to it in common with other northern climes that 
were peopled by the same race. The internal state of this kingdom is little known 
previously to the llth century. By the union of Calmar, in 1394, Sweden became a 
mere province of Denmark, and was not rescued from this subjection until 1521, 
when Gustavus Yasa recovered the kingdom from the Danish yoke. For this he was 
raised to the throne in 1523, and the crown made hereditary in his descendants, who 
successively reigned until 1S09. In this last-mentioned year, Gustavus lY., having 
brought the nation to the verge of ruin by his misgovernment, was deposed, and the 
duke of Sudermania became king; and the next year Bernadotte^ was elected regent 
and successor to the throne, which he ascended in 1818. 

Norwny, which had belonged to Denmark from 1397, was ceded to Sweden by the 
treaty of Kiel, signed January 14, 1814, confirmed by the Diet, Oct. 14, same year. 

1 The choice made of this great soldier of fortune excited the surprise of all Europe at the time, but the 
Wisdom of it was soon demonstrated by his prudent conduct. He had distinguished himself from all Napoleon's 
other marshals by his clemency in victory. For half a century before his accession, Sweden had not known the 
peace and prosperity in which he lelt the country in the hands of his son, Oscar, at his death in 1844. 



SWEDEN. 



41 



Kings of Sweden. 



[Many antiquaries trace the reigns of the kings 
of Sweden as early as from the 5th century, and 
place Swartman as sovereign in 481, a. d. But 
the authorities so differ in the early succession, 
that we prefer commencing our account with 
the 11th century.] 

1001. Olaf Skotkonung, or Olif Schoetkonung ; 

the Infant. Christianity introduced in 
this reign. 

1026. Amund or Edmund Colbrenner. 

1051. Amund or Edmund Slemme. 

1056. Stenkill or Stenchil. 

1066. Halstan. 

1090. Ingeld or Ingo, styled the Good. 
1112. Philip. 
1118. Ingo II. 

1129. Swerker or Suercher I. 
1150. Eric X. 

1162. Charles VII. : made prisoner by his suc- 
cessor. 

1168. Canute, son of Eric X. 

1192. Swerker or Suercher II. : killed in battle. 

1210. Eric XI. 

1220. John I. 

1223. Eric XII. le Begue. 

1251. Waldemar. 

1279. Magnus I. 

1290. Birger II. 

1320. INIagnus II. : dethroned. 

1363. Albert of ^lecklenburg : his tyranny causes 
a revolt of his subjects, who invite Mar- 
garet of Denmark to the throne. 

1387. Margaret, queen of Sweden and Norway, 
now also Denmark, and Eric XIII. 

1 397. [Union of Calmar, by which the three king- 
doms are united under one sovereign.] 

1412. Eric XIII. governs alone: deprived. 

1441. Christopher III. 

1448. Charles VIII., surnamed Canuteson. 

1470. [Interregnum.] 

1483. John II. (I. of Denmark.) 

1502. [Interregnum.] 

1520. Christiern or Christian II. of Denmark, 
styled the "Nero of the North:" de- 
posed for his cruelties. 

1523. Gustavus Vasa; by whose valour the 
Swedes were delivered from the Danish 
yoke. 



1560. Eric XIV., son of Gustavus: dethroned, 

and died in prison. 
1568. John III., brother of Eric. 
1592. Sigismund, king of Poland, son of John III. : 

disputes for the succession continued 

the whole of this reign. 
1604. Charles IX., brother of John III. 
1611. Gustavus (Adolphus) II., the Great: fell 

on the plains of Lutzen ; supposed to 

have been treacherously slain. 
1633. [Interregnum.] 

1633. Christina, daughter of Gustavus- Adolphus. 

Resigned the crown to her cousin : died 

at Rome in 1689. 
1654. Charles X. (Gustavus), son of John Casi- 

mir, count palatine of the Rhine. 
1660. Charles XI., son of the preceding : the arts 

and sciences flourished in this reign. 
1697. Charles XII. \ styled the "Alexander," the 

" Quixote," and the " Madman of the 

North:" killed at the siege of Frede- 

rickshall. 

1719. Ulrica-Eleanora, his sister, and her consort 
Frederick I. Ulrica relinquished the 
crown, and in 

1741. Frederick reigned alone. 

1751. Adolphus-Frederick, of Holstein Gottorp, 
descended from the family of Vasa. 

1771. Gustavus (Adolphus) III. : assassinated 
by count Ankerstrom at a masked ball. 
[The regicide was dreadfully scourged 
with whips of iron thongs three suc- 
cessive days; his right hand was cut 
off, then his head, and his body im- 
paled.] 

1792. Gustavus (Adolphus) IV. Dethroned, and 
the government assumed by his uncle, 
the duke of Sudermania. 

1809. Charles XIII., duke of Sudermania. 

1814. [Treaty of Kiel, by which Norway falls 
under the sovereignty of Sweden. ] 

1818. Charles (John) XIV., Bernadotte, the 
French prince of Ponte Corvo : suc- 
ceeded by his son, 

1844. Oscar, who ascended the throne, March 8. 

The PRESENT (1850) King of Sweden 
and Norway. 



The King. Joseph -Francis- Oscar, king of Sweden and Norway, son of Charles (John) XIV. 
and Eugenia-Bernardina-Desiree de Clary; born July 4, 1799; married, June 19, 1823, 
Josephine-Maximiliana-Eugenia (born March 14, 1807), daughter of Eugene, duke of Leuch- 
tenberg ; and has issue : 

1. Charles-Louis-Eugene, cro^vn prince, duke of Scania, born May 3, 1826. 

2. Francis-Gustavus-Oscar, duke of Upland, born June 18, 1827. 

3. Oscar-Frederick, duke of Ostrogothia, born Jan. 21, 1829. 

4. Charlotte-Eugenia-Augusta-Amelia-Albertina, born April 24, 1830. 

5. Nicholas-Augustus, duke of Delecariia, born Aug. 24, 1831. 

The LATE King. Charles- John Bernadotte (one of Napoleon's marshals), born Jan. 26, 1764; 
maiTied, Aug. 16, 1798, Eugenia-Bernardina, the present dowager queen ; elected crown prince, 
Aug. 21, 1810 ; succeeded Charles XIII. as king, Feb. 5, 1818 ; died March 8, 1844. 



• This extraordinary and intrepid prince, in 1700, when but 18 years of age, gained a wonderful victory over 
the Russians at Narva', where with only 20,000 men, he attacked them in their entrenchments, and slew 30,000 ; 
the remainder, exceeding that number, surrendering to the mercy of the conqueror. In this battle he had 
several horses shot under him, and as he was mounting a fresh one, he said, " These people seem disposed to 
give me exercise." While dictating despatches to his secretary, a bomb fell through the roof of the house into 
an adjoining room, and his secretary let drop his pen in fright, " What is the matter?" said Charles. " O I 
the bomb, sire," he answered. " The bomb!" exclaimed the king, " What have we to do with the Domb? 
Write on." _ Life of Charles XI L 



42 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



PRUSSIA. - BEANDENBURG. 

About three centuries before the Christian era this country was possessed by the 
Venedi, who were conquered by a people called the Borussi, and from these it 
obtained the name of Burussia; though some historians contend that the name is 
derived from Po, signifying near, and Russia— To-Russla, easily modified into Prussia. 
After a succession of sanguinary wars the Borussi were conquered by the Teutonic 
knights, with whose followers, and with the Poles (by whom they were afterwards 
subdued), they eventually intermixed. Prussia continued long under the dominion 
of Poland, but at length threw olF the dependence of its dukes upon that power. 
Frederick-William laid the foundation of the present monarchy, and his son and 
successor, in Jan. 1701, assumed the title of king, and was acknowledged as king by 
the emperor Leopold and all his allies. ° 



Margraves, Electors, Dukes, and Kings. 



Margraves or Electors of Brandenburg. 
1134. Albert I., surnamed the Boar, first elector 

of Brandenburg. 
1170. Othol. 
1 184. Otho 11. 
1206. Albert II. 
1221. John I. and Otho III. 
1266. John II. 
1282. Otho IV. 
1309. Waldemar. 

1319. Henry 1. ; le Jeune. 

1320. [Interregnum.] 
1323. Louis I., of Bavaria. 

1352. Louis II., surnamed the Roman. 

1365. Otho v., le Faineant. 

1373. Wenceslas, of Luxemburg 

1378. Sigismund, of Luxemburg. 

1388. Jossus, the Bearded. 

1411. Sigismund, again: emperor. 

1415. Frederick I. of Nuremburg. 

1440. Frederick II., surnamed Ironside. 

1470. Albert HI., surnamed the German Achilles. 

1476. John HI., his son ; as margrave : styled 

the Cicero of Germany. 
1486. John III., as elector. 
1499. Joachim I., son of John. 
1535. Joachim II. poisoned by a Jew. 
1571. John-George. 
1598. Joachim-Frederick. 



1608. John-Sigismund. 

And Dukes of Prussia. 
1616. John-Sigismund. 
1619. George-William. 

1640. Frederick-William, his son ; generally 

styled the " Great Elector." 
1688. Frederick, son of the preceding ; crowned 

king, Jan. 18, 1701. 

Kings of Prussia. 

1701. Frederick I. ; king. 

1713. Frederick- William I., son of Frederick I. 

1740. Frederick II. (Frederick III., styled the 
Great), son of the preceding : 
[The Prussian monarchy was raised to its 
high rank as a military power, under 
this prince.] 

1786. Frederick- William II. ; nephew of the pre- 
ceding king. 

1 797. Frederick- William III. He had to contend 
against the might of Napoleon, and 
after extraordinary vi(yssitudes, he aided 
England in the overthrow of that 
usurper. 

1840. Frederick- William IV., son of the last 
monarch ; succeeded June 7. The pre- 
sent (1850) King of Prussia. 



The King. Frederick -William IV., born Aug. 3, 1795 ; married Nov. 29, 1823, Elizabeth-Louisa 

(born Nov. 13, 1801), daughter of Maximilian-Joseph, king of Bavaria: has no issue. 
Brothers and Sisters of the king : 

1. Frederick- William-Louis, prince of Prussia, born March 22, 1797 ; married, June 11, 1829, 

Mary-Louisa-Augusta-Catherine (born Sept. 30, 1811), daughter of Charles-Frederick, 
grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar ; and has issue : 
I. Frederick -William-Nicholas-Charles, born Oct. 18, 1831. 
TI. Louisa-Mary-EHzabeth, born Dec. 3, 1838. 

2. Frederica-Louisa-Charlotte-Wilhelmina, born July 2, 1798 ; empress of Russia. 

3. Frederick-Charles-Alexander, born June 29, 1801 ; married, May 26, 1827, Mary-Louisa- 

Alexandrina (born Feb. 3, 1808), daughter of Charles-Frederick, grand-duke of Saxe- 
Weimar: issue, a son (Frederick-Charles-Nicholas), born March 20, 1828, and two 
daughters. 

4. Frederica-Wilhelmina-Alexandrina, born Feb. 23, 1803 ; married. May 25, 1822, to the 

late grand-duke Paul-Frederick, of Mecklenburg- Schwerin. 

5. Louisa-Augusta-Wilhelmina-Amelia, born Feb. 1, 1808 ; married to William-Frederick- 

Charles, of Orange. 

6. Frederick- Henry- Albert, born Oct. 4, 1809 ; married Wilhelmina-Frederica-Louisa-Char- 

lotte-Marianne, daughter of William I., king of Holland ; and has issue, a son (Frederick- 
William-Nicholas-Albert), born May 8, 1837, and two daughters. 



SAXONY. 



43 



SAXONY. 



The country to whose people the Britons, in the 5th century, when forsaken by their 
Roman defenders, turned for protection against the Picts and Scots. Little is known 
of Saxony after the memorable expeditions into England, until Charlemagne directed 
his arms to the right bank of the Rhine. He experienced much resistance from the 
Saxons under Wittikind, but they, in the end, submitted to him •, and among the 
consequences of their subjection to this great conqueror, was the conversion of the 
country to Christianity. He conferred the title of Duke upon their chief. The first 
who became elector was Bernard HI. of the house of Ascania, and on the extinction 
of that line, Frederick the Warlike, margrave of Misnia or Meissen, was made elector. 
Saxony continued an electorate until 1806, when the title of elector was changed to 
king, conformably with the treaty of peace between France and Frederick- Augustus, 
signed at Posen, Dec. 11, in that year. 



Dukes, Electobs, and Kings. 



Ernestine Branch. 
1464. Ernest, eldest son of Frederick II. 
1486. Frederick III., the Wise: he refused the 

imperial crown. 
1525. John, his brother, surnamed the Constant. 
1532. John-Frederick, styled the Magnanimous : 
deposed by the emperor Charles V., and 
the electorate conferred upon the 

Albertine Line. 
[Of this line were previously, in 1464, 
Albert, already mentioned ; in 1500, 
George the Rich; and in 1539, Henry 
the Pious.] 

1548. Maurice, cousin to the deposed elector 

John-Frederick. 
1553. Augustus, the Just and the Pious, his 
brother, who continued the electoral 
line. 

1586. Christian I., son of Augustus. 
1591. Christian II., son of Christian I. 
1611. John-George I., brother of the preceding. 
1656. John-George II., son of John-George I. 
1680. John-George III., his son. 
1691. John -George IV., his son. 
1694. Frederick- Augustus I., brother of John- 
George IV. ; king of Poland. 
1733. Frederick-Augustus II., his son ; king of 
Poland. 

1763. Frederick-Christian, his son. Feb. 
1763. Frederick-Augustus III. Dec. Ruled as 
elector until 1806. 

Kings of Saxony. 
1806. Frederick- Augustus III. ; tirst king ; con- 
formably with the treaty of Posen, 
signed Dec. 11. 
1827. Anthony-Clement (Theodore), brother of 

the preceding*. 
1836. Frederick - Augustus II. (IV. as elector), 
nephew of Anthony-Clement, whom he 
succeeded June 6. The present (1850) 
King of Saxony. 

The King. Frederick-Augustus IL, bom May 18, 1797 ; son of the duke Maximilian (brother of 
the late king) ; married, Oct. 7, 1819, the arch -duchess Caroline of Austria; and 2nd (April 
24, 1833), Maria- Anne-Leopoldina, daughter of Maximilian- Joseph I., king of Bavaria, born 
Jan. 27, 1805 : without issue. 

His Brother. Duke John-Nepomuc-Mary-Joseph, born Dec. 12, 1801 ; married, by proxy, Nov. 



Dukes. 

880. Otho I., styled the Great. 

912. Henry, surnamed the Fowler; elected em- 
peror in 918. 

936. Otho IL, his son ; elected emperor. 

959. Herman-Billing. 

973. Bernard I. 
1010. Bernard II. 
1062. Otho III. 
1073. Magnus. 

1106. Lothaire; elected emperor 1125, and sur- 
named the Saxon. 

1136. Henry, surnamed the Proud, of Bavaria: 
deposed. 

1138. Henry, surnamed the Lion; deposed by 
the emperor Frederick Barbarossa : this 
prince is regarded as the ancestor of 
the present royal family of England. — 
See Brunsivick 

Electors. 

1180. Bernard III., of the house of Ascania; first 

elector. 
1212. Albert 1. 
1200. Albert IL 
1298. RodolphusL 
1356. Rodolphus II 
1370. Wincelaus. 
1389. Rodolphus IIL 

1419. Albert HI. From Bernard III. they were 
all of them descended from the dukes of 
Lawenberg. 

1423. Frederick I., the Warrior, Landgrave of 
Thuringia and marquess of Misnia of the 
ancient House of Saxony ; elector. 

1428. Frederick IL, the Peaceable and the Good. 
[This prince died in 1464, and left two sons, 
Ernest and Albert. The first gave 
name to the elder, oy Ernestine branch of 
the family ; the second, to the younger, 
or Albertijie line.] 



44 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



10, and in person, ISTov. 21, 1822, Amelia- Augusta (born Nov. 13, 1801), daughter of tlie king 
Maximilian- Joseph, of Bavaria ; and has issue : 

1. Mary-Augusta-Frederica, born Jan. 22, 1827. 

2. Frederick- Augustus-Albert, born April 23, 1828. 

3. Mary-Elizabeth-Maximilienne, born Feb. 4, 1830. 

4. Frederick- Augustus-George, born Aug. 8, 1832. 

5. Mary- Sidonia, born Aug. 16, 1834. 

6. Anna-Maria, born Jan. 4, 1836. 

7. Margaret-Caroline -Frederica-Cicely, bom May 24, 1840. 

8. Sophia-Mary-Frederica- Augusta, born March 15, 1845. 



Ducal House of Saxe-Weimar. 



1554. John- William. 
1573. John, his son. 

1605. John-Ernest I., son of the preceding. 
1626. William, brother of John-Ernest. 
1662. John-Ernest II., son of William. 
1683. William-Ernest, son of the last-named. 
1728. Ernest - Augustus, nephew of William- 
Ernest. 



1748. Ernest - Augustus - Constantine, son of 

Ernest- Augustus. 
1758. Charles-Augustus, son of the last. 
1815. Assumes the title of grand-duke. 
1828. Charles- Frederick, son of Charles- Augustus, 

succeeded June 14, 1828. The present 

(1850) Grand-Duke. 



The Grand-Duke. Charles-Frederick, born Feb. 2, 1783 ; married, Aug. 3, 1804, the grand- 
duchess Mary-Paulowna (born Feb. 16, 1786), daughter of the emperor Paul, of Russia, and 
has issue : 

1. Mary-Louisa -Alexandrina, born Feb. 3, 1808 ; married to Frederick-Charles-Alexander, 

of Prussia. 

2. Mary-Louisa-Augusta-Catherine, born Sept. 30, 1811 ; married to the prince of Prussia. 

3. Charles- Alexander- Augustus-John, hereditary grand-duke, born June 24, 1818; married 

(Oct. 8, 1842) Wilhelmine-Marie-Sophie-Louise, daughter of the late William II. king 
of the Netherlands, and has issue, a son (Charles- Augustus -William), born July 31, 1844, 
and a daughter (Mary-Anne-Alexandrina), born Jan. 20, 1849. 



Saxe-Gotha Altenburg. 



1605. Ernest I., surnamed the Pious, 7th son of 
John, of Saxe-Weimar, who was duke 
in 1573. 

1675. Frederick L, son of Ernest. 
1691. Frederick IL, his son. 
1732. Frederick III., his son. 



1772. Ernest-Louis, son of Frederick III. 

1804. EmiliuS" Augustus, son of Ernest-Louis. 

1822. Frederick IV., brother of the preceding: 
he died Feb. 11, 1825, when the male 
line of the family became extinct. 



On the extinction of the line of Saxe-Gotha, in 1825, a new arrangement or 
political division took place between the princes of Saxony. By a convention con- 
cluded Nov. 12, 1826, Hildbourghausen and Saalfeld were transferred to the house of 
Meiningen, and the rights of the late duke of Saxe-Gotha Altenburg were assigned 
to the two conceding powers. 



Dukes of Saxe -Meiningen. 



1G75. Bernard, 3d son of Ernest I. of Saxe- 
Gotha. 

1706. Ernest-Louis, his son. 
1724. Ernest-Louis IL, his son. 
1729. Charles - Frederick, brother of the pre- 
ceding. 

174,^. Anthony-Ulric, uncle of Charles-Frederick. 
1763. Augustus-Frederick, son of the last-named ; 
succeeded by 



1782. George-Frederick, his brother. 

1803. Bernard-Erich, a minor, son of George- 
Frederick, the preceding duke. Assumed 
the reins of government, Dec. 17, 1821. 

1826. [Succeeded, by the convention of Nov. 12, 
of this year, to the principality of Hild- 
bourghausen, Saalfeld, &c.] 
The PRESENT (1850) Duke of Saxe -Mei- 
ningen. 



The Duke. Bernard-Erich-Freund, born Dec. 17, 1800 ; succeeded his father, duke George, Dec. 
24, 1803, under the guardianship of his mother, the duchess Louisa, born princess of Hohenlowe- 
Langenbourg (died April 29, 1837) ; assumed the reins of government Dec. 17, 1821 ; married, 
March 23, 1825, Mary-Frederica-Wilhelmina (born Sept. 6, 1804), daughter of William, elector 
of Hesse ; and has issue : 

1. George, hereditary prince ; born April 2, 1826. 

2. Augusta-Louisa- Adelaide-Caroline-Ida, born Aug. 6, 1843. 
The Duke's Sisters : 

1. Adelaide-Amelia-Louisa-Theresa-Caroline, born Aug. 23, 1792; married July 11, 1818, 

William, duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV., king of Great Britain. She died 
dowager queen of England, Dec. 2, 1849. 

2. Ida, born June 25, 1794; wife of duke Bernard of Saxe-Weimar. 



BAVARIA. 



SAXE-ALTENBURa (lATE HiLDBOURGHAUSEN). 

1675. Ernest, the sixth son of Ernest I. of 
Gotha. 

1715. Ernest- Frederick, his son. 
1724. Ernest-Frederick IL, his son. 
1745. Ernest-Frederick-Charles, his son. 
1780. Frederick, son of the preceding. Succeeded 

his father in the duchy of Saxe-Hild- 

bourghausen, which, by the convention 



of Nov. 12, 1826, became the ducliy of 
Saxe-Altenburg. 
1834. Joseph-George-Frederick ; succeeded his 

father, Sept. 29. 
1848. George-Charles-Frederick, second son of 
Duke Frederick, succeeded on his elder 
brother's abdication, Nov. 30. The pre- 
sent (1850) Duke. 



The Duke. George-Charles-Frederick, bom July 24, 1796 ; married, Oct. 7, 1825, Mary-Louisa- 
Frederique-Elizabeth (born March 31, 1803), daughter of the duke Frederick-Louis, hereditary 
prince of Mecklenburg- Schwerin ; and has issue : 

1. Ernest-Frederick-Paul-George, hereditary prince ; bom Sept. 16, 1826. 

2. Maurice-Francis-Frederick, bom Oct. 24, 1829. 



Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (late Saxe-Coburg Saalfeld). 



1675. 
1729, 
1745. 



1826. [Became, by the convention of Nov. 12, 
1826, duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 
as Ernest T. Died 1844.] 

1844. Ernest II., succeeded his father, the late 
duke, Jan. 29, 1844. The present 
(1850) Duke of Saxe-Coburg and 
Gotha. 



John-Ernest, 7th son of Ernest I. of Gotha. 
Christian-Ernest, son of the preceding. 
Francis- Joseph, his brother. 
1764. Ernest -Frederick, son of Francis- Joseph. 
1800. Francis-Frederick, his son. 
1806. Ernest- Anthony, son of Francis-Frederick. 

Father-in-law of her majesty queen 
Victoria, of Great Britain. 
The Duke. Ernest- Augustus-Charles-John-Leopold, born June 21, 1818 ; married, May 3, 1842, 

Alexandrina-Louisa- Amelia (born Dec. 6, 1820), daughter of Leopold, grand-duke of Baden. 
His Brother. Francis- Albert- Augustus-Charles-Emmanuel, born Aug. 26, 1819 ; married, Feb. 

10, 1840, to Victoria- Alexandrina, queen of Great Britain. 
Uncles and Aunts : 

1. Duchess Juliana- Henrietta-Ulrica, bom Sept. 23, 1781 ; married (Feb. 26, 1796) to the 

grand-duke Constantine of Russia, from whom she was separated April 1, 1820. The 
duke died June 27, 1831. 

2. Duke Ferdinand-George- Augustus, bom March 28, 1785; married, Jan. 2, 1816, Mary- 

Antoinette, daughter of Francis- Joseph, prince of Kohary, by whom he has issue : 
I. Prince Ferdinand- Augustus-Francis- Anthony, born Oct. 29, 1816 ; married, April 
9, 1836, donna Maria II. , queen of Portugal. 

II. Prince Augustus-Louis- Victor, born June 13, 1818 ; married, April 20, 1843, the 

princess Mary-Clementine-Caroline, daughter of Louis-Philippe, of France. 

III. Princess Victoria- Augusta- Antoinette, born Feb. 14, 1822 ; married, April 27, 1840, 

prince Louis-Charles-Philip, duke of Nemours. 

IV. Prince Leopold-Francis-Julius, born Jan. 31, 1824. 

3. Victoria-Mary-Louisa, born Aug. 17, 1786 ; married, 1st, on Dec. 21, 1803, Emich-Charles, 

prince of Leiningen, who died July 4, 1814; and, 2nd, on May 29, 1818, Edward, duke 
of Kent, who died Jan. 23, 1820 : issue. Queen Victoria, of Great Britain. 

4. Leopold-George-Frederick, born Dec. 16, 1790 ; King of the Belgians. 



BAVARIA. 

This country is part of the ancient Noriciim and JRhaetia Vindelicia^ called also 
Boiaria^ from the Boii, a people of ancient Gaul, who settled in Bohemia nearly six 
hundred years before the Christian era, and were driven hither by the Marcomanni 
in the reign of Augustus. After undergoing various revolutions, Bavaria became a 
duchy in the 9th century, and the title of duke was possessed by its rulers until 16*23, 
when Maximilian I. was invested with the electoral dignity by the emperor Ferdi- 
nand II. In 1805 Napoleon raised Bavaria to the rank of a kingdom ; and on Jan. 1, 
1806, Maximilian Joseph was proclaimed king at Munich in presence of the French 
emperor. 

DuKES, Electors, and Kings. 

Dukes. 937. Eberhard. 

895. Leopold. 939. Berthold. 

907. Arnulph, called the Bad. 942. Henry, called the Quarreller. 



4G PKINCES OF EUROPE. 



955. Henry II. 

995. Henry IH., the Holy and the Lame; 
elected emperor in 1002. 
1004. Henry IV. 
1025. Henry V. 
1047. Conrad I. 
1052. Henry VI. 
1054. Conrad II. 
1056. Acjnes, empress dowager. 
1061. Otho. 
1071. Guelph I. 
1101. Guelph 11. 

1120. Henry VII., surnamed the Black. 

1126. Henry VIII., surnamed the Proud. 

1138. Leopold II., of Austria. 

1142. Henry IX., of Austria. 

1154. Henry X., surnamed the Lion, son of 
Henry the Proud; the greatest prince 
of Germany in this age. 

1180. Otho the Great ; created duke by the em- 
peror Frederick Barbarossa. 

1183. Louis L 

1231. Otho IL, the Illustrious; elector palatine. 
1253. Louis II., the Severe ; elector of Bavaria, 

and elector palatine. 
1294. Louis III.; elected emperor in 1314. 
1347. Stephen. 

1375. John, surnamed the Pacific. 



1397. Ernest. 

1438. Albert, surnamed the Pious. 
1460. John II., and Sigismund. 
1465. Albert IL 
1508. William L 
1550. Albert IIL 

1579. William IL, surnamed the Religious. 
Electors. 

1596. Maximilian ; created the 8th elector by 
the emperor Ferdinand II. in 1623. 

1651. Ferdinand-Mary. 

1679. Maximilian-Emmanuel. 

1726. Charles- Albert ; elected emperor in 1742 ; 
opposed by Maria-Theresa. 

1745. Maximilian- Joseph I. 

1778. Charles-Theodore, elector palatine, suc- 
ceeded to Bavaria. 

1799. Maximilian- Joseph IL, as elector. 

Kings of Bavaria. 

1805. Maximilian-Joseph, as king. 

1825. Louis-Charles, his son: abdicated, 1848. 

1848. Maximilian - Joseph IL : succeeded his 
father, Louis-Charles, on his abdication, 
March 21. The present (1850) king 
of Bavaria. 



The King. Maximilian-Joseph IL, bom Nov. 28, 1811 ; married, Oct. 12, 1842, Frederica-Frances- 
Augusta-Mary, princess-royal of Prussia (born Oct. 15, 1825), daughter of William, prince of 
Prussia, uncle to the king ; and has issue : 

1. Louis-Frederick- William, prince-royal, born Aug. 25, 1845. 

2. Otho- William-Leopold, born April 27, 1848. 

The LATE King. Louis-Charles- Augustus, born August 25, 1786 ; married, Oct. 12, 1810, Theresa- 
Charlotte-Louisa (born July 8, 1792), daughter of Frederick, duke of Saxe-Altenburg. 
Brothers and Sister of the present King : 

1. Matilda-Caroline, born Aug. 30, 1813 ; married to Louis, grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. 

2. Otho-Frederick-Louis, born June 1, 1815, present king of Greece. 

3. Leopold-Charles, born March 12, 1821 ; married Augusta-Louisa-Mary, daughter of 

Leopold IL, grand-duke of Tuscany, and has issue two sons, born in 1845 and 1846. 

4. Adelgonda- Augusta-Charlotte, born March 19, 1823; married, March 30, 1842, to Francis, 

duke of Modena. 

5. Hildegarde-Louisa-Charlotte, born June 10, 1825 ; married. May 1, 1844, to the archduke 

Albert, of Austria. 

6. Alexandrina- Amelia, born Aug. 26, 1826. 

7. Albert- William-George-Louis, born July 19, 1828. 



COUNTS PALATINE OF THE RHINE. 



1156. Conrad, ofSuabia; first elector. 
1 1 96. Henry, of Saxe. 

1227. Otho, surnamed the Illustrious, elector of 

Bavaria in 1231. 
1253. Louis IL, called the Severe; elector of 

Bavaria, and elector palatine. 
1294. Podolphus L, le Beguc. 
1319. Adolphus, surnamed the Simple. 
1327. Podolphus IL, the Blind. 
1353. Rupert, surnamed the Red. 
1390. Rupert IL, le Petit. 
1398. Rupert HI. ; elected emperor in 1400. 
1410. Louis HI. Barbatus, or Longbeard. 
1430. Louis IV. 

1449. Frederick I., surnamed the Victorious. 

1476. Philip the Ingenuous or Sincere. 

1508. Louis v., the Pacific : refused the imperial 

crown, succeeded by 
1544. Frederick IL, the Wise. 
1556. Otho-Henrv. 
1559. Frederick HI., the Pious. 



1576. Louis VL, the Easy. 
1583. Frederick IV. 

1610. Frederick V. This unfortunate prince, 
afterwards chosen king of Bohemia, was 
mercilessly dealt with by the emperor ; 
he was dethroned and stript of his he- 
reditary dominions, and in this con- 
dition was scantily aided by James I. 
of England, whose daughter Elizabeth 
he had married: died in 1632. 

1648. Charles-Louis, his son: by the treaty of 
Westphalia, in 1648, he had the greater 
part of the palatinate restored to him. 

1680. Charles II. ; succeeded by his cousin, 

1685. Philip- William. 

1690. John- William. 

1716. Charles-Philip. 

1743. Charles-Theodore ; who, in 1777, succeeded 
to the dominions of the Bavarian branch 
of his family. 



BRUNSWICK. — HANOVER. 



47 



WURTEMBERG. 

The foundation of this new kingdom was the old duchy of Wurtemberg. In the late 
memorable war the territories of the duchy were considerably augmented by the 
French emperor Napoleon (chiefly at the expense of Austria) at different times up to 
1805, in which year (Dec.) he erected Wurtemberg into a kingdom; a rank confirmed 
to it by the provisions of the peace of Presburg. The elector Frederick II. was 
proclaimed king, Jan. 1, 1806. 



Dukes and Kings. 



Dukes. 

1457. Eberhard, the Bearded, first duke. 
1496. Eberhard II., le Jeune. 
1498. Ulric. This prince was dispossessed of 

his dominions by the emperor Charles V. 

in 1519, but they were restored to him 

in 1534. 

1550. Christopher, styled the Pacific. 
1568. Louis. 
1593. Frederick I. 
1608. John-Frederick. 
1628. Eberhard III. 
1674. William- Louis. 
1677. Eberhard-Louis. 
1733. Charles- Alexander. 
1737. Charles-Eugene. 

The King. William I. Frederick-Charles, born Sept. 27, 1781 ; married, Jan. 24, 1816, Catharine- 
Paulowna, daughter of the late emperor Paul of Russia, and widow of the duke of Oldenburg ; 
she died Jan. 9, 1819, and he married, 2nd, April 15, 1820, Paulina-Theresa, daughter of the 
duke of Wurtemberg, uncle to the king ; and has issue : 

1. Mary-Frederica-Charlotte, born Oct. 30, 1816; married, March 19, 1840, to the count 

Alfred of Neipperg. 

2. Sophia-Frederica, born June 17, 1818; married, June 18, 1839, to the prince-royal (now 

king) of the Netherlands. 

3. Catharine-Frederica-Charlotte, born Aug. 24, 1821 ; married, Nov. 1845, to the prince 

Frederick, of Wurtemberg. 

4. Charles-Frederick- Alexander, prince-royal, born March 6, 1823 ; married, July 13, 1846, 

the grand-duchess Olga, daughter of the emperor of Russia. 

5. Augusta- Wilhelinina-Heurietta, born Oct. 4, 1826. 



1793. Louis-Eugene. 

1795. Frederick-Eugene; succeeded by his son, 
1797. Frederick II. : married in May, 1797, 
Charlotte- Augusta- Matilda, princess 
royal of England ; daughter of George 
III. ; became elector in 1803, and king, 
Dec. 12, 1805. 

Kings. 

1806. Frederick I. (late elector Frederick II.), 
proclaimed king, Jan. 1. Succeeded by 
his son, 

1816. William I. ; ascended the throne Oct. 30, 
1816. The PRESENT (1850) King of 
Wurtemberg. 



BRUNSWICK'. — HANOVER. 

The illustrious and ancient house of Brunswick owes its origin to Azo IV. of the 
family of Este, son of Hugo III., marquess of Ferrara, in Italy. Azo, who died in 
1055, left by his consort Cunegonde, daughter and heiress of Guelph, duke of 
Bavaria, a son, who was great-grandfather of Henry, surnamed the Lion. This 
prince married Maud, eldest daughter of Henry II. of England, and is always looked 
upon as the ancestor of our present royal family. The dominions possessed by Henry 
the Lion were very extensive ; but he having refused to assist Frederick Barbarossa 
in a war against pope Alexander IIL, that emperor's resentment was drawn upon 
him, and in the diet of W^urtzburg, in 1180, he was proscribed. The duchy of 
Bavaria was given to Otho, count Wittelsbach, from whom is descended the present 
royal family of Bavaria ; the duchy of Saxony was conferred upon Bernard Ascanius, 
founder of the house of Anhalt ; and his other possessions were disposed of to different 
princes. Thus despoiled, Henry retired to England ; but ultimately, after much 

1 We are indebted to an accomplished German scholar, the Baron von Andlau, for the precise genealogy of 
the princes of Germany. This gifted gentleman's research has enabled us to correct this, and many of the sue- * 
ceeding German lists. Baron Andlau was many years equerry to his serene highness duke Charles of Brunswick. 
He was present at the battle of Quatre Bras, June 16, 1815, and saw duke Frederick- William, his beloved sove- 
reign, fall, valiantly fighting, at the head of his brave Brunswickers, for Great Britain. — Editor. 



48 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



intercession, Brunswick and Luneburg were restored to him. He left three sons. 
The two elder having no male issue, William, the third son, carried on the line of his 
family, and from him all the succeeding dukes of Brunswick and Luneburg have 
descended. Hanover was erected into a kingdom in 18 J 4. 



Duke of Brunswick. 

Ernest, who divided the family into two branches, Wolfenbuttel and Zell, died in 1546. He had 
three sons. Otho died without issue, and was succeeded by his brother Henry, who carried on the 
elder branch, and is ancestor to the reigning duke of Brunswick -Wolfenbuttel. 



Dukes of Zell. 



1546. William, the second son, became duke of 
Zell. 

1592. Ernest ; succeeded by his brother, 
1611. Christian, bishop of Minden ; succeeded by 
his brother, 

1633. Augustus, administrator of Eatesburg; 
succeeded by his brother, 

1636. Frederick, president of the chapter of Bre- 
men ; succeeded by his nephew, 



1648. Christian-Lewis, the son of his brother 
George, prince of Calenberg ; from whose 
second son the present royal family is 
descended. 

1665. George- William. His only daughter So- 
phia-Dorothea married, in 1682, George- 
Lewis, his nephew ; he being eldest son 
to his brother Ernest- Augustus, duke of 
Hanover. 



Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Hanover. 



1665. John, second son of prince Christian Lewis, 
duke of Brunsmck-Zell, became duke of 
Hanover : succeeded by his son, 

1679. Ernest -Augustus: created elector of 
Hanover in 1692. 
[He married the princess Sophia daugh- 
ter of Frederick, elector palatine, and of 
Elizabeth, the daughter of James I. of 
England.] 

1698. George -Lewis ; son of the preceding ; mar- 
ried his cousin, the heiress of the duke 
of Brunswick- Zell. Became king of 
Great Britain, Aug. 1, 1714, as George I. 

1727. George- Augustus, his son ; George II- of 
England. 

1760. George- William-Frederick, his grandson ; 
George III. of England. 

The King. Ernest- Augustus, duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, in Great Britain ; born June 5, 
1771 ; married. May 29, .1.815, Frederica-Louisa-Caroline-Sophia (born March 2, 1778), daughter 
of Charles, grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, widow of Louis, prince of Prussia (who died 
Dec. 28, 1796), and of Frederick- William, prince of Solms-Braunfels, who died April 18, 1814. 
The Queen died June 29, 1841. Issue : 

1. George- Frederick- Alexander, prince-royal ; born May 27, 1819 ; married, Feb. 18, 1843, 
the princess Mary-Alexandrina (born April 14, 1818), daughter of Joseph, duke of Saxe- 
Altenburg. Issue : 

I. Ernest- Augustus- William-Adolphus, born Sept. 21, 1845. 
II. Frederica- Sophia- Mary- Henrietta, born Jan. 9, 1848. 



Kings of Hanoa^er. 
1814. George- William-Frederick (the preceding 
sovereign), first king of Hanover, Oct. 
2. 

1820. George-Augustus-Frederick, his son ; 
George IV. of England. 

1830. William-Henry, his brother ; William IV. 
of England. 
[Hanover separated from the crown of 
Great Britain.] 

1837. Ernest-Augustus, brother to William IV. 

of England, on whose demise he suc- 
ceeded (as a distinct inheritance) to the 
throne of Hanover. The present (1850) 
King of Hanover. 



Senior Branch of the Brunswick-Luneburg- Wolfenbuttel Line. 

In 1634 expired, in the person of Frederick-Ulrick, born in 1591, the last repre- 
sentative of the house of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel ; and the succession lapsed to the 
duke of Brunswick-Danneberg, Julius-Ernest, who relinquished his right in favour 
of his younger brother, Augustus, who became duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. 

1 This is the princess Sophia, to whose descendants (being Protestants) the crown of England was limited by 
the act of settlement, 1701. She was born Oct. 13, 1630, and had issue by the above marriage six sons and one 
daughter: namely, George-Lewis, afterwards George I Frederick-Augustus, born 1661 ; slain in battle against 
the Turks 16'JO; unmarried. Maximilian-William, born in 1666; died unmarried in 1726. Charles-Philip, born 
in IGGO; slain in battle, 169'^. Christian, born in 1671 ; drowned in the Danube, 1703; unmarried. Ernest- 
Augustus, bishop of Osnaburg, born 1674 ; created, 1716, duke of York and Albany and earl of Ulster ; died 
unmarried, 1728. Sophia-Charlotte, born 1668 ; married to Frederick- William, elec tor of Brandenburg. The 
princess Sophia died June 8. 1714, in her 84th year. " The greatness of her soul," say her biographers, " tempered 
with sweetness and affability, bore proportion to her birth and the station which she filled, as a daughter of 
England, and as a mother of Germany." 



HESSE. 



49 



1634. Augustus : he left three sons, Rodolphus- 
Augustus, Anthony-Ulrick, and Ferdi- 
nand-Albert ; the two first succeeded ; 
the third was the founder of the Bevern 
line. 

1666. Eodolphus-Augustus ; who associated his 
next brother, Anthony-Ulrick, in the 
government, from 1685 : died, 1704. 

1704. Anthony-Ulrick, brother of the preceding; 

now ruled alone ; erected Blankenburg 
into a principality in 1707 ; became a 
Roman Catholic in 1710 ; died in 1714. 

1714. Augustus- William, his son : died without 
issue 1731 ; succeeded by his brother, 

1731. Ludowick-Rodolphus (prince of Blanken- 
burg from his ftither's death in 1714) : 
died without male issue in 1735. 
[This prince left three daughters, who 
were married, Elizabeth-Christine to the 
emperor Charles VI. ; Christina to the 
grand-duke Alexius of Russia ; and An- 
tonie-Amelia to the duke of Bevern.] 

1735. Ferdinand-Albrecht : died same year ; suc- 
ceeded by his son, 



1735. Charles; who transferred the ducal resi- 
dence to Brunswick : succeeded by his 
son, the eldest of thirteen children. 

1780. Charles-William-Ferdinand; married the 
princess Augusta of England : killed on 
the battle-field of Jena, commanding the 
Prussian army, Oct. 14, 1806 : succeeded 
by his fourth son, his eldest sons being 
blind, and abdicating in favour of 

1806. Frederick -William : his reign may be dated 
from the battle of Leipsic in Oct. 1813. 
Gloriously fell at Waterloo (battle of 
Quatre-Bras) commanding the avant- 
garde under the immortal Wellington, 
June 16, 1815; and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, 

1815. Carl (Charles-Frederick-William-Augus- 
tus), now resident in London ; born Oct. 
30, 1804. Deposed by his younger bro- 
ther William in 1830. 

1830. William (Augustus-Louis-William-Maxi- 
milian) ; born April 25, 1806 ; succeeded 
Sept. 7, 1830.' The present (1850) 
Duke of Brunswick : unmarried. 



HESSE. 

There are few families in Germany more noble by their alliances than the houses of 
Hesse, and they give place to none for the heroes and statesmen they have produced. 
All the Hessian branches proceed from Philip the Generous, who at the death of his 
father, William IL, in 1509, inherited the entire principality of Hesse. Philip the 
Generous was a zealous promoter of Protestantism, and declared himself in favour of 
Luther's doctrines in 1524. In 1527, he founded the university of Marburg. Dying 
in 1567, he left four sons, who divided the territory, so that four lines originated. Of 
the two principal branches, the eldest son, William lY., became the founder of that of 
Hesse-Cassel ; and George, the youngest son, became the founder of the branch of 
Hesse-Darmstadt. 



Hesse-Cassel. 



1509. Philip, surnamed the Generous : imprisoned 
by the tyrant emperor Charles V. His 
dominions were divided as mentioned 
above. 

1567. William lY., his eldest son, surnamed the 
Wise : succeeded by his son, 

1592. Maurice : forced by the renowned general. 
Count Tilly, to abdicate in favour of his 
son, 

1627. William Y, surnamed the Constant. His 
three younger brothers were the found- 
ers of the three lines of Rothenberg, 
Eschwegen, and Rheinfels. William 
died during the campaign of East 
Friedland, supposed by poison ; his con- 
sort, 

1637. Amelia-Elizabeth, governed until 1650, 
when she handed over the rule to her 
son, 

1650. William YI., surnamed the Good, and the 



Wise : the hereditary prince died in his 

minority, and his brother succeeded. 
1663. Charles, under the regency of his mother ; 

reigned till 1730 : succeeded by his son, 
1730. Frederick I., who became, in right of his 

consort, king of Sweden in 1719 : his 

brother acted as viceroy, and, at his 

death, succeeded in Hesse. 
1751. William YIL, succeeded by his son, 
1760. Frederick II. ; married. May 8, 1740, the 

princess Mary of England: succeeded 

by his son. 

1785. William IX. (YIII.)2 ; obtained the elec- 
torship, 1801, and called himself Wil" 
liam I., elector, 1803. 
[After the battle of Jena he fled to Den- 
mark, and, by the treaty of Tilsit, Hesse- 
Cassel became part of the kingdom of 
Westphalia. Returned in 1813 : died in 
1821.] 



1 " Prend les renes du gouvernement {d'ahord provisoirement du consentement de son fr^re, plus tard avec 
V adhesion de son oncle, lefeu Roy Gtiillatime IV. de la Grand Bretagnc, et sur la demande de la Diete Ger?nant'que) 
dejiniiivement 25 Avrd 1831, en suite des arrangements regies par les agnats du Due Charles J'^ — Almanack de 
Gotha. 

2 The landgrave Frederick, brother of William I., elector, was the father of the princess Augusta- Wilhelmina- 
Louisa, the now duchess of Cambridge. Her royal highness was born July 25, 1797, and was married to 
Adolphus-Frederick, duke of Cambridge, at Hesse-Cassel, May 7, and again in London, June 1, 1818, The duke 
of Cambridge died July 8, 1850. 



50 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



1821. William II., his son: retired to Hanau in 
1831. The hereditary prince made co- 
regent, Sept. 30, 1831. 



1847. Frederick- Willi am T., his son, late co- 
regent ; succeeded Nov. 20, 1847. The 
PRESENT (1850) Elector. 



The Elector. Frederick- William I., born August 20, 1802 ; married Gertrude, countess de Schaum- 

bourg, who was born May 18, 1806 : has no issue. 
Sisters of the Elector : 

1. Caroline-Frederica-Wilhelmina, born July 29, 1799. 

2. Mary-Frederica, born Sept. 6, 1804; married, March 23, 1825, Bernard-Erich, reigning 

duke of Saxe-Meiningen. 

Hesse-Darmstadt. 

The founder of this line, as already mentioned, was George I., youngest son of Philip 
the Generous. The princes of Hesse-Darmstadt were elevated to the rank of grand- 
dukes by the French emperor Napoleon. 



1768. Louis IX. : succeeded by his son, 
1790. Louis X. ; became grand-duke. 



1803. 



Grand-Dukes. 
Louis I. (late Louis X.), first grand-duke : 
succeeded by his son, 
1830. Louis II. ; was thrice married : succeeded 
by his son, 

1848. Louis IIL ; succeeded June 16, 1848. The 
present (1850) Grand-Duke. 



Landgraves. 
1567. George I. ; succeeded by his son, 
1596. Louis v., surnamed the Faithful: he 

founded the university of Geissen in 

1607 : succeeded by his son. 
1624. George IL 
1661. Louis VL 

1678. Louis VII.; reigned only a few months: 
succeeded by his brother, 

1678. Ernest-Louis : succeeded by his son, 

1733. Louis VIII. : succeeded by his son. 

The Grand-Duke. Louis IIL, born June 9, 1806 ; co-regent from March 5, 1848 ; succeeded his 
father, the late grand-duke Louis IL, June 16, same year. Married, Dec. 26, 1833, Matilda- 
Caroline- Frederica-Wilhelmina (born Aug. 30, 1813), daughter of Louis, king of Bavaria : has 
no issue. 

1. Charles-WilHam-Louis, born April 23, 1809 ; married, Oct. 22, 1836, Mary-Elizabeth- 

Caroline- Victoria (born June 18, 1815), daughter of WilUam of Prussia, uncle to the 
king : issue : 

I. Frederick-William-Louis-Charles, bom Sept. 12, 1837. 
IL Henry-Louis-William, born Nov. 28, 1838. 

III. Anne- Maria- Wilhelmina, born May 25, 1843. 

IV. William-Louis-Frederick, born Nov. 16, 1845. 

2. Alexander-Louis-Christian-George, born July 15, 1823. 

Sister. Maximiliana- Wilhelmina- Augusta- Sophia- Mary, born Aug. 8, 1824; married, April 28, 
1841, to the hereditary grand-duke Alexander-Nicolaewitch, of Russia. 

Hesse-Homburg. ^ 

This house owes its origin to a junior branch of Hesse-Darmstadt. George I. left in 
1596 three sons, of whom Frederick became the founder of this line. Hesse-Homburg 
was incorporated with the German confederation in 1817. The later princes were : 

1751. Frederick-Louis V. : succeeded by his son, 1839. Philip- Augustus-Frederick, who was also 
1820. Frederick- Joseph ; married, April 7, 1818 succeeded by his next brother, 

(while hereditary prince), the princess 1846. Gustavus-Adolphus-Frederick. Died in 

Elizabeth of England, sister of George 1848 ; and the 5th brother succeeded. 

IV. Succeeded by his brother, 1848. Ferdinand - Henry - Frederick ; succeeded 

1829. Louis-William-Frederick: succeeded by Sept. 8, 1848. The present (1850) 

his next brother, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. 

The Landgrave. Ferdinand-Henry- Frederick, born April 26, 1783 ; succeeded his brother, the 
landgrave Gustavus, who died Sept. 8, 1848. Gustavus had married, Feb. 12, 1818, Louisa- 
Frederica, daughter of Frederick, hereditary prince of Anhalt-Dessau ; he left issue, now living : 

1. Caroline- Amelia-EHzabeth, born March 19, 1819 ; married Oct. 1, 1839, prince Henry de 

Reuss-Greiz. 

2. EHzabeth-Louisa-Frederica, born Sept. 30, 1823. 



The Younger Lines. 



Hesse-Philippsthal. 
1816. Ernest - Constantine, born Aug. 8, 1771. 

Succeeded his brother Louis, Feb. 15, 
1816. Married, 1st, (April 10, 1796) 



Christina-Louisa, daughter of Frederick- 
Charles, of Schwarzburg-Roudolstadt ; 
and 2nd. (Feb. 17, 1812) CaroHne- Wil- 
helmina (born Feb. 10, 1793), daughter 



de Helise?'^^^^^'^ ///^^or^ of Hesse, part i. ; and Von Turkheim's Histoire Genealog, de la Maison Soveraine 



MECKLENBURG. 



51 



of his deceased brother, prince Charles ; 
and has issue, living : 

1. Charles, born May 22, 1803 ; mar- 

ried (Oct. 9, 1845), Mary-Alex- 
andrina (born March 25, 1818), 
daughter of the duke Eugene, of 
Wurtemberg: issue, a son (Er- 
nest-Eugene), born Dec. 20, 1846. 

2. Francis - Augustus, born Jan. 26. 

1805. 

Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld. 
1803. Charles- Augustus-Pliilip-Louis, born June 
27,1784. Succeeded July 17, 1803. Mar- 
ried, 1st, Augusta- Charlotte (died June 



8, 1821), daughter of Frederick-Louis, 
prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen-Oeh- 
ringen; 2nd (Sept. 10, 1823), Sophia- 
Caroline-Pauline (born Jan. 16, 1794), 
princess of Bentheim-Bentheim and 
Bentheim - Steinfourt ; and has issue, 
living : 

1. Bertha- Wilhelmina, born Oct. 26, 

1818 ; married June 27, 1839, the 
hereditary prince, Louis of Ben- 
theim-Bentheim. 

2. Alexis- William, born Sept. 13, 

1829. 

3. Frederick- William, born Oct. 3, 

1831. 



MECKLENBURG. 



Charlemagne, during his wars with the Saxons, entered Mecklenburg a. d. 789, and 
compelled the inhabitants to embrace Christianity. Louis, his successor, had the 
country governed by the dukes of Saxony : the people, however, threw off' that yoke, 
and Nicolas and Premislas, princes, divided the territory between them. In 1147, 
Nicolas being slain in battle, Henry the Lion conquered Mecklenburg, and divided it 
among his generals and knights. But to the son of Nicolas (Premislas II.) he restored 
a part of his father's dominions, with the title of " Prince of Mecklenburg," instead of 
the former title, which was " king of the Wenden." After the death of Premislas IL 
followed Henry Borwin, his son, founder of the house of Mecklenburg. The modern 
division of the duchy was made at the commencement of the 18th century. The 
dignity of grand-duke was conferred on the princes of Mecklenburg by the Congress of 
Vienna in 1815. 

Princes and Dukes. 



Henry Borwin I. From this prince and his 
consort Matilda, daughter of Henry 
the Lion, sprang the house of Mecklen- 
burg. 

Henry Borwin II. : he died in 1236, and 
left four sons, who divided Mecklenburg 
into four parts, viz. : Mecklenburg, 
GusTROw, Rostock, and Parchim, 
which existed till 1611. The eldest son 
of Henry Boi^win succeeded. 

1236. John, surnamed Theologus. 

1264. Henry I. (called III.), his son. Went to 
Jerusalem, and was therefore surnamed 
Hierosolymitanus ; was made prisoner, 
and was supposed to be dead. 

1302. Henry II. (IV.), his son. The former 
prince returned from captivity, and 
governed with Henry II., who died in 
1329 ; and through his sons, Albrecht 
and John, sprung up the new lines of 
Mecklenburg and Stargard. In 
the line of Mecklenburg, succeeded 

1349. Albrecht or Albert I., who was succeeded 
by his three sons 

''Albert II. : elected king of Sweden in 
1363. 

Henry, who took but little part in the 

government, and 
Magnus I., to whom Albert resigned 
the principality. 
I' Albert III., son of Albert IT., governed, 
' together with 

I John, son of Magnus I., whose two sons 
succeeded. 



1380. 



1412. 



1^ 



1423. 



1477. 

1503. 
1547. 

1553. 
1603. 



1610. 
1658. 



1679. 



{Henry III. (V.) surnamed the Fat, and 
John II., who died in 1442. 
[Henry the Fat again united Stargard 
to Mecklenburg, and, dying in 1477, 
left three sons, who succeeded.] 
r Albert IV. "J Co-regents. The three 

< Magnus II. > sons of Magnus II. suc- 
(_ Balthazar. J ceeded. 

rHenry IV. (VI.) ) 

< Erich, and > Co-regents. 
(Albert the Fair. J 

John-Albert I., the eldest of five sons of 
Albert the Fair. 

[His brother Ulrick made claims to the 
CO -regency, and caused thereby a divi- 
sion in the country.] 

Ulrick, above-named, succeeded by his 
brother, 

Charles, who governed, instead of his 
minor cousins, Adolphus-Frederick and 
John-Albert, until 1610. 

[The territory was again divided into two 
lines, Mecklenburg and Gustrow: 
the latter line became extinct in 1695.] 

Adolphus-Frederick : succeeded by his son, 

Christian-Louis; became a Roman Ca- 
tholic, in 1663 : succeeded by his ne- 
phew, 

Frederick-William. His disputes with his 
cousin, Frederick- Adolphus (II.) led to 
the Hambro treaty, by which, in 1701, the 
two lines of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 
and Mecklenburg -Strelitz were 
formed. 



E 2 



62 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



Mecklenburg- Schwerin. 



1701. Frederick- Willi am, the above-mentioned 
prince. He retained three-fourths of 
the territory : succeeded by his brother, 

1713. Charles Leopold. His brother, Christian- 
Louis, who afterwards succeeded, was 
appointed administrator by the em- 
peror, in 1732. 

1747. Christian-Louis II., his brother. 

1756. Frederick, surnamed the Kind : succeeded 
by his nephew, 

1785. Frederick-Francis I. The dignity of grand- 



duke was conferred upon this prince by 
the congress of Vienna. 
[His son, Frederick-Louis, who died vita 
patris, was father of Helen-Louisa, mar- 
ried to Ferdinand, late due d'Orleans, 
son of Louis-Philippe of France.] 

1837. Paul -Frederick, grandson of Frederick- 
Francis I. : succeeded by his son, 

1842. Frederick-Francis II. ; succeeded his father, 
March 7, 1842. The present (1850) 
Grand-Duke of Mecklenburg- Schwerin. 



The Grand-Duke. Frederick-Francis, born Feb. 28, 1823, son of the late duke Paul-Frederick, and 
of Frederica-Wilhelmina-Alexandrina, daughter of Frederick- William III., king of Prussia : 
unmarried. 

His Brother and Sister : 

1. Louisa-Maria-Helena, born May 17, 1824; betrothed Aug. 4, 1849, to prince Hugh- Alfred- 

Adolphus, of Windisch-Groetz. 

2. Frederick- William-Nicholas, born March 5, 1827. 



Mecklenburg- Strelitz. 



1701. Adolphus -Frederick II., founder of this 

line : succeeded by his son, 
1708. Adolphus-Frederick III. : followed by his 

brother, 

1749. Charles-Louis-Frederick I. His daughter, 
Charlotte -Sophia, was the queen of 
George III. of England. 

1752. Adolphus-Frederick lY., his son: suc- 
ceeded by his brother. 



1794. Charles-Louis-Frederick II. ; became 
grand-duke in 1815. His daughter, 
Frederica- Sophia-Louisa-Caroline, be- 
came duchess of Cumberland, and af- 
terwards, by consequence, queen of 
Hanover. 

1816. George-Frederick-Charles-Joseph, his son : 
succeeded Nov. 6, 1816. The present 
(1850) Grand-Duke. 



The Grand-Duke. George-Frederick-Charles-Joseph, born Aug. 12, 1779 ; succeeded his father, 
the grand-duke Charles, Nov. 6, 1816. Married, Aug. 12, 1817, Maria- Wilhelmina-Frederica 
(born Jan. 21, 1796), daughter of the late Frederick, landgrave of Hesse-Cassel ; and has issue : 

1. Frederick- William-Charles-George, hereditary grand-duke, born Oct. 17, 1819 ; married, 

June 28, 1843, Augusta-Caroline-Charlotte-Elizabeth-Mary-Sophia (born July 19, 1822), 
daughter of Adolphus-Frederick, late duke of Cambridge, of Great Britain : issue : 

I. George- Adolphus-Frederick- Augustus-Yictor-Ernest-Adelbert-Gustavus- William- 
Wellington, born July 22, 1848. 

2. Caroline-Charlotte-Marianne, born Jan. 10, 1821 ; married, June 10, 1841, to Frederick, 

prince-royal of Denmark, from whom she separated Sept. 30, 1846. 

3. George- Augustus-Ernest- Adolphus, born Jan. 11, 1824. 



BADEN-BADEN. — BADEN-DURLACH. 

The illustrious house of Baden descends from Gerold, who, as well as his son, appears 
in the ancient records towards the close of the 8th century, as Landgraves of theBarr. 
From him, after many descents, came Bertholdus, who had two sons. The elder, 
Herman I., possessed, vita patris^ Hochberg in Brisgau, to which Baden belonged ; he 
took the title of margrave, and died in 1074. His heir was Herman II., who called 
himself " margrave of Baden," and was the head and founder of the present house 
of Baden, 1130. 

From Christopher I., who united the branches of Hochberg and Baden, and died in 
1527, proceeded the branches of Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach. He had two 
sons, Bernard and Ernest, of whom below. 

Margraves. — Grand-Dukes. 



Margraves. 
1527. Bernard, who founded the house of Baden- 
Baden. This house became extinct in 
the person of the margrave Augustus- 
George, in 1771. 



1527. Ernest, who founded the house of Baden- 
Durlach. 

1553. Charles II., son of Ernest, margrave of 
Baden-Durlach ; he built the castle of 
Carlsburgi : succeeded by his son. 



' The margrave Charles removed the seat of government from Pforzheim to the new-built palace of Carlsburg, 
in Uurlach.and it remained the residence of the princes until 1771, when Baden-Durlach was united with Baden- 
Baden, and both formed one principality as Baden-Baden. 



HUNGARY. 



53 



1584. Ernest -Frederick : he died without issue ; 
and was succeeded by his brother, 

1604. George-Frederick, who gave up the go- 
vernment to his son, 

1622. Frederick V. : succeeded by his son, 

1659. Frederick VI. : succeeded by his son, 

1677. Frederick (VIL) Magnus : he died in 1709, 
and was succeeded by his son, 

1709. Charles III., who built, in 1715, the city 
of Carlsruhe : his only son, Frederick, 
died vita patris, leaving two young 
princes, the elder of whom succeeded. 

1746. Charles-Frederick, grandson of Charles 
III. ; born in 1728 ; constituted an 
elector of the empire in 1803, with the 
dignity of grand-duke. 

Grand-Dukes. 
1803. Charles-Frederick, above-mentioned; the 
first grand-duke. This excellent prince 



reached the age of 83, and died, after a 
reign of 65 years, in 1811. 
[His eldest son lost his life by a fall from 
his carriage while in Sweden, in 1801, 
and Charles-Frederick was succeeded 
by his grandson.] 
1811. Charles-Louis-Frederick. This prince mar- 
ried, in 1806, Stephanie-Louisa de la 
Pagerie, niece of the empress Josephine 
and adopted daughter of the emperor 
Napoleon, of France : he was succeeded 
by his uncle, 
1818. Louis-William-Augustus, who had no 
issue ; and was succeeded by his brother, 
1830. Charles-Leopold-Frederick, March 30,1830. 
The PRESENT (1850) Grand-Duke. 
Charles-Leopold Frederick, the reigning grand- 
duke, was formerly count of Hochberg, and eldest 
ofthesonsof Charles-Louis-Frederick (last grand- 
duke but one) who were raised, by patent of right 
of succession, Oct. 4, 1817, to the rank of mar- 
graves of Baden,with the title of "Royal Highness." 

The Grand-Duke. Charles-Leopold-Frederick, born Aug. 29, 1790 ; married, July 25, 1819, 
Sophia- Wilhelmina (born May 21, 1801), daughter of the late Gustavus-Adolphus, king of 
Sweden ; and has issue : 

1. Alexandrina-Louisa-Amelia-Frederica, born Dec. 6, 1820 ; married to the reigning duke of 

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. 

2. Louis, hereditary grand-duke, born Aug. 15, 1824. 

3. Frederick- William-Louis, born Sept. 9, 1826. 

4. Louis-William-Augustus, born Dec. 18, 1829. 

5. Charles-Frederick-Gustavus- William, born March 9, 1832. 

6. Mary-Amelia, born Nov. 20, 1834. 

7. Cecilia- Augusta, born Sept. 20, 1839. 
Brothers : 

1. William-Louis- Augustus, born April 8, 1792 ; married, Oct. 16, 1830, Elizabeth- Alexan- 

drina-Constance (born Feb. 27, 1802), daughter of the late Louis -Frederick- Alexander, 
duke of Wurtemburg ; and has issue, three daughters. 

2. Maximilian-Frederick-John-Ernest, born Dec. 8, 1796. 

Sister. Amelia-Christina-Caroline, born Jan. 26, 1795 ; married, April 19, 1818, Charles-Egon de 
Furstenberg. 



HUNGARY. 

This country, which was chiefly the ancient Pannonia^ was reduced by Tiberius to the 
Roman power a few years before the Christian era. About the middle of the 4th 
century it was seized by the Huns, a ferocious tribe of Scythians, headed by Attila, 
whose dreadful ravages obtained him the appellation of the " Scourge of God." 
These savage hordes were afterwards driven northwards, but returned, and made 
their settlement here under the name of Hungarians. In later times they have been 
much intermixed with Sclavonic nations, as Bohemians, Croats, and Russians, and 
with German settlers, as Austrians, Styrians, Franks, and Suabians. Hungary was 
annexed to the German empire under Charlemagne, but it became an independent 
kingdom in the 10th century. 

Kings of Hungary. 



997. Stephen, duke of Hungary ; he establishes 
the Roman Catholic religion, and re- 
ceives from the pope the title of Apos- 
tolic King, still borne by the emperor 
of Germany, as king of Hungary. 

1038. Peter, the German : deposed. 

1041. Aba or Owen. 

1044. Peter, again : again deposed, and his eyes 

put out. 
1047. Andrew I. : deposed. 
1061. Bela I. : killed by the fall of a ruinous 

tower. 



1064. Salamon, son of Andrew. 
1075. Geisa L, son of Bela. 
1077. Ladislas I., surnamed the Pious. 
1095. Coloman, son of Geisa. 
1114. Stephen, surnamed Thunder. 
1131. Bela 11. : had his eyes put out. 
1141. Geisa II. : succeeded by his son, 
1161. Stephen III. : succeeded by his brother, 
1174. Bela III. : succeeded by his son, 
1196. Emeric : succeeded by his son, 
1204. Ladislas II. ; reigned six months only 
succeeded bv 

3 



54 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



1205. Andrew II., son of Bela III. 

1235. Bela IV. 

1270. Stephen IV., his son. 

1272. Ladislas III. : killed. 

1290. Andrew III., surnamed the Venetian, son 

of Rodolph of Hapsburg, emperor of 

Germany. 
1309. Charobert, or Charles-Robert. 
1342. Louis the Great ; elected king of Poland in 

1370. 

1382. Mary, called King Mary, daughter of Louis 
the Great. 

1392. Mary and her consort Sigismund, who be- 
came king of Bohemia, and was elected 
emperor of Germany in 1410. 

1437. Albert, duke of Austria; married the 
daughter of Sigismund, and succeeded 
to the thrones of Hungary, Bohemia, 
and Germany. 

1440. Ladislas IV. king of Poland, of which king- 
dom he was Ladislas VI. 

1444. [Interregnum.] 

1453. Ladislas V., posthumous son of Albert, 
under the guardianship of the great 
Huniades : poisoned. 

1458. Matthias-Corvinus, son of Huniades, the 
late regent. 

1490. Ladislas VL, king of Bohemia : the em- 
peror Maximilian laid claim to both 
kingdoms. 

1516. Louis 11. of Hungary (I. of Bohemia): 
loses his life at the battle of Mohatz, 
fighting against the Turkish emperor 
Solyman the Magnificent. 
[In this battle 12,000 Hungarians were 
slain, 200,000 were carried away cap- 
tive, and the king, falling from his horse 
into a muddy rivulet, was drowned. ] 
^John Zapolski, elected by the Hunga- 
rians, and supported by the sultan 
1526 -V Solyman, and 

• j Ferdinand I., king of Bohemia, brother 
to the emperor, Charles V. ; rival 
* kings. 



1541. Ferdinand, alone ; elected emperor of Ger- 
many in 1558. 

1561. Maximilian, son of Ferdinand ; emperor in 
1564. 

1573. Rodolphus, son of Maximilian ; emperor in 
1576. 

1609. Matthias II., his brother ; emperor in 1612. 

1619. Ferdinand II., his cousin, emperor. 

1625. Ferdinand III., son of the preceding ; em- 
peror in 1637. 

1647. Ferdinand IV. : died in 1654, three years 
before his father. 

1655. Leopold I., son of Ferdinand III. ; emperor 
in 1658. 

1687. Joseph I., his son ; emperor in 1705. 

1711. Charles (Charles VI. of Germany), brother 
of Joseph, and nominal king of Spain : 
succeeded by his daughter, 

1740. Maria-Theresa, empress: survived her 
consort, Francis I. emperor, from 1765 
until 1780. See Germany. 

1780. Joseph II., her son, emperor in 1765 : suc- 
ceeded to Hungary on the death of his 
mother. 

1790. Leopold II., brother of Joseph IL, emperor : 
succeeded by his son, 

1792. Francis I. (Francis II. as emperor of Ger- 
many) : in 1804 he became emperor of 
Austria only. 

1835. Ferdinand V., son of Francis. Ferdinand 
I. as emperor of Austria. 
[This emperor would have been Ferdinand 
IV. of Germany, but for the change of 
style in 1804.] 

1848. Francis- Joseph, nephew of the preceding ; 

succeeded on the abdication of his uncle, 
Dec. 2, 1848. The present (1850) King 
of Hungary and Emperor of Austria. 

For the last three centuries the succession of the 
kings of Hungary varies little from the succes- 
sion of the emperors, the crown having continued 
in the house of Austria. 



BOHEMIA. 

Anciently ^ozemMW and Boihemum, — Tacitus. So called from a tribe under the 
name of Boii, wliich settled in the country several centuries before the Christian era. 
The Boii were expelled by the Marcomanni, and fixed themselves in Boiaria^ now 
Bavaria; but their conquerors, in their turn, were subdued by the Sclavonians. 
Notwithstanding the expulsion of the first settlers, the present inhabitants are still 
called Bohemians. Bohemia had formerly an elective government, but Ferdinand 1. 
declared it hereditary in the house of Austria in 1547 ; and the kingdom may be said 
to have remained since that time in the undisturbed possession of the emperor.^ 



Dukes and Kings. 

890. Borzivoi, duke : Christianity introduced. 936. Boleslas I. 

902. Spitigneus I. 967. Boleslas II. le Debonnaire, 

907. Wratislas I. 999. Boleslas III. 

916. Wenceslas I. 1002. Jaromir. 



1 In the early part of the 17th century, the Bohemians made an attempt to shake off the imperial yoke, and 
offered the crown to the elector palatine Frederick, then the most powerful Protestant prince in Germany; but 
he was driven out of Bohemia by the emperor's generals, stripped of his other dominions, and obliged to depend 
on James I. of England, whose daughter Elizabeth he had married, for a scanty subsistence. 



POLAND. 



55 



1012. Udalric. 

1037. Bretislas I. 

1055. Spitigneus II. 

1061. Wratislas II. : the title of king conferred 
upon him by the emperor Henry IV. 

1092. Conrad I. ; duke. 

1093. Bretislas II. ; duke. 
1100. Borzivoi II.; duke. 
1107. Suatopluc; duke. 
1109. Ladislas II.; duke. 
1125. Sobieslas; duke. 
1140. Ladislas III. ; 2d king. 
1174. Sobieslas II. ; duke. 
1178. Frederic; duke. 

1190. Conrad II. ; duke. 

1191. Wenceslas II. ; duke. 
1193. Henry Bretislas ; duke. 

1196. Ladislas IV. ; duke. 

Kings. 

1197. Premislas I., styled the Victorious; 3d 

king. 

1230. Wenceslas III. 
1253. Premislas II. 
1278. Wenceslas IV. 
1305. Wenceslas V. 



1306. Henry and Rodolph, of Hapsburg. 

1310. John, count of Luxemburg, brother to the 
emperor : he was killed at the battle of 
Cressy in 1346. 

1346. Charles, his son, elected emperor in 1347. 

1378. Wenceslas VI., son of Charles : deposed as 
emperor in 1400. 

1419. Sigismund, emperor. 

1437. Albert, duke of Austria, and king of Hun- 
gary, and emperor. 

1440. Ladislas V. 

1458. George Podiebrad, the Protestant chief. 
1471. Ladislas VL 

1516. Louis I. (Louis II. of Hungary) loses his 

life at the battle of Mohatz, fought with 

the sultan Solyman. 
1526. Ferdinand I., who by his marriage with 

Anne, sister of Louis, succeeded to the 

crown. 

For the succeeding kings, see Emperors of Ger- 
many.''^ 

The crown of this kingdom having remained in 
the Austrian family from the days of Ferdi- 
nand I. with a form of election on each vacancy, 
was, by the treaty of Westphalia, secured to that 
house in hereditary succession in 1648. 



POLAND. 

The Poles were originally a tribe of Sclavonians, settled on the banks of the Danube, 
but they removed at an early period to the Vistula, where they became intermingled 
with the Goths. Their early history is very obscure, and is known chiefly by the 
accounts of writers of other nations. The country was for a long time governed by 
elective chiefs bearing the title of duke, no dynasty having been established before 
the sway of Piastus (842) whose family ruled for several centuries. The crown 
became afterwards strictly elective by a Diet, or assembly of the nobles, who chose 
from among themselves a king, upon every vacancy occasioned on the throne by 
death ; but since the dismemberment of Poland, each portion has been under the 
sovereignty of the power by which it was seized. 



Dukes and Kings of Poland. 



842. Piastus. 

861. Ziemovitus, his son. 

892. Lesko or Lescus IV. 

913. Ziemomislas, son of Lesko. 

964. Miecislas I. 

992. Boleslas I., surnamed the Lion-hearted; 
obtained the title of king from the em- 
peror Otho III. 
1025. Miecislas IL 

1034. Richense or Richsa, his consort, regent: 

driven from the government. 
1037. [Interregnum.] 

1041. Casimir I., her son, surnamed the Pacific; 

he had retired to a monastery, but was 

invited to the throne. 
1058. Boleslas II., styled the Intrepid. 
1081. Ladislas, called the Careless. 
1102. Boleslas III., surnamed Wry-mouth. 
1138. Ladislas IL, son of the preceding. 
1146. Boleslas IV., the Curled. 
1173. Miecislas III., the Old : deposed. 
1177. Casimir IL, surnamed the Just. 
1194. Lesko v., the White : relinquished. 
1200. Miecislas IV. : his tyranny restored Lesko, 

E 



but the latter was again forced to re- 
sign. 

1203. Ladislas IIL : retired. 
1206. Lesko V., a third time : assassinated ; suc- 
ceeded by his son, an infant. 
1227. Boleslas V., surnamed the Chaste. 
1279. Lesko VL, surnamed the Black. 
1289. [Interregnum.] 

1295. Premislas: assassinated. 

1296. Ladislas IV., the Short : deposed. 
1300. Wenceslas, king of Bohemia. 
1304. Ladislas, the Short, again. 

1333. Casimir IIL, the Great, one of the best 
princes of Poland : killed by a fall from 
his horse. 

1370. Louis, king of Hungary. 

1382. [Interregnum.] 

1385. Hedwige, daughter of Louis, and her con- 
sort, Jagello, duke of Lithuania, by the 
style of Ladislas V. 

1399. Ladislas V. alone : he united Lithuania to 
Poland. 

1434. Ladislas VI., his son; succeeded as king of 
Hungary 1440. 

4 



56 



PEINCES OF EUROPE. 



1 445. [ Interregnum. ] 

1445. Casimir IV. 

1492. John (Albert) I., his son. 

150»1. Alexander, prince of Livonia, brother of 
the preceding. 

1506. Sigismund I., brother of Alexander ; ob- 
tained the surname of Great. 

1548. Sigismund IL, Augustus, son of the last 
king ; a splendid reign ; added Livonia 
to his kingdom. 

1573. [Interregnum.] 

1574. Henry, duke of Anjou, brother to the king 

of France: he afterwards succeeded to 
the French throne. 

1575. Stephen Batthori, prince of Transylvania : 

established the Cossacks as a militia. 

1586. [Interregnum.] 

1587. Sigismund III., son of the king of Sweden, 

to the exclusion of Maximilian of Austria, 

elected by the nobles. 
1632. Ladislas VII., Vasa, son of Sigismund III. ; 

succeeded by his brother, 
1648. John IL, or Casimir V. : abdicated, and 

retired to France, where he died in 

1672. 

1668. [Interregnum.] 



1669. Michael-Koributh-Wiesnowiski : in this 
reign the Cossacks join the Turks, and 
ravage Poland. 

1674. John III., Sobieski ; an illustrious warrior, 
whose victories over the Cossacks, Turks, 
and Tartars procure him the crown. 

1697. [Interregnum.] 

1697. Frederick-Augustus, son of John-George, 

elector of Saxony, and elector in 1694 : 

deprived of his crown. 
1704. Stanislas I. (Lezinski), forced to retire from 

his kingdom. 
1709. Frederick- Augustus, again. 
1734. Frederick-Augustus IL, son of the preceding 

sovereign. 

1763. [Interregnum.] 

1764. Stanislas IL, Augustus Poniatowski, com- 

mences his unhappy reign. 
1772. The Austrians, Russians, and Prussians 

make their first division of Poland. 
1793. Second great division of the kingdom by 

the same powers. 
1795. Final partition of Poland, and deposition 

of the king, who died at St. Petersburg, 

a state prisoner in 1798. 



EUSSIA. 



Anciently Sarmatia and Scythia. — Herodotus. Peopled by numerous tribes who were 
comprehended in the general name of Scythians by the Romans. Rurick was great 
duke in the 9th century ; and Yladimir or Waldimir, called the Apostle and the 
Solomon of Russia, was the first Christian sovereign in the lOth. His marriage with 
Ann, sister to the Eastern emperors Basil and Constantine, led to the adoption of the 
doctrines of the Greek Church in his dominions. The history of Russia previous to 
the last three or four centuries is involved in much obscurity, and it does not appear 
that any of the states existing in this vast tract of country were considerable, 
or that the events connected with them differed much from those of other barbarous 
nations. 

Dukes, Czars, and Emperors. 



Dukes of Kiov. 

862. Rurick. 
878. Igor. 

945 fOlega, regent. 

i Swiatoslaw or Spendoblos. 
972. Jaropalk I. 

980. Vladimir, Wladimir, or Waldimir I., styled 

the Great. 
1015. Jaraslaw or Jaroslaf I. 
1054. Isjialaw I. 
1078. Wsewolod I. 
1093. Swiatopalk. 
1114. Vladimir II. 
1125. Mtislaw or Michael I. 
1132. Jaropalk II. 
1138 fWiatschelaw. 
1139. I Wsewolod II. 
1146. f Isjialaw II. 

1154. (Rostislaw. 

1155. Jurie or George I. : the city of Moscow was 

built by this duke. 

Grand-Dukes of Wladimir. 

1 1 ^1 ("Andrew I. until 1175 ; first grand-duke. 
1 Michael II. 



1177. Wsewolod III. 

1213 y J^i'i® or George II. 

(Constantine, until 1218. 
1238. Jaraslaw II. ; succeeded by his son, 
1245. Alexander Nevski or Newski, the Saint. 
1263. Jaraslaw III. 
1270. Vasali or Basil I. 
1277. *Dmitri or Demetrius I. 
1284. *Andrew II. 
1294. *Daniel Alexandrowitz. 
1302. *Jurie or George III. : deposed. 
1305. *Michael III. 
1320. *Vasali or Basil II. 
1325. *Jurie or George III. : restored. 

Grand-Dukes of Moscow. 
1328. Ivan or John I. 
1340. Simon, surnamed the Proud. 
1353. Ivan or John II. 
1359. Demetrius II., prince of Susdal. 
1362. Demetrius III., Donskoi. 
1389. *Vasah or Basil III. Temnoi. 
1425. Vasali or Basil IV, 

1462. Ivan (Basilovitz) or John III. : laid the 
foundation of the present monarchy. 



KOME. 



57 



1584. 



1598. 



1505. Vasili or Basil V. ; obtained the title of 
emperor from Maximilian I. 
[Those marked thus * are doubtful, owing 
to the difficulty that occurs at every 
step in early Russian annals. ] 

Czars of Muscovy. 
1533. Ivan (Basilovitz) IV. first tzar or czar 
(great king) in 1547. 
Feodor or Theodore I. : supposed to have 
been poisoned, and his son Demetrius 
murdered by his successor. 
Boris-Godonof, who usurped the throne. 
1606. Demetrius, the Impostor, a young Polonese 
monk: pretended to be the murdered 
prince Demetrius : put to death. 
1606. Vasili-Chouiski, or Zuinski. 
1610. [Interregnum.] 

1613. Michael -Federowitz, of the house of Ro- 
manof, descended from the czar John- 
Basilovitz. 

1645. Alexis, son of the preceding, styled the 

Father of his countrv. 
1676. Feodor or Theodore 11." 
I Ivan IV. and 

I Peter I., brothers of the preceding. 
Emperors. 

1689. Peter I. the Great, alone ; took the title of 



1682. 



1725. Catherine I., his consort ; at first the ivife 
of a Swedish dragoon, who is said to 
have been killed on the day of mar- 
riage. 

1727. Peter IT., son of Alexis-Petrowitz and 
grandson of Peter the Great : deposed. 

1780. Anne, duchess of Courland, daughter of the 
czar Ivan. 

1740. Ivan VI., an infant, grand-nephew to Peter 

the Great : immured in a dungeon for 18 
years ; murdered in 1762. 

1741. Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, 

reigned during Ivan's captivity. 
1762. Peter III., son of Anne and of Charles- 
Frederick, duke of Holstein-Gottorp : 
deposed, and died soon after, supposed 
to have been murdered. 
1762. Catharine II., his consort ; a great sove- 
reign ; extended the Russian territories 
on all sides : died in 1796. 
1796. Paul, her son : found dead in his chamber ; 

supposed to have been murdered. 
1801. Alexander, his son ; who after many ad- 
verse battles, and a forced alliance with 
France, at length aided in the overthrow 
of Napoleon Buonaparte. 
1825. Nicholas, brother to Alexander ; succeeded 
to the throne, Dec. 1, 1825. The present 
(1850) Emperor of Russia. 



emperor in 1721, founded St. Petersburg, 
and elevated the empire. 

The Emperor. Nicholas I. Paulowitch, born July 6 (June 25), 1796 ; succeeded his brother, the 
emperor Alexander, Dec. 1 (Nov. 19), 1825, " en vertu du manifeste du 28 (16) Aout 1823, et de 
Vacte par lequel le grand-due Constantin renongait a ses droits au trone ; " crowned Sept. 3 (Aug. 
22), 1826 ; married, July 13 (1), 1817, Alexandra-Feodorowna (previousl}^ Frederica-Louisa- 
Charlotte-Wilhelmina (born July 13 (2), 1798), daughter of the late Frederick- William III., 
king of Prussia ; and has issue : 

1. Alexander-Nicolaewitch, cesarewitch and hereditary grand-duke, born 29 (17) April, 

1818; married, April 28 (16), 1841, Cesarewna-Alexandrowna, previously Maximiliana- 
Wilhelmina-Augusta-Sophia-Mary (born Aug. 8, 1824), daughter of the late Louis, 
grand-duke of Hesse ; and has issue : 

I. Nicolas- Alexandrewitch, born Sept. 20 (8), 1843. 
II. Alexander- Alexandrewitch, born March 10 (Feb. 26), 1845. 
III. Vladimir- Alexandrewitch, born April 22 (10), 1847. 

2. Mary-Nicolaewna, born Aug. 18 (6), 1819 ; married, July 14 (2), 1839, to Maximilian, duke 

of Leuchtenberg and prince of D'Eichstaedt. 

3. Olga-Nicolaewna, born Sept. 11 (Aug. 31), 1822 ; married, July 13 (1), 1846, to the prince- 

royal of Wurtemberg. 

4. Constantine-Nicolaewitch, born Sept. 21 (9), 1827; married, Sept. 11 (Aug. 31), 1848, 

Alexander- Jossefowna, previously Alexandrina-Frederica-Henrietta-Pauline (born July 
20 (8), 1830), daughter of Joseph, duke of Saxe-Altenburg. 

5. Nicolas-Nicolaewitch, born Aug. 8 (July 27), 1831. 

6. Michael-Nicolaewitch, born Oct. 25 (13), 1832. 
Brother and Sisters : 

1. Mary-Paulowna, grand-duchess of Saxe- Weimar. 

2. Anne-Paulowna, widow of William IL, king of the Netherlands, who died March 17, 1849. 

3. Michael -Paulowitch, born Feb. 8 (Jan. 28), 1798 ; died Sept. 9, 1849. His widow, Helene- 

Paulowna, previously Frederica-Charlotte-Mary, is the daughter of prince Paul, of 
Wurtemberg, brother of the king. Her daughter is Catharine-Michaelowna, born 
Aug. 28 (16), 1827. 



ROME. 

Once the mistress of the world, and subsequently the seat of the most extensive 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction ever acknowledged by mankind. Rome was first governed 
by kings, v/ho ruled for a period of 243 years. It afterwards became a commonwealth, 
which existed under consuls 479 years. The Roman empire commonly dates from 
31 B.C., the year wherein (Sept. 2.) was fought the battle of Actium, which gave to 
Augustus (the title afterwards conferred by the senate upon Octavius Caisar) the 
supreme power. We shall commence our account with the kings of Rome, as these 
are, not unfrequently, the subjects of historical reference. 



58 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



Kings of Rome. 



Before Christ. 
753. Romulus : murdered by the senators. 

[Tatius, king of the Cures, had removed 
to Rome in 747, and ruled jointly with 
Romulus six years.] 
716. [Interregnum.] 

715. Numa Pompilius, son-in-law of Tatius the 
Sabine, elected : died at the age of 82. 

672. Tullus Hostilius: murdered by his suc- 
cessor, by whom his palace was set on 
fire ; his family perished in the flames. 

640. Ancus Martins, grandson of Numa. 

616. Tarquinius Priscus; son of Demaratus, a 
Corinthian emigrant, chosen king. 

573. Servius Tullius; a manumitted slave ; 
married the king's daughter ; and suc- 



ceeded by the united suffrages of the 
army and the people. 

534. Tarquinius Superbus, grandson of Tar- 
quinius Priscus : assassinates his father- 
in-law, and usurps the throne. 

510. [The rape of Lucretia, by Sextus, son of 
Tarquin, leads to the abolition of roy- 
alty.] 

Republic. 
First period. From the expulsion of Tar- 
quin to the dictatorship of Sylla, 510 to 
82 B. c. 

Second period. From Sylla to Augustus, 
82 to 31 B. c. 



Emperors of Rome. 



Before Christ. 
48. Caius Julius Cassar; perpetual dictator: 

assassinated March 15, 44 b. c. 
31. Octavianus Caesar ; in the year 27 b. c. 

Augustus imperator. — Livy. 

After Christ. 
14. Tiberius (Claudius Nero). 
37. Caius Caligula : murdered by a tribune. 
41. Claudius (Tiber. Drusus) : poisoned by his 

wife Agrippina, to make way for 
54. Claudius Nero: deposed; put himself to 

death to escape a yet more terrible end. 

68. Servius Sulpicius Galba : slain by the prae- 

torian band. 

69. M. Salvius Otho : stabbed himself, after a 

reign of three months. 
69. Aulus Vitellius: deposed by Vespasian, 

and put to death. 
69. Titus Flavins Vespasian. 
79. Titus (Vespasian) his son. 
81. Titus-Flavius-Domitian, brother of Titus ; 

last of the Twelve Caesars : assassinated. 
96. Cocceius Nerva. 
98. Trajan (M. Ulpius Crinitus). 
117. Adrian or Hadrian (Publius ^lius). 
138. Antoninus Titus, surnamed Pius. 
161. Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus, his 

son-in-law : the latter died in 169. 
180. Commodus (L. Aurelius Antoninus), son of 
Marcus Aurelius: poisoned by his fa- 
vourite mistress, Martia. 
193. Publius -Helvius-Pertinax : put to death 
by the praetorian band. 
[Four emperors now start up : Didius Ju- 
lianus, at Rome ; Pescennius Niger, in 
Sjaia ; Lucius Septimius Severus, in 
Pannonia ; and Clodius Albinus, in 
Britain. ] 

193. Lucius Septimius Severus : died at York, 
in Britain, in 211 ; succeeded by his sons 

211. M. Aurelius Caracalla, and Septimius Geta. 
Geta murdered the same year by his 
brother, who reigned alone until 217, 
when he was slain by his successor, 

217. M. Opilius Macrinus, praefect of the guards : 

beheaded in a mutiny. 

218. Heliogabalus (M. Aurelius Antoninus), a 

youth : put to death for his follies and 
enormities by his incensed subjects. 



222. Alexander Severus : assassinated by some 
soldiers corrupted by Maximinus. 

235. Caius Julius Verus Maximinus : assas- 
sinated in his tent before the walls of 
Aquileia. 

237. M. Antonius Gordianus, and his son : the 
latter having been killed in a battle 
with the partisans of Maximinus, the 
father strangled himself in a fit of de- 
spair, at Carthage, in his 80 th year. 

237. Balbinus and Pupienus : put to death. 

238. Gordian junior, grandson of the elder 

Gordian, in his 16tli year : assassinated 
by the guards, at the instigation of his 
successor, 

244. Philip, the Arabian: assassinated by his 
own soldiers; his son Philip was mur- 
dered, at the same time, in his mother's 
arms. 

249. Metius Decius : he perished, with his two 
sons, and their army, in an engagement 
with the Goths. 

251. Gallus Hostilius, and his son Volusianus : 
both slain by the soldiery. 

253. ^milianus : put to death after a reign of 
only four months. 

253. Valerianus, and his son, Gallienus : the 
first was taken prisoner by Sapor, king 
of Persia, and flayed alive. 

260. Gallienus reigned alone. 

[About this time thirty pretenders to im- 
perial power start up in different parts 
of the empire ; of these, Cyriades is the 
first, but he is slain. ] 

268. Claudius II. (Gallienus having been assas- 
sinated by the oflacers of the guard) 
succeeds : died of the plague. 

270. Quintillus, his brother, elected at Rome by 
the senate and troops ; Aurelian by the 
army in Illyricum. Quintillus, despair- 
ing of success against his rival, who 
was marching against him, opened his 
veins, and bled himself to death. 

270. Aurelian: assassinated by his soldiers in 
his march against Persia, in Jan. 275. 

275. [Interregnum of about nine months.] 

275. Tacitus, elected Oct. 25 : died at Tarsus 

in Cilicia, April 13, 276. 

276. Florian, his brother: his title not recog- 

nised by the senate. 



HOME, ETC. 



59 



276. M. Aurelius Probus : assassinated by his 
troops at Sirmium. 

282. M. Aurelius Carus : killed at Ctesiphon by 

lightning ; succeeded by his sons, 

283. Carinus and Numerianus : both assassin- 

ated, after transient reigns. 

284. Diocletian ; who associated as his colleague 

in the government, 
286. Maximianus Hercules: the two emperors 
resign in favour of 

305. Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Maxi- 

mianus : the first died at York, in 
Britain, in 306, and the troops saluted 
as emperor, his son, 

306. Constantine, afterwards styled the Great : 

whilst at Rome the praetorian band pro- 
claimed, 

306. Maxentius, son of Maximianus Hercules. 

Besides these were, 
306. Maximianus Hercules, who endeavoured 

to recover his abdicated power, 

306. Flavins Valerius Severus, murdered by 

the last-named pretender, and, 

307. Flavins Valerianus Licinius, the brother- 

in-law of Constantine. 



[Of these, Maximianus Hercules Avas 
strangled in Gaul in 310 ; Galerius 
Maximianus died wretchedly in 311 ; 
Maxentius was drowned in the Tiber in 
312 ; and Licinius was put to death by 
order of Constantine in 324.] 
324. Constantine the Great now reigned alone : 
died on Whitsunday, May 22, 337. 

'"Sons of Constantine ; 
divided the empire 
between them : the 
first was slain in 340, 
and the second mur- 
dered in 350, when 
the third became sole 
emperor. 

Julian, the Apostate, so called for abjuring 
Christianity, having been educated for 
the priesthood : mortally wounded in a 
battle with the Persians. 
363. Jovian ; reigned 8 months : found dead in 
his bed, supposed to have died from the 
fumes of charcoal. 
[The Roman Empire may be said to have 
terminated here, as a single dominion.] 



rConstantine H. 
337.-! Constans 

t Constantius II. 



361. 



DIVISION OF THE EASTERN AND WESTERN EMPIRE. 



Western Empire.^ 



364. Valentinian, son of Gratian, takes the 

Western, and his brother, Yalens, the 

Eastern, Empire. 
367. Gratian, a youth, son of Valentinian, made 

a colleague in the government, by his 

father. 

375. Valentinian II., another son, also very 
young, is, on the death of his father, 
associated with his brother in the em- 
pire. Gratian is assassinated by his 
general, Andragathius, in 383; Valen- 
tinian murdered by one of his officers, 
Arbogastes, in 392. 

392. Eugenius, an usurper, assumes the imperial 
dignity : he and Arbogastes are defeated 
by Theodosius the Great, who becomes 
sole emperor. 
[Andragathius throws himself into the sea, 
and Arbogastes dies by his own hand.] 

395. Honorius, son of Theodosius, reigns, on his 
father's death, in tha West, and his 
brother, Arcadius, in the East. Ho- 
norius dies in 423. 
[Usurpation of John, the Notary, who is 
defeated and slain, near Ravenna.] 

425. Valentinian III., son of the empress Pla- 
cidia, daughter of Theodosius the Great : 
murdered at the instance of his suc- 
cessor. 

455. Maximus : he marries Eudoxia, widow of 
Valentinian, who, to avenge the death 



of her first husband and the guilt of her 
second, invites the African Vandals into 
Italy, and Rome is sacked. Maximus 
stoned to death. 

456. Marcus Maecilius Avitus : forced to resign, 

and dies in his flight towards the Alps. 

457. Julius- Valerius Majorianus : murdered at 

the instance of his minister Ricimer; 
who raises 

461. Libius Severus to the throne, but holds 
the supreme power. Severus is poi- 
soned by Ricimer. 

465. [Interregnum. Ricimer retains the autho- 
rity, without assuming the title, of em- 
peror.] 

467. Anthemius, chosen by the joint suff'rages 
of the senate and army: murdered by 
Ricimer, who dies soon after. 

472. Flavius-Anicius Olybrius: slain by the 

Goths soon after his accession. 

473. Glycerins: forced to abdicate by his suc- 

cessor. 

474. Julius Nepos : deposed by his general, 

Orestes, and retires to Salonse. 

475. Romulus Augustulus, son of Orestes. 

Orestes is slain, and the emperor de- 
posed by 

476. Odoacer, king of the Heruli, who takes 

Rome, assumes the style of king of 
Italy, and completes the fall of the 
Western Empire. 



Italy. 

476. Odoacer, chief of the Heruli, king. 536. Vitiges. 

493. Theodoric, the Ostrogoth. 540. Theodebald. 

526. Athalaric. 541. Araric. 

634. Theodatus. 541. Totila, or Baduilla. 



1 Some writers date the Western Empire from the death of Theodosius the Great, January 17, 395 ; and aa 
completed by Odoacer, on the defeat of Orestes by that prince, on August 23, 476. 



60 



PKINCES OF EUROPE, ETC. 



552. Teia, the last of the Goths. 

553. Narses, duke or governor of Italy. 
[ISTarses was succeeded by Longinus, who 

made the chief towns of Italy exarch- 
ates: he governed at Ravenna, which 
was afterwards ruled by imperial lieu- 
nants called exarchs, until 752, when it 
was reduced by the Lombards.] 

668. Alboinus, the Lombard. 

573. Cleophis. 

575. [Interregnum of 10 years, during which 
the Lombards were governed by elective 
dukes. ] 

Kings of the Lombards. 
684. Autharis. 

590. Romanus. 

591. Agilulphus. 

615. Adawaldus, Avith his mother, Theodolinda. 

625. Ariwaldus. 

636. Rotharis, duke of Brescia. 

652. Rodoaldus. 

653. Aribert I. 

661. Pertharitus: deposed. 

661. Gondibert. 

662. Grimoald. 

671. Pertharitus, restored. 
686. Cunibert, his son. 



700. Luitpert, or Leutbert. 

701. Ragimbertus. 
701. Aribert II. 
712. Luitprandus. 
744. Hildebrand. 

744. Ratchis, duke of Friuli. 

749. Astolphus. 

756. Desiderius, or Didier. 

[In 774, Desiderius, the last of the Lom- 
bards, was taken prisoner by Charle- 
magne, and the kingdom of Italy was 
united, first to France, and afterwards 
to the empire, until 888, when it was 
separated from the latter, on the death 
of Charles le Gros.] 

888. Berenger, duke of Friuli : deposed. 

900. Louis, the Blind. 

905. Berenger, restored. 

922. Rodolph, king of Burgundy. 

926. Hugh, count of Provence. 

945. Lothaire. 

950. Berenger II. : deposed. 

962. [The emperor Otho reduced Italy, and 
re-united it to the German empire. In 
1805, Napoleon Buonaparte revived the 
ancient title of king of Italy, which did 
not long endure.] 



Eastern Empire. 



364. Valens, son of Gratian, takes the Eastern, 
and his brother Valentinian the Western, 
Empire : defeated by the Goths and 
wounded in his retreat; his soldiers 
placed him in a cabin, which the enemy 
burnt, not knowing he was there. 

379. Theodosius the Great: becomes sole em- 
peror in 392 ; succeeded by his sons, 

395. Arcadius in the East, and Honorius in the 
West. Arcadius is succeeded by 

408. Theodosius II., his son, under the guardian- 
ship of his sister Pulcheria. 

450. Marcianus. 

457. Leo I., surnamed the Thracian. 

474. Leo IL, the younger, his grandson. 

474. Zeno, the Isaurian, father of the preceding 
(having married Ariadne, daughter of 
Leo 1.) : deposed, but restored. 

491. Anastatius I., the Silentiary. 

518. Justin, the Thracian. 

527. Justinian L, nephew of Justin: collector 
of the body of laws called the Digest, 
now the Pandectcs Florentince, and of the 
Novellce ; and founder of the magnificent 
church of St. Sophia at Constantinople. 
The renowned Belisarius was his general. 

565. Justin IL, nephew of Justinian. 

578. Tiberius II. 

582. Maurice, the Cappadocian : murdered, with 

all his children, by his successor, 
602. Phocas, the Usurper, whose crimes and 

cruelties led to his own assassination, 

in 610. 

610. Heraclius, by whom Phocas was dethroned. 

641. Constantine HI. (Heraclius-Constantine) ; 
reigned a few months : poisoned by his 
step-mother Martina. 

641. Constans II. : assassinated in a bath. 

668. Constantine IV., Pogonatus. 

6b5. Justinian IL, son of the preceding; ab- 
horred for his exactions, debaucheries, 



and cruelties : dethroned and mutilated 
by his successor. 

695. Leontius: dethroned and mutilated by 
Tiberius Aspimar. 

698. Tiberius III. Aspimar. 

705. Justinian IL restored. Leontius and Tibe- 
rius degraded in the Hippodrome, and 
put to death. Justinian slain in 711. 

711. Phillippicus-Bardanes : assassinated. 

713. Anastatius II. : fled on the election of 
Theodosius in 716 ; afterwards delivered 
up to Leo III., and put to death. 

716. Theodosius III. 

718. Leo III., the Isaurian. 

[In this reign (726) commences the great 
Iconoclastic controversy ; the alternate 
prohibition and restoration of images 
involves the peace of several reigns. ] 

741. Constantine Y. Copronymus, son of the 
preceding ; succeeded by his son, 

775. Leo lY. 

780. Constantine YL, and his mother Irene. 

790. Constantine, alone, by the desire of the 
people, Irene having become unpopular. 

792. Irene, again, jointly with her son, and 
afterwards alone : deposed for her cru- 
elties and murders, and exiled. 

802. Nicephorus I., surnamed Logothetes : slain. 

811. Staurachius : reigns a few days only. 

811. Michael I. : defeated in battle, abdicates 
the throne, and retires to a monastery. 

813. Leo Y., the Armenian : killed in the temple 
at Constantinople on Christmas-day, 820, 
by conspirators in the interest of his 
successor, 

820. Michael IL, the Stammerer. 

829. Theophilus, son of Michael. 

842. Michael III., surnamed Porphyrogennetes, 
or the Sot, son of the preceding ; succeeds 
under the regency of his mother, Theo- 
dora : put to death by Basilius. 



TURKEY. 



61 



867. Basilius L, the Macedonian. 

886. Leo VI., styled the Philosopher. 

911. Alexander, and Constantine VII., brother 
and son of Leo, the latter only six years 
of age ; the former dying in 912, Zoe, 
mother of Constantine, assumes the 
regency. 

919. Romanus*^ Lecapenus usurps the imperial 

power. 

920. Constantine VIII., his son. 
928. Stephen and Christopher. 

[Five emperors now reign : of these, Chris- 
topher dies in 931 ; Romanus is exiled 
by his sons, Constantine and Stephen, 
who are themselves banished the next 
year. 

945. Constantine VII. now reigns alone: poi- 
soned by his daughter-in-law Theo- 
phania. 

959. Romanus II., son of the preceding : this 
monster, who had contrived his father's 
death, banishes his mother Helena, de- 
bauches his sisters, and dies from disease 
engendered by his vices, aged 24. 

963. Nicephorus II. Phocas : marries Theo- 
phania, his predecessor's consort, who 
has him assassinated. 

969. John I. Zemisces, celebrated general ; takes 
Basilius II. and Constantine IX., sons 
of Romanus II., as colleagues: John 
dies, supposed by poison, and 

975. Basilius II. and Constantine IX. reign 
alone: the former dies in 1025; the 
latter in 1028. 
1028. Romanus III. Argjrropulus : poisoned by 

his consort Zoe, who raises 
1034. Michael IV., the Paphlagonian, to the 
throne : on his death Zoe places 

1041. Michael V., surnamed Calaphates, as his 

successor: him she dethrones, has his 
eyes put out, and marries 

1042. Constantine X. Monomachus, who, and 

Zoe, reign jointly : Zoe dies in 1050. 
1054. Theodora, widow of Constantine. 

1056. Michael VI. Stratiotic : deposed. 

1057. Isaac I. Comnenus : abdicates. 
1059. Constantine XL, surnamed Ducas. 

1067. Eudocia, consort of the preceding, and Ro- 
manus IV., surnamed Diogenes, whom 
she marries : reign to the prejudice of 
Michael, Constantine's son. 
1071. Michael VII. Parapinaces, recovers his 
throne, and reigns jointly with 
Constantine XII. 
1078. Nicephorus III. : dethroned by 
1081. Alexius I. Comnenus : succeeded by 
1118. John-Comnenus, his son, surnamed Kalos : 
died of a wound from a poisoned arrow. 
1143. Manuel 1. Comnenus, son of John. 



1180. Alexius II. Comnenus, son of the pre- 
ceding, under the regency of the em- 
press Maria, his mother. 

1183. Andronicus I. Comnenus ^ causes Alexius 
to be strangled, and seizes the throne : 
put to death b}^ 

1185. Isaac II. Angelus- Comnenus, w ho is de- 
posed, imprisoned, and deprived of his 
eyes by his brother 

1195. Alexius III. Angelus, called the Tyrant : 
this last deposed, in his turn, and his 
eyes put out ; died in a monastery. 

1203. Isaac IL, again, associated with his son, 

Alexius IV. : deprived. 

Latin Emperors. 

1204. Baldwin L, earl of Flanders, on the cap- 

ture of Constantinople by the Latins, 
elected emperor: made a prisoner by 
the king of Bulgaria, and never heard 
of afterwards. 

1206. Henry L, his brother: dies in 1217. 

1217. Peter de Courtenay, his brother-in-law. 

1221. Robert de Courtena}^, his son. 

1228. Baldwin II., his brother, a minor, and 
John de Brienne, of Jerusalem, regent 
and associate emperor. 

1261. [Constantinople recovered, and the em- 
pire of the Franks or Latins terminates.] 

Greek Empire at Nice. 
1204. Theodore Lascaris. 

1222. John Ducas, Vataces. 

1255. Theodore Lascaris IL, his son. 

1259. John Lascaris, and 

1260. Michael VIII. Palaeologus. 

Emperors at Constantinople. 

1261. Michael VIIL, now at Constantinople : he 

puts out the eyes of John, and reigns 
alone. 

1282. Andronicus II. Palaeologus, the Elder, son 
of the preceding : deposed by his grand- 
son, Andronicus the Younger. 

1332. Andronicus HI., the Younger. 

1341. John Palaeologus, under the guardianship 
of John Cantacuzenus : the latter pro- 
claimed emperor at Adrianople. 

1347. John Cantacuzenus. 

1355. John Palaeologus, restored. 

1391. Manuel Palaeologiis, his son : succeeded by 
his son and colleague, 

1425. John Paljeologus II. 

1448. Constantine XIII. Palaeologus, his son. 

1453. [Constantinople taken on May 29, 1453, 
by the Ottomans, under their sultan, 
Mahomet II. : Constantine is slain, and 
with him ends the Eastern Empire.] 



OTTOMAN OR TURKISH EMPIRE. 

The Turks are of Tartar descent. There is a rapid river called Turh^ running into 
the Caspian Sea, from which some suppose this people to take their name. About 
the year A. d. 800 they obtained possession of a part of Armenia, called from them 
Turcomania ; and they afterwards gradually extended their power. Their dominions, 
divided for some time into petty states, were united under Othman, from whom his 



62 



PRINCES OF EUROPE, ETC. 



subjects obtained the name of Ottomans. He establislied his empire at Prusa, in 
Bithynia, in the year 1299, and his successors extended their conquests over the 
adjacent parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 1453 Constantinople was taken by 
Mahomed II. which put an end to the Eastern Empire. 

Turkish Emperors. 



1299. Othman, or Ottoman, who assumed the 
title of Grand Seignior. 

1326. Orchan, son of Othman. 

1360. Amurath I. : stabbed by a soldier, of which 
wound he died. 

1389. Bajazet I., his son: defeated by Tamer- 
lane, and died imprisoned. 

1402. Solyman, son of Bajazet: dethroned by 
his brother and successor. 

1410. Musa-Chelebi : strangled. 

1413. Mahomed I., also son of Bajazet. 

1421. Amurath II., succeeded by his son, 

1451. Mahomed II., by whom Constantinople 
was taken, in 1453. 

1481. Bajazet II, : deposed by his son. 

1512. Selim I., who succeeded him. 

1520. Solyman the Magnificent, son of the pre- 
ceding: the most eventful reign in 
modern Turkish annals. 

1566. Selim II., son of the last. 

1574. Amurath III., his son : on his accession he 
caused his five brothers to be murdered, 
and their mother, in grief, stabbed her- 
self to death. 

1595. Mahomed III., son of Amurath : com- 
menced his reign by strangling all his 
brothers, and drowning all his father's 
wives. 

1603. Ahmed, or Achmet, his son: succeeded by 
his brother 



1617. Mustapha I. ; deposed by the Janissaries, 

and imprisoned : succeeded by his ne- 
phew, 

1618. Osman I. : strangled by the Janissaries, 

and his uncle restored. 

1622. Mustapha I., again: again deposed, sent 

to the Seven Towers, and strangled. 

1623. Amurath IV. : succeeded by his brother, 
1640. Ibrahim: strangled by the Janissaries. 
1649. Mahomed IV., son of Ibrahim: deposed, 

and died imprisoned. 
1687. Solyman III., his brother. 
1691. Ahmed, or Achmet II. : succeeded by his 

nephew, 

1695. Mustapha II., eldest son of Mahomet IV. : 
deposed ; succeeded by his brother, 

1703. Ahmed, or Achmet III. : deposed, and 
died in prison in 1736. 

1730. Mahmud, or Mahomed V., succeeded his 
uncle, the preceding sultan. 

1754. Osman II., brother of Mahmud. 

1757. Mustapha III., brother of Osman. 

1774. Abdul-Ahmed. 

1788. Selim III. : deposed by the Janissaries, and 
his nephew raised to the throne. 

1807. Mustapha IV. : deposed, and, with the 

late sultan, Selim, murdered. 

1808, Mahmud II. : succeeded by his son, 
1839. Abdul-Medjid, the present (1850) Sultan. 



Sultan Abdul-Medjid-Khan, born May 6, 1822 (14 Chaban, 1237), succeeded his father, the 
sultan Mahmud" Khan II., July 1, 1839 (19 Reby-el-aker, 1255) ; and has nine sons and daughters, 
viz. : — 

1. Sultan-Mohamed-Murad, born Sept. 22, 1840. 

2. Naime-Sultane, born Oct. 10, 1840. 

3. Fatime-Sultane, born Nov. 1, 1840. 

4. Refia-Sultane, born Feb. 6, 1842. 

5. Abdul-Hamid, born Sept. 21, 1842. 

6. Adlije-Sultane, born Oct. 18, 1842. 

7. Mehmed-Rechad, born Nov. 2, 1844. 

8. Munire-Sultane, born Dec. 9, 1844. 

9. Mehmed-Abid, born April 26, 1848, 
Brother and Sisters : 

1. Athie-Sultane, born May 1, 1826; the wife, since Aug. 1*3, 1840, of Fethi-Ahmed-Pacha. 

2. Sultan- Abdul'- Aziz, born May 27, 1830. 

3. Adile-Sultane, born Jan. 30, 1831 ; married June 12, 1845, to Mehmed-Ali-Pacha. 



PERSIA. 

At the grand partition of the dominions of Alexander the Great among his captains, 
Persia was annexed to the Syrian kingdom of Seleucus Nicator, but did not continue 
long so, for in the reign of Antiochus Theos, Arsases vindicated the independence of 
his country, and founded the monarchy of the Parthians. In the 3rd century of the 
Christian era a great internal convulsion took place, which terminated in the accession 
of the dynasty of the Sassanides, who restored the name, with the religion and laws 
of ancient Persia. This government was overthrown by the Saracens; and the 
successive invasions by the descendants of Zingis or Zenghis Khan, Timur, and by 
the Turks, changed entirely the aspect of Western Asia. Persia was the main theatre 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



63 



on which the Saracens contended for mastery with these invaders, and she suffered all 
the miseries to which a nation can be exposed from the devastation of barbarous and 
sanguinary hordes. At length, early in the 16th century, a new dynasty arose. 

Shahs of Persia. 



1502. Ismail or Ishmael. 
1523. Tamasp or Thamas I. 

1576. Ismail Meerza. 

1577. Mahomed Meerza. 

1582. Abbas I., the Great ; died in 1627, after a 

reign of 45 years. 
1627. Shah Soofe. 
1641. Abbas II. 
1666. Solyman. 
1694. Hussein: deposed. 
1722. Mahmoud. 

1725. Ashraff, the Usurper : slain in battle. 

1729. Tamasp or Thamas II. : recovered the 
throne of his ancestors from the pre- 
ceding. 

[Thamas-Kouli-Khan obtained great suc- 
cesses in this and the subsequent 
reigns.] 

1732. Abbas II., infant son of Tamasp, under the 
regency of Kouli-Khan, who afterwards 
caused himself to be proclaimed as Nadir 
Shah. 



1736. Nadir Shah (the Victorious King) : assas- 
sinated by his nephew at Korassan. 

1747. Adil Shah. 

1748. Shah Eokh. 
1750. [Interregnum.] 
1753. Kureem Khan. 

1779. Abool-Fatteh-Khan. 

1780. [Interregnum.] 

1781. AH-Moorad-Khan. 
1785. Jaffier Khan. 

1788. [Interregnum.] 

1789. Looft-Ali-Khan : betrayed into the hands 

of his successor, who ordered his eyes to 
be plucked out, and afterwards put him 
to death. 

1794. Aga-Mahommed-Khan : assassinated. 
1798. Feth-Ali-Shah. 

1834. Mahommed-Shah, grandson of Feth : suc- 
ceeded by his son, 

1848. Nasr-ul-Din i, or Nausser-ood-deen, or 
Nasser»ud-deen-Shah, Sept. 4. The 
PRESENT (1850) Shah of Persia. 



GEEECE. 

This country, once the foremost in the world, anciently consisted of the peninsula of 
the Peloponnesus, Greece outside of the Peloponnesus, Thessaly, and the islands : the 
limits of modern Greece are much more confined. It became subject to the Turkish 
empire in the 15th century, and has but recently again become a separate state. The 
treaty of London, on behalf of Greece, between England, France, and Kussia, was 
signed in Oct. 1827; count Capo d'lstria^ was declared president in Jan. 1828 ; and 
the Porte acknowledged the independence of Greece in April, 1830. It was after- 
wards erected into a kingdom, of which Otho I. of Bavaria was made king. 

King of Greece. 



1832. Otho, 2d son of Louis-Charles, king of 
Bavaria; bom June 1, 1815 ; elected by 
the government of the Grecian States, 
Oct. 5, 1832; ascended the throne as 
first king of Greece, Jan. 25, 1833. 



Married Nov. 20, 1836, Mary-Frederica- 
Amelia (born Dec. 21, 1818), daughter 
of the grand-duke of Oldenburg. The 
PRESENT (1850) King of Greece. 



UNITED STATES OF AMEEICA. 

The provinces of North America that revolted from the sovereignty of Great Britain 
were first styled "the United States," by a resolution of congress, Sept. 9, 1776. 

^ Col. Tarrant, in his despatches, calls the present monarch of Persia, Nausser-ood-deen-Shah. The French 
spell the name variously, sometimes Nasser-ed-deen, sometimes Nesser-ud-deen. The Almanach de Gotha gives 
us the names of European sovereigns only. We have made inquiries of two Persian scholars, and they tell us 
that the Persian way of spelling the name is, as we first write it above, Nasr-ul-Din. At the Foreign Office they 
adopt Col. Tarrant's orthography, — Editor. 

2 This distinguished statesman was shortly afterwards murdered by the brother and son of Maromichaelis, a 
Mainote chief, whom he had imprisoned. The wretched assassins were sentenced to be immured within close 
brick walls built around them up to their chins, and to be supplied with food in this lingering torture until they 
died. 



64 



PEINCES OF EUEOPE, ETC. 



Their independence was acknowledged by Great Britain, Nov. 30, 1782, and the 
definitive treaty of peace between Great Britain, France, Spain, and the United 
States, was signed at Paris, Sept. 3, 1783. 

The flag of the Union was declared to be thirteen stripes, alternately red and white, 
and thirteen stars in a blue field, corresponding with the then number of the states. 
The number of states at present (1850) is thirty- two, viz. : — 



Maine. 

New Hampshire. 
Vermont. 
Massachusetts. 
Rhode Island. 
. Connecticut. 
New York. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Delaware. 
Maryland. 



Virginia. 

North Carolina. 

South Carolina. 

Georgia. 

Florida. 

Alabama. 

Mississipi.. 

Louisiana. 

Texas. 

Arkansas. 

Tennessee. 



Kentucky. 

Ohio. 

Michigan. 

Indiana. 

Illinois. 

Missouri. 

Iowa. 

Wisconsin 

Oregon Territory, 

and the 
District of Columbia. 



Presidents of the United States. 



1789. General George Washington, first presi- 
dent. Elected April 6. 

1793. General Washington again. March 4. 

1797. John Adams. March 4. 

1801. Thomas Jefferson. March 4. 

1805. Mr. Jefferson. Re-elected March 4. 

1809. James Madison. March 4. 

1813. Mr. Madison. Re-elected March 4. 

1817. James Monroe. March 4. 

1821. Mr. Monroe. Re-elected, March 4. 

1825. John Quincy Adams. March 4. 

1829. General Jackson. March 4. 

1833. General Jackson. Re-elected, March 4. 

1837. Martin Van Buren. March 4. 



1841. General Wm. Henry Harrison. March 4. 

Died a month after, April 4. 
— John Tyler. April 4. 
1845. James Knox Polk. March 4. 

1849. General Zachary Taylor. March 4. Died 

July 9, 1850. 

1850. Millard Fillmore. Sworn into office, next 

day, July 10. The now President of 
the United States of America. 



The president, regularly elected, is always inaugu- 
rated on the 4th of March. 



BISHOPS AND POPES OF ROME. 



42. St. Peter : crucified, his head downwards 
in 66. 

** St. Clement (Clemens Romanus) ; according 
to Tertullian. 

66. St. Linus 1 : martyred. 

78. St. Anacletus : martyred. 

91. St. Clement : abdicated. 
100. St. Evaristus : martyred. 
109. St. Alexander : martyred. 
119. St. Sixtus: martyred. 
128. St. Telesphorus : martyred. 
139. St. Hyginus ; the first who was called pope, 
142. St. Pius : martyred. 
157. St. Anicetus. 

168. St. Soterus : martyred under Marcus An- 
toninus. 

176. St. Eleutherus : he opposed with great zeal 

the doctrine of the Valentinians. 
192. St. Victor : martyred under Severus. 
202. St. Zephirinus. 
219. St. Calixtus : martyred. 

222. [The chair vacant. ] 

223. St. Urban : beheaded in the persecution of 

Alexander Severus. 



230. St. Pontianus : banished by the emperor 
Maximin. 

235. St. Anterus : martyred. 

236. St. Fabian : martyred under Decius. 

250. [The chair vacant.] 

251. St. Cornelius : died the next year. 

252. St. Lucius : martyred the year following. 
lS"ovatianus ; antipope. 

253. St. Stephen : martyred in the persecution 

of Valerian. 

257. Sixtus II. (his coadjutor) martyred three 

days before his faithful disciple St. Lau- 
rence, in the persecution of Valerian, 
258. 

258. [The chair vacant.] 

259. Dionysius : opposed the heresy of Sabellius. 
269. Felix : martyred ; canonized. 

275. Eutychianus : martyred. 

283. Caius ; a relative of the emperor Diocletian. 

296. Marcellinus : distinguished by his courage 

under a severe persecution : canonized. 
304. [The chair vacant.] 

308. Marcellus: banished from Rome by the 
emperor Maxentius : canonized. 



1 St, Linus is set down in nearly all accounts of popes as the immediate successor of St. Peter ; but Tertullian, 
who was, undoubtedly, well informed, maintains that St. Clement succeeded the Apostle. In the first century 
of the Christian Church, neither the dates of succession, nor the succession of popes, are reconciled, even by the 
best authorities. 



BISHOPS AND POPES OF ROME. 



65 



310. St. Eusebius : died the same year. 

311. St. Melchiades : coadjutor to Eusebius. 
314. Silvester. 

336. Marcus or Mark : died the next year. 

337. Julius : of great piety and learning ; main- 

tained the cause of St. Athanasius. 

352. Liberius : banished, and in 

356. Felix II. antipope : placed in the chair by 
Constans, during the exile of Liberius, 
on whose return he was driven from it 
with ignominy. 
[The emperor would have the two popes 
reign together ; but the people cried out 
" One God, one Clirist, and one bishop."'] 

358. Liberius, again : abdicated. 

358. Felix became legal pope ; but he was made 

away with by Liberius. 

359. Liberius, again. 

366. Damasus : opposed the Arians ; St. Jerome 

was his secretary. 
384. Siricius: succeeded to the exclusion of 

Ursicinus. 

398. Anastasius : caused the works of Origen to 

be proscribed. 
402. Innocent I. 

417. Zosimus : canonized. 

418. Boniface I. : maintained in the pontifical 

chair by the emperor Honorius, against 
his rival, Eulalius : canonized. 

422. Celestine I. : canonized. 

432. Sixtus III. : suppressed the heresies of 
Nestorius and Pelagius in the west. 

440. Leo I. the Great : most zealous in his en- 
deavours to extend the papal see; 
canonized. 

461. St. Hilary. 

468. St. Simplicius. 

483. Felix III. : had a violent dispute with the 
emperor Zeno respecting the Western 
Church ; canonized. 

492. Gelasius : canonized. 

496. Anastasius II. : endeavoured to bring 
about a unity between the Eastern and 
Western Churches ; canonized. 

498. Symmachus : canonized. 

614. Laurentius, antipope. 

514. Hormisdas : canonized. 

523. John I.: thro^vn into prison, where he 
died in 526. 

626. Felix lY. : introduced extreme unction as 

a sacrament ; canonized. 
580. Boniface 11. 

533. John II. : opposed the Eutychians and 
Nestorians. 

535. Agapetus : died the same year. 

536. Silverius : son of pope Hormisdas, who had 

married before entering into the eccle- 
siastical state. The empress Theodosia 
violently persecuted him, and procured 
his banishment into Lycia, making Yi- 
gilius his successor. 
538. Yigilius : banished, but restored^ 
555. Pelagius I. : endeavoured to reform the 
manners of the clergy. 



560. J ohn III, : the great ornamenter of churches. 

673. [The see vacant.] 

574. Benedict I., surnamed Bonosus. 

578. Pelagius II. : died of the plague then de- 
solating Rome. 

590. Gregory the Great, an illustrious patrician : 
converted the English to Christianity. 

604. Sabinianus. 

606. Boniface III. : died in a few months. 

607. Boniface lY. 
614. Deusdedit. 
617. Boniface Y. 
625. Honorius I. 

639. [The see vacant.] 

640. Severinus : died shortly after. 
640. John lY. 

642. Theodorus I. 

649. Martin 1. : starved to death, some say ; 

died of his sufferings, others. 
654. Eugenius I. : canonized. 
657. Yitalianus : this pope sent missionaries into 

England. 
672. Adeodatus, the " Gift of God." 
676. Domnus I. 
678. Agathon. 

682. Leo II. : instituted holy-water. 

683. [The see vacant.] 

684. Benedict II. 

685. John Y. : ruled with wisdom. 

686. Conon. 

686. Theodore and Pascal ; antipopes. 

687. Sergius : " governed wisely." 
701. John YL 

705. John YII. 

708. Sisinnius : died 20 days after election. 
708. Constantine. 
715. Gregory II. : canonized. 
731. Gregory HI. : the first pope who sent nun- 
cios to foreign powers. 
741. Zacharias. 

752. Stephen II. : with this pope commenced 
the temporal power of the Church of 
Rome. 

757. Paul I. : moderate and pious. 
768. Stephen IH. 

772. Adrian I. : sanctioned images, in which he 
was opposed by the kings of England 
and France. 

795. Leo III. 

816. Stephen lY. : died the next year. 

817. Pascal L 
824. Eugenius II. 

827. Yalentinus. 

828. Gregory lY. : pious and learned. 
844. Sergius II. 

847. Leo lY. : defeated the Saracens, i 

[Between Leo lY. and the next pontiff, 
Benedict HI., an absurd story, not worth 
refutation, places "pope Joan." — He- 
nault. 2 ] 

855. Benedict III.: opposed by an anti-pope 

called Anastasius. 
858. Nicholas I., styled the Great. 
867. Adrian II. 



1 Of Leo IV. a great writer has beautifully said, " He showed himself, by defending Fomei worthy of being its 
sovereign: he was a Roman by birth, and the courage of the early ages of the republic seemed to be revived in 
him, at a time of cowardice and corruption. He stood, like one of the noble monuments of ancient Rome, which 
are seen, amid the ruins, as it were, reproaching the debasement, of the modern city." — Voltaire. 

2 It is fabulously asserted that a female, named Joan, conceived a violent passion for a young monk named 
Felda, and in order to be admitted into his monastery assumed the male habit. On the death of her lover, she 
entered on the duties of professor, and being very learned, was elected pope when Leo IV. died in 855. Other 
scandalous particulars follow ; " yet until the Reformation the tale was repeated and believed without offence.'^ 
— Gibbon. 

F 



66 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



872. John VIII. : it is to this John that some 
authors refer the scandalous fabrication 
of Pope Joan ; but they err even in point 
of time. — See above. 

882. Martin IT. 

884. Adrian III. ; died the next year. 

885. Stephen V. 

891. Formosus : died detested ; his corpse was 
thrown into the river Tiber. 

896. Boniface VI. : deposed. 

897. Romanus, antipope. 

897. Stephen VI. ; strangled in prison. 

898. Theodorus II., governed 22 days. 
898. John IX. 

900. Benedict IV. 

903. Leo V. : driven from his seat a few months 

after his election, and died in prison. 

904. Sergius III. : disgraced his dignity by his 

vices. 
911. Anastasius III. 

913. Landonius, or Lando. 

914. John X. : resigned, and was stifled by Guy, 

duke of Tuscany. 

928. Leo VI. ; considered an intruder by many 

Roman Catholic historians. 

929. Stephen VIL 

931. John XL : imprisoned in the castle of 

St. Angelo, where he died. 
936. Leo VII. ; great in zeal and piety. 
939. Stephen VIII. : " of ferocious character." 
942. Martin IIL 
946. Agapetus II. : of holy life. 
956. John XII., called the Infamous: deposed 

for adultery and cruelty, and, in the end, 

murdered. 

[The preceding pope is said to have been 
the first who changed his name on his 
elevation to the papal chair.] 

963. Leo VIII. : an honour to the chair, though 
an intruder. — Baronius. 

963 Benedict V.: chosen on the death of John 
XII., but opposed by Leo VIIL, who was 
supported by the emperor Otho; the 
Roman people were obliged to abandon 
his cause. 

965. John XIII. ; elected by the authority of 

the emperor against the popular will. 
972. Benedict VI. : murdered in prison. 
974. Boniface VIL 

974. Domnus II. 

975. Benedict VIL 

983. John XIV. 

984. John XV. : died before consecration. 

985. John XVI. 

996. Gregory V. An antipope, named John 
XVII., was set up, but expelled by the 
emperor. 

999. Silvester 11. 

1003. John XVII.; legitimate pope: died same 
year. 

1003. John XVIII. : abdicated. 
1009. Sergius IV. 



1012. Benedict VIIL 
1024. John XIX. 

1033. Benedict IX. : became pope, by purchase, 

at 12 years of age : expelled. 
1044. Gregory VL: abdicated. 

1046. Clement II. (the Romanists call Clemens 

Homanus, the Jirst Clement) : died next 
year. 

1047. Benedict again : again deposed. 

1048. Damasus 11. : died soon after. 
1048. Leo IX. : canonized. 

1054. [The throne vacant one vear.] 

1055. Victor II. 

1057. Stephen IX. 

1058. Benedict X. ; an antipope : expelled. 
1058. Nicholas II. 

1061. Alexander II. : he carried the papal power 
to a height it had not reached before. 

1073. Gregory VIL, the celebrated Hildebrand ; 

remarkable for the unexampled powers 
he usurped, and his unprincipled career. ^ 

1085. [Throne vacant one year.] 

1086. Victor IIL 

1088. Urban II. : in this pontificate commenced 

the great crusade. 
1099. Pascal II. 

1118. Gelasius II. : retired to a monastery. 

1119. Calixtus II. 
1124. HonoriusIL 
1130. Innocent IL 

1143. Celestine II. : ruled 5 months. 

1144. Lucius IL : killed by accident in a popular 

commotion. 

1145. Eugenius IIL : canonized. 

1153. Anastasius IV. : ruled a short time only. 

1154. Adrian IV., or Nicholas Brakespeare, an 

Englishman ; born at St. Albans. 
1159. Alexander III. : avenger of the murder of 

Thomas a Becket. 
1181. Lucius IIL 
1185. Urban IIL 

1187. Gregorv VTIL : ruled only two months. 
1187. Clement IIL 
1191. Celestine IIL 

1198. Innocent III. (Lothario Conti) excommu- 
nicated king J ohn of England. 

1216. Honorius III. : learned and pious. 

1227. Gregory IX. : caused a new crusade to be 
undertaken. 

1241. Celestine IV. : died in 18 days after his 
election. 

1241. [Throne vacant 1 year and 7 months.] 
1243. Innocent IV. : gave the red hat. 
1254. Alexander IV. 
1261. Urban IV. 

1265. Clement IV., an enlightened Frenchman, 
previously cardinal and legate to Eng- 
land : discouraged the crusades. 

1268. [Throne vacant 2 years and 9 months.] 

1271. Gregory X.; elected while he was with 
Edward I. of England in the Holy Land. 

1276. Innocent V. .• died shortly after. 



J In the eleventh century, the power of the pontiff of Rome seems to have reached its utmost height. 
Gregory VII., the famous Hildebrand, assumed the exclusive title of Pope, which till then had been common to 
other bishops ; and his successors carried their pretensions so far as to hold themselves out as lords of the 
universe, arbiters of the fate of empires, and supreme rulers of thekings and princes of the earth. In this character 
they proceeded to dispose of kingdoms, and to loose subjects from their allegiance, as is remarkably instanced in 
the history of John, king of England. At length they affirmed the whole earth to be their property, as well 
where Christianity had been propagated, as where it had not ; and, therefore, on the discovery of the East and 
West Indies and America, Alexander VI., in 1493, granted to the Portuguese a right to all the countries lying 
to the eastward, and to the Spaniards all those westward of Cape Non, in Africa, which they might respectively 
be able to conquer. They finally pretended to be lords of the future world also, and by licences, pardons, 
dispensations, and indulgences, which they sold to the best bidders, to have a power of restraining, and in some 
instances of subverting, even the Divine justice itself. —Lives of the Popes. 



BISHOPS AND POPES OF ROME. 



67 



1276. Adrian V. ; legate to England in 1254 : 
died 36 days after election. 

1276. Yicedominus : died the next day. 

1277. John XX. or XXI. : died in 8 months. 
1277. Nicholas III. : died in 1280. 

1281. Martin IV. 

1285. Honorius IV. : promoted the crusades. 
1288. Nicholas IV. : endeavoured to stir up the 

princes of Christendom to a new crusade, 

but without success. 
1292. [Throne vacant 2 years and 3 months.] 
1294. Celestine V. : resigned from fear. 
1294. Boniface VIII. : proclaimed that " God had 

set him over kings and kingdoms;" 

imprisoned his predecessor, and laid 

France and Denmark under interdict. 

1303. Benedict XI. : a pious and liberal pontiff: 

poisoned by some ambitious cardinals, 
a short time after his election. 

1304. [Throne vacant 11 months.] 

1305. Clement V. Bertrand the Goth : removed 

the papal seat from Rome to Avignon. 
1314. [Throne vacant 2 years and 4 months.] 
1316. John XXII. 

1334. Benedict XII. [Nicholas V. ; antipope, at 
Rome.] 

1342. Clement VI. : a learned prelate, a generous 
prince, and amiable man. — Petrarch. 
1352. Innocent VI. 

1362. Urban V. : illustrious as a patron of learning. 
1370. Gregory XI. : also an eminent protector of 

learning : he restored the papal chair to 

Rome. 

1378. Urban VI. : so severe and cruel that the 
cardinals chose Robert of Geneva, under 
the name of Clement VII., which led to 
great violence. 

1389. Boniface IX. 

1394. Benedict (called XIII.) ; antipope at Avig- 
non. 

1404. Innocent VII. : died in 1406. 

1406. Gregory XII. Angelo Corario ; elected 
during the schism in the East ; Bene- 
dict XIII. being the other pope : both 
popes were deposed. 

1409. Alexander V. : died, supposed by poison. 

1410. John XXIII.; elected during the great 

schism: deposed. 

1417. Martin V. Otho Colonna. 

1431. Eugenius IV. Gabriel Condolmera: de- 
posed by the council of Basil, and 
Amadeus of Savoy chosen, as Felix V. 
in 1439 ; antipope. 

1447. Nicholas V. 

1455. Calixtus III. 

1458. Pius II. JEneas Silvius Piccolomini. 
1464. Paul II., a noble Venetian. 
1471. Sixtus IV. 

1484. Innocent MIL, a noble Genoese. 

1492. Alexander VI., the infamous Roderic Bor- 
gia : poisoned at a feast by drinking of 
a bowl he had prepared for another. 



1503. Pius III. Francis Todeschini : died 21 davs 
after election. 

1503. Julius II., Julian de la Ruvere. 

1513. LeoX. (John de Medici): this pope's grant 
of indulgences for crime led to the Re- 
formation. 

1522. Adrian VI. 

1523. Clement VII. Julius de Medici: refused to 

divorce Catharine of Arragon, and de- 
nounced the marriage of Henry VIII. 
with Anna Boleyn. 

1534. Paul III., Alexander Famese. 

1550. Julius III. 

1555. Marcellus II. : died soon after election. 

1555. Paul IV. John Peter Caraffa. When queen 
Elizabeth sent him an ambassador to 
announce her accession, he haughtily 
answered, " that to the holy see, and 
not to her, belonged the throne, to which 
she had no right as being a bastard." 

1559. Pius IV., cardinal de Medici. 

1566. Pius V. 

1572. Gregory XIII. ; the greatest civilian and 
canonist of his time: under him the 
calendar was reformed. 

1585. Sixtus V. : the most extraordinary man of 
his time. — Tillemont. 

1590. Urban VII. : died 12 days after election. 

1590. Gregory XIV. Nicolas Sfondrate. 

1591. Innocent IX. : died in 2 months. 

1592. Clement VIII. : learned and just. 
1605. Leo XL : died same month. 
1605. Paul v., Camille Borghese. 

1621. Gregory XV. Alexander Ludovisio. 
1623. Urban VIII. : gave the title of Eminence 

to cardinals. 
1644. Innocent X. John Baptist Pamphilus. 
1655. Alexander VII. Fabio Chigi. 
1667. Clement IX. 

1670. Clement X. John Baptist Emile Altieri. 

1676. Innocent XL 

1689. Alexander VIII. 

1691. Innocent XII. Antonio Pignatelli. 

1700. Clement XL John Francis Albani. 

1721. Innocent XIIL Michael Angelo Conti ; the 

eighth pontiff of his family. 
1724. Benedict XIIL, properly so called. 
1730. Clement XIL 

1740. Benedict XIV. ; the amiable Lambertini. 
1758. Clement XIIL Charles Rezzonico. 
1769. Clement XIV. ; the illustrious Ganganelli.i 
1775. Pius VI. Angelo Braschi : dethroned by 
Buonaparte. 

1800. Pius VII. Cardinal Chiaramonte : deposed 
by Buonaparte in 1809 ; restored in 1814. 

1823. Leo XIL Annibal della Ganga. Sept. 28. 

1829. Pius VIII. Francis Xavier Castiglioni. 
March 31. 

1831. Gregory XVI. Mauro Capellari. Feb. 2, 

1831 : died June 1, 1846. 
1846. Pius IX. Mastei Ferretti : elected June 16. 

The PRESENT (1850) Pope. 



1 Benedict XIV., apprised of the extraordinary modesty and merit of tliis great man, unexpectedly raised him 
to the purple ; but he continued to wear the plain dress of his order (minor conventual Franciscans) observing 
all the austerity and mortificati(;ns of a friar. On the death of Clement XIIL, the cardinals, who were in the 
interest of the house of Bourbon, knowing that Ganganelli was not attached to the Jesuits, and seeing that mo-t 
of the Catholic princes of Europe were ready to separate from the Roman See unless that order were suppressed, 
conceived that from his liberality and wisdom that point might be achieved without danger to the pontifical chair, 
and they accordingly elected Ganganelli to it. His conduct after his elevation was still the same, pious, familiar, 
and lowly. Convinced of the necessity for the suppression of the Jesuits, he signed the brief for it in 1773. 
Shortly after he had placed his signature to this important document, he was seized with a disorder, believed to 
have been the effect of some deleterious drug, and after languishing in agonies which reduced him to a skeleton, 
he died in 1775. Clement XIV. was one of the most enlightened and benevolent men that ever wore the tiara. 



F 2 



68 



EXTINCT OR MERGED KINGDOMS AND 
PRINCIPALITIES. 



JERUSALEM. 

This kingdom began with its capture by the first crusaders, who elected as king, in 
1099, Godfrey de Bouillon, the chief commander of the expedition, though he chose to 
be called, from motives of piety, the " advocate or defender of the holy sepulchre." ^ 
The crown of Jerusalem descended from Godfrey de Bouillon to the house of Anjou, 
afterwards to Guy de Lusignan, and, in 1210, to John de Brienne. The emperor 
Frederick having married the daughter of this last, was invested with all her rights, 
which, however, he did not care to assert ; and the possession of Jerusalem being no 
longer an object of ambition, the city became, what it had been before Godfrey's 
invasion, a place of pilgrimage. 

Kings of Jerusalem. 



1099. Godfrey de Bouillon, chosen by the first 

crusaders. Took Jerusalem from the 
Turks, 1099, and was proclaimed king ; 
but his piety, as historians relate, would 
not permit him to wear a diadem of 
gold, in the city where his Saviour had 
been crowned with thorns. — Nouv. Diet. 
Hist. 

1100. Baldwin 1. 
1118. Baldwin II. 

1131. Fulke, count of Anjou. 
1142. Baldwin III., son of Fulke. 
1162. Amaurus I. 



1173. Baldwin IV. 

1185. Baldwin V. 

1186. Guy de Lusignan: falls into the hands of 

the infidels. 
1192. Conrad and Isabella. 
1192. Henry. 
1197. Frederick. 

1197. Amaurus de Lusignan, king of Cyprus. 
1205. [Interregnum.] 

1210. John de Brienne ; afterwards associate 

emperor of the East. 
1229. [Jerusalem is surrendered by the sultan of 

Egypt to the emperor Frederick.] 



BRETAGNE OR BRITTANY. 

The ancient Armorica ; but this name in the earliest ages was common to all that 
tract of country situated between the mouths of the Seine and the Loire. When, 
however, the Bretons were obliged to abandon the isle of Albion (England), and to 
take refuge in a part of Armorica in the 5th century, they gradually communicated 
their name as well to the inhabitants, as to the province itself. — Henault. The counts 
of Bretagne (of whom was the celebrated Waroc) were distinguished in history some 
centuries before the reign of Charlemagne, by whom the territory was subdued, circa 
780. In later times the dukes of Brittany became possessed of considerable power. 

' Jerusalem taken, July 15, 1099, by assault, after a siege of five weeks. Impelled by a mixture of military 
rage, the Crusaders put the numerous garrison and inhabitants to the sword without distinction. Neither arms 
defended the valiant, nor submission the timid ; no age or sex was spared ; infants on the breast were pierced by 
the same blow with their mothers, who implored for mercy ; even a multitude to the number of 10,000, who had 
surrendered themselves prisoners, and were promised quarter, were butchered in cold blood by these ferocious 
conquerors. The streets of Jerusalem were covered with dead bodies ; and the triumphant warriors, after every 
enemy was subdued and slaughtered, immediately turned themselves, with sentiments of humiliation, towards 
the holy sepulchre! They threw away their arms still streaming with blood; they advanced with reclined 
bodies, and naked feet and hands, to that sacred monument ; they sung anthems to their Saviour, who had there 
purchased their salvation by his death and agony ; and their devotion so evercame their fury, that they dissolved 
in tears, and bore the appearance of every soft and tender sentiment. So inconsistent is human nature with 
itself! and so easily does superstition ally, both with the most heroic courage and with the fiercest barbarity. — 
Abbe Vertot. Hume. 



NOKMANDY. 



69 



Counts and Dukes of Brittany. 



560. Conober, about this time ; count. 

* * * * 

590. Waroc, about this time. 

* * * * 

824. Nomenoe ; instituted dul^e of Brittany by 
Louis le Debonnaire. — Henault. 

851. Erispoe or Herispoe ; count. 

857. Salomon, cousin of the preceding. 

874. Pasquito de Vannes, and Gurvan de 
Rennes. 

877. Alain III., de Vannes, and Judicael de 

Rennes. 
907. Gurmallion. 
930. Berenger de Rennes. 
937. Alain IV., de Vannes. 
952. Drogo. 

980. Gueroc, de Nantes. 

987. Conan I., de Rennes. 

992. Geoffrey I. ; duke. 
1008. Alain V. 
1040. Conan II. 
1066. Hoel V. 

1084. Alain Fergent, the Red. 

1112. Conan III. the Fat. 

1148. Eudes, Hoel VI., and Geoffrey I. (II.) 



1156. Conan IV. 

1171. Geoffrey II. (III.) 

1196. Arthur, and Constance, daughter of 
Conan IV. ; and wife of Geoffrey, son 
of Henry II. of England. 

1203. Guy de Tours ; regent. 

1213. Peter Mauclerc. 

1237. John I., the Red : ruled 49 years. 

1286. John II. 

1305. Arthur 11. 

1312. John III., styled the Good. 

1341. Charles, count of Blois, and John IV., de 

Montfort, brother to John the Good. 
1345. Charles de Blois, alone. 
1364. John V., styled the Valiant. 
1399. John VI. 
1442. Francis I. 
1450. Peter II. 

1457. Arthur III. 

1458. Francis II. : succeeded by 
1488. Anne, his daughter, i 

1513. Claude, daughter of Anne ; married to 
1524. Francis I., of France. 
1532. [The dukedom of Brittany annexed to the 
crown of France.] 



NORMANDY. 

Neustra. The Normans, enticed by plunder, having made many descents upon 
France, Charles the Simple, at length wearied by their aggressions, came to an 
accommodation with them, and concluded the famous treaty of St. Clair upon the 
Epte, whereby he gave them a part of Neustra, which from the incursions of those 
barbarians had already taken the name of Normandy. — Henault. Charles also gave 
his daughter Giselle to their chief, Rollo, in marriage, on the condition of his 
embracing Christianity, and giving it encouragement among his followers. 



Dukes of Normandy. 



911. Hollo, the Dane ; first duke, yielded ho- 
mage for his dukedom to Charles the 
Simple, king of France. 

927. William Longespee or Longsword, son of 
the preceding. 

943. Richard I., surnamed the Fearless, a minor, 
son of William ; governed 53 years. 

996. Richard II., son of Richard I. : this 
duke's sister, Emma, was married to 
Ethelred II., king of England. 
1026. Richard III. 



1028. Robert I., surnamed le Diable. 

1035. William the Bastard, natural son of 
Richard III. (our WilHam I., or the 
Conqueror) : became king of England 
in 1066. 

1087. Robert, surnamed Courthose 2, eldest son 
of William ; became duke of Normandy 
on his father's death, his brother Wil- 
liam succeeding to the crown of Eng- 
land : governed until 1106 ; died in 
1134. 



The contention between the last duke, Robert, and his brother Henry (third son 
of the Conqueror, and now king of England) terminated with the battle of Tinche- 



1 This princess was a very beautiful and an extraordinary woman. She had been married by proxy to 
Maximilian of Austria, but by a kind of divorce from him she became the consort, in 1491, of Charles VIII. of 
France, who put aside Margaret, the daughter of Maximilian, to whom he was affianced, to espouse her. Charles 
died in April 1498, and in the Jan. following, Anne of Brittany married his successor on the throne, Louis XII. 
It is remarkable, also, that her daughter, the princess Claude, became the queen of the next king in succession, 
Francis I. Claude was the daughter of Louis XII. Anne died in ]5\S. — Henault. 

On the death of Charles she put a ''cordelier'* (a black knotted lace) round her coat of arms, which 
introduced a custom observed ever since ; and she mourned in black, instead of the then practice of wearing 

white. She, too, was the first to have young ladies of quality about her person, called " maids of honour." 

Branlome. 

2 This Robert had a son, William, to whom (and not to his father) the French historians give the surname 
Courthose iCourtecuisse), short-thigh : Lewis le Gros was desirous to protect him in his duchy; but Henry of 
England had become too powerful, and it was too late. Henault. 

F 3 



70 



PRIXCES OF EUROPE. 



bray, In Lower Normandy, Sept. 28, 1106; when Robert was defeated, made 
prisoner, and sent to England, where he died in captivity. Normandy was then 
annexed to England, but was re-united to the crown of France in the reign of king 
John. 



SUABIA. 

One of the ten great circles or divisions of Germany, supposed to have derived its 
name from the Suevi, who made it their abode about the time of Julius Caesar. It 
was erected into a duchy in the 5th century, and continued to be governed by its 
dukes until the 13th, when the reigning family became extinct on the death of 
Conradin, who was beheaded at Naples in 1268. Suabia was eventually divided 
among a number of petty princes. 

Dukes. 



[The early dukes are too indistinctly recorded 
to be named consecutively.] 

867. Hugh. 

916. Burchardt I. 

926. Herman I. 

949. Ludolph. 

954. Burchardt II. 

973. Otho I. 

982. Conrad I. 

997. Herman II. 
1004. Herman III. 
1012. Ernest I. 
1015. Ernest II. 

1030. Herman IV., and Conrad II., emperor. 
1039. Henry I., emperor as Henry HI. 
1045. Otho II. 
1047. Otho III. 
1057. Rodolph. 
1080. Frederick I., de Buren. 
1105. Frederick II., de Borgne. 
1138. Conrad; duke of Franconia, and emperor 
as Conrad III. 



1147. Frederick III. Barharossa ; emperor in 
1152. 

1152. Frederick IV., de Rothemburg ; and duke 

of Franconia. 
1167. [Interregnum.] 
1169. Frederick V. 

1191. Conrad; and duke of Franconia. 
1196. Philip; elected emperor in 1198. 
1208. Frederick VI. ; elected emperor in 1212, 

as Frederick II. 
1219. Henry II. 

1235. Conrad IV. ; elected emperor in 1250 : 
died in 1254, supposed to have been 
poisoned by his illegitimate brother, 
Manfred. 

1254. Conradin, son of Conrad, an infant : this 
young prince was deposed by his uncle, 
Manfred, and beheaded at Naples, after 
a defeat in battle by Charles, duke of 
Anjou, in 1268. 



FRANCONIA. 

Another of the former ten circles of Germany. Of the origin of the Franks 
historians have given us no certain account. Pharamond is the first of their kings of 
whom we have any distinct mention ; see France, They were conquered by Charle- 
magne ; and Franconia was subsequently governed by dukes. 

In modern times, Franconia consisted of two principalities, Bayreuth and Anspach ; 
three bishoprics, Bamburg, Wursburg, and Eichstadt; seven counties, and three 
lordships. These divisions are now altered ; one district having been given to Wur- 
temburg ; another to Baden ; a third to the house of Hesse ; and the tract called Henne- 
berg to the house of Saxe ; while all the rest was made over to Bavaria. 

Dukes. 



891. Conrad, about this time. 
912. Eberhard. 
939. Conrad II. 

955. Otho I. ; reigned duke 49 years. 
1004. Conrad III. 
1011. Conrad IV. 



1038. [The dukedom extinct until 1116.] 
1116. Conrad V.; emperor as Conrad III. in 
1138. 

1152. Frederick ; and duke of Suabia. 

1167. Conrad VI. 

1191. Conrad, and duke of Suabia. 



LORRAINE. 



71 



BUEGUNDY. 

Burgundiones, — Pliny. The kingdom of the Burgundians began in Alsace in 413, 
and continued for 119 years, the Franks stripping them of their dominions in 532. In 
the division of France among the sons of Clotaire in 561, Gontran had Orleans and 
Burgundy; in 638, Clovis 11. had Burgundy and Neustra; and on the death of 
Charles le Gros, in 888, Rodolph became king of Transjuran Burgundy. The 
kingdom was soon afterwards united to that of Aries, and both passed on the death of 
Rodolph III. in 1032 to Conrad the Salique, emperor of Germany. The Burgundians, 
who settled in Celtic Gaul, gave name to the county and duchy of Burgundy. 

Kings. 



413. Gundicar. 
436. Gunderic. 
466. Chilperic. 
491. Gandebaud. 
516. Sigismund. 
523. Gondemar. 

532. Conquered by the Franks under Childebert 
and Clotaire, kings of Paris and Soissons. 



888. Rodolph I. king of Transjuran Burgundy ; 
Burgundia Transjurana. 

911. Rodolph II., king of Aries. Burgundy and 
Provence united in 933. 

937. Conrad the Pacific, second king of Aries. 

993. Rodolph III., le Faineant. 
1032. [Rodolph bequeaths his kingdom to Con- 
rad the Salique, emperor. 



Dukedom of Burgundy. 



877. Richard le Justicier. 

921. Rodolph ; king of France in 923. 

923. Giselbert or Gilbert. 

938. Hugh, the Black. 

938. Hugh, styled the Great. 

956. Otho : succeeded by his brother, 

965. Henry, styled the Great : bequeathed his 
dukedom to the king of France.^ 
1015. Henry II., afterwards king of France. 
1031. Robert, brother of Henry II. 
1075. Hugh I. 
1078. Eudes I. 

1102. Hugh II., surnamed the Pacific, reigned 

40 years : succeeded by 
1142. Eudes II. 
1162. Hugh III. 
1193. Eudes III. 

1218. Hugh IV. : reigned 54 years. 

1272. Robert II. 

1305. Hugh V. 

1315. Eudes IV. 

1350. Philip I. de Rouvre. 

1363. Philip II. surnamed the Hardy, for gal- 
lantly fighting near his father king 



John, of France, at the battle of Poitiers : 
founded the second royal house of Bur- 
gundy. 

1384. [Flanders united to Burgundy by the mar- 
riage of Philip with Margaret, heiress of 
the counts of Flanders. ] 
1404. John, surnamed Sans Feur or the Fearless : 
murdered on the bridge of Montereau. 
— Henault. 
1419. Philip III,, surnamed the Good. 
1421. [Namur sold to Burgundy.] 
1429. [Brabant united to Burgundy.] 
1433. [Holland and Hainault imited to Bur- 
gundy.] 

1444. [Luxemburg sold to Burgundy.] 
1467. Charles the Bold, son of Philip the Good : 
treacherously killed m an engagement 
with the duke of Lorraine, and with him 
ended the second house of Burgundy in 
1477. 

1477. [Burgundy now passed to Austria by the 
marriage of Mary, its heiress, withMax- 
imilian I., emperor of Germany.] 



LORRAINE. 

This country took its name from Lothaire, or Lotharius, son of the emperor of the 
same name, and was given to the prince as an independent dominion, a.d. 851. The 
kingdom eventually was divided in the 10th century into two parts. Lower Lorraine 
was governed by its dukes, afterwards dukes of Brabant, until Brabant became united 
with Burgundy in 1429. The late province subsisted until 1766, when it was 
finally united to France. 



Dukes. 



Lower Lorraine. 
959. Godfrey 1. 
964. Godfrey II. 



976. Charles, of France. 
1001. Otho I. 
1005. Godfrey III. 



1 This bequest is accounted for by Henry and his immediate predecessor, his brother Otho, being the sons of 
Hugh the Great (the Abbot) of France. — Henault. 

T 4 



72 



PEINCES OF EUROPE. 



1023. Gothelon, styled the Great. 

1043. Godfrey IV., surnamed the Hardy. 

1048. Frederick of Luxemburg. 

1065. Godfrey IV., again. 

1069. Godfrey V., Bossu. 

1076. Conrad. 

1089. Godfrey VI., of Bouillon. 
1101. Henry I. 

1106. Godfrey VII., styled the Great. 
1128. Walleran, and Godfrey VII. 
1140. Godfrey VIII. le Jeune. 
1143. Godfrey IX., surnamed the Valiant. 

Dukes of Brabant. 
1190. Henry II. 
1235. Henry III. 
1248. Henry IV. 

1261. John I., surnamed the Victorious. 
1294. John II., surnamed the Pacific. 
1312. John III., styled the Triumphant. 
1355. Jane and Wenceslas of Luxemburg. 
1383. Jane governed alone. 
1405. Antony. 
1415. John IV. 
1427. Philip. 

1429. [Brabant united to Burgundy.] 

LORRAINE. 

916. Giselbert or Gilbert. 

940. Henry I. 

944. Conrad, the Red. 

953. Bruno, archbishop of Cologne. 

959. Frederick I. 

984. Thierry I. 
1026. Frederick II. 
1033. Gothelon or Gothelo I. 
1043. Gothelon II. 
1046. Albert d' Alsace. 



1048. Gerard d' Alsace. 

1070. Thierry, surnamed the Valiant, 

1115. Sigismund I. 

1139. Matthew L 

1176. Sigismund 11. 

1205. Ferri I. 

1206. Ferri II. 
1213. Theobald L 
1220. Matthew H. 

1251. Ferri III. : governed 53 years. 
1304. Theobald II. 
1312. Ferri IV. 

1328. Raoul. French for Rollo. 
1346. John I. 

1391. Charles I., surnamed the Hardy. 

1431. Rene d'Anjou, styled the Good. The suc- 
cession disputed by Antony de Vaude- 
mont. 

1453. John II. 

1470. Nicholas. 

1473. Jolantha and Rene II. 

1508. Antony, surnamed the Good. 

1544. Francis I. 

1545. Charles II. styled the Great: this prince 

reigned 63 years. 

1608. Henry IL, styled the Good. 

1624. Francis II., Charles III., and Nicholas- 
Francis, governed jointly. 

] 670. Charles, alone : succeeded by his nephew, 

1675. Charles IV. ; succeeded by his son, 

1690. Leopold. 

1729. Francis -Stephen; grand-duke of Tuscany 
in 1737; married Maria-Theresa of 
Austria. Emperor of Germany in 1745. 

1737. Stanislaus, of Poland. 

1766. [Lorraine united to France. See note ap- 
pended to Tuscany.'] 



FLANDEES. 

This country passed early into the hands of France, and was governed by its counts 
or earls, chiefly subject to that crown, from a.d. 862, until united with Burgundy in 1384. 
In the former year, Baldwin, the great forester or ranger of France, having cai^ied off 
the daughter of Charles the Bald, widow of a king of England \ after much difficulty 
obtained the king's consent to marry her, and was made earl of Flanders. — Renault. 

Counts of Flanders. 



862. Baldwin I. Bras de Fer^ first count. 

879, Baldwin II., called the Bald. 

918. Amulph I. and Baldwin III. 

965. Amulph II., le Jeune. 

989. Baldwin IV., called the Bearded. 
1036. Bald^vin V., le Debonnaire. 
1067. Baldwin VI., surnamed the Good. 

1070. Amulph IIL 

1071. Robert I., le Prison. 
1093. Robert II., of Jerusalem. 
1111. Bald™ VIL, a la Ilache. 

1119. Charles the Good : assassinated in the 
church of Donatianus during divine 
service. 

1127. WilHam de CHto, or Cliton: mortally 

wounded at the siege of Alost. 

1128. Thierry. 



1168. Philip d'Alsace. 

1191. Margaret I., and Baldwin VIII. 

1194. Baldwin IX., of Constantinople: Eastern 
emperor in 1204. 

1206. Jane and Ferdinand. 

1233. Jane governs alone. 

1244. Margaret IL, of Constantinople. 

1280. Guy de Dampierre, her son : another son, 
John d' Avenues, became count of Hol- 
land. 

1305. Robert IIL, de Bethune. 

1322. Louis L, de Crecy, his grandson. 

1346. Louis IL, de Male. 

1384. [On the death of Louis IL, Phihp the 
Hardy, of Burgundy, succeeded, by 
marriage with his daughter and heiress, 
and united Flanders to his dukedom.] 



1 The widow alluded to by Renault was Judith, second queen of Ethelwolf, who had espoused her when she 
was only twelve years of age. She afterwards became the wife of his son and successor Ethelbald. That king, 
however, was forced by public indignation and the censure of the Church to send her to her father in France ; 
and there she was married to Baldwin. ~ Charles Home's " England.'' 



ANJOU. 



73 



HAINAULT. 

The counts of Halnault were early of considerable note, and their names occur 
frequently in connection with the most remarkable political transactions of their time. 
In modern annals the province has been the theatre of great military conflicts, among 
which may be mentioned those of Enghein, Senelfe, Steenkirk, Fleurus, Malplaquet, 
Tournay, and Fontenoy. 

Counts of Hainault. 



875. Regner I. 

916. Regner II. 

932. Regner III. 

958. Richer I. 

* * * * 

972. Garner, and Rainald. 

973. Godfrey the Old, and Arnulph. 
998. Regner IV. 

1013. Regner V. 

1030. Rechila, Herman, and Baldwin I. 
1051. Rechila. 

1070. Baldwin II., of Jerusalem. 



1099. Baldwin III. 

1120. Baldwin IV., surnamed the Builder; 

reigned 51 years. 
1171. Baldwin V., styled the Valiant. 
1195. Baldwin VI. 
120G. Jane. 

1244. Margaret, countess of Flanders. 

1280. John d'Avennes, her son: another son, 

Guy de Dampierre, by another husband, 

became count of Flanders. 
1299. [John d'Avennes succeeded to Holland. 

The provinces united.] 



LUXEMBUKG. 

SiGEFRiD was first count in the 10th century, and the province continued to be 
governed by independent counts or dukes until it was sold to Burgundy in 1444. 
The princes of Luxemburg became of considerable note, and several of them have 
been emperors of Germany. The present dynasty of the Netherlands has the title of 
grand-duke of Luxemburg. 

Counts or Dukes. 



965. Sigefrid. 

998. Frederic. 
1019. Gilbert or Giselbert. 
1057. Conrad I. 
1086. Henry I. 
1096. William. 
1128. Conrad II. 

1136. Henry II., called the Blind ; governed 60 
years. 

1196. Ermensind and Theobald. 
1214. Ermensind and Waleran. 
1226. Henry III., styled the Great. 
1275. Henry IV. 



1288. Henry V. ; elected emperor in 1308, as 
Henry VII. : said to have been poisoned. 

1309. John, king of Bohemia : killed at the battle 
of Cressy, in 1346. 

1346. Charles ; elected emperor in 1347, as Charles 
IV. 

1353. Wenceslas I., duke. 

1383. Wenceslas II. ; emperor. 

1388. Jossus, le Barbu. 

1411. Antony, of Burgundy. 

1451. Elizabeth de Gorlitz. 

1444. [Luxemburg united to Burgundy,] 



ANJOU. 

In 877, Louis the Stammerer, son and successor of Charles the Bald of France, upon 
his accession to that crown, bestowed many largesses on his friends. In order to 
reconcile the malcontents (those who had not shared them) Louis found it expedient 
to dismember great portions of his domains ; and hence arose many seignories, duchies, 
and counties, possessed by various individuals and families. This is believed to be the 
origin of the counts of Anjou, of whom Ingelger was the founder. — Henault 

Counts of Anjou. 

Fulco (Fulke), surnamed the Red : after 938. Fulco 11. , surnamed the Good : succeeded 
having united the counties of Eudo and by his eldest son, 

Ingelger, died in 938. J 958. Geoffrey I. : he obtained for himself and 



74 



PRINCES OF EUROPE. 



his successors the dignity of seneschal 
of France. 

987. Fulco III., the Black ; died returning from 
J erusalem : succeeded by his son, 

1040. Geoffrey II. Martel (the Hammer), who 
died without male issue. 

1060 f Geoffrey III., the Bearded ; and 

( Fulco IV. ; the latter imprisoned his bro- 
ther, and was excommunicated by the 
pope : his consort, Bertrade of Montfort, 
was carried off by the king (Philip I. of 
France), who married her. 

1106. Geoffrey IV. : released his uncle, who died 
soon after, leaving to his nephew Anjou. 
Geoffrey fell in a war with his father 
by a poisoned arrow, discharged at him, 
it is said, at the instance of Bertrade. 

1109. Fulco v., son of Geoffrey IV.; became 
king of Jerusalem, and died in 1142 : 
succeeded by his third son, 

1129. Geoffrey v., Plantagenet ; obtained Anjou 
from his father this year : his two elder 
brothers succeeded the father as kings 
of Jerusalem. 
[Geoffrey V. married Mathilde d'Angle- 
terre ^ (Maud, daughter of Henry I.) : 
he conquered Normandy, which he gave, 



in 1149, to his son Henry, afterwards 
Henry II., king of England.] 

1150. Geoffrey VI., second son of the preceding: 
died without an heir. 

1158. William, earl of Poitou, third son of Geof- 
frey V. : died in 1164. 
[Anjou from this time became a possession 
of the kings of England. It was, how- 
ever, in the reign of John taken, toge- 
ther with Normandy, by Philip-Au- 
gustus of France, and incorporated with 
that kingdom, and given as a fief; 
first to] 

* * John, son of Louis VIIT., who died early; 
and next to 

1264. Charles, his brother, who, later, became 
Charles I. of Sicily; and whose de- 
scendants were called the house of An- 
jou. 

[Alfonso v., of Arragon and Naples, 
achieved a victory over Rene of Anjou^ 
in 1422. The dukedom of Anjou after- 
wards became nothing more than a 
mere title, taken by the second sons of 
the kings of France. This title has long 
since ceased.] 



1 From this marriage of Maud of England with Geoflfrey of Anjou, sprung the line of the Plantagenets of our 
own country, a race of fourteen kings, commencing with Henry II. in 1154, and terminating with Richard III. 
in 1485, a period of 331 years. 

2 Margaret of Anjou, daughter of Rene of Anjou, above mentioned, was queen of Henry VI. of England, and 
her name will ever stand prominently in British history. She was of an ambitious and Amazonian spirit, re- 
markable for her courage and enterprize, and the intrepidity with which she headed her troops in the war of the 
roses against the house of York. If she had not been the instrument of her husband's misfortunes by putting to 
death the duke of Gloucester, his uncle, her name would be immortalized for the fortitude and policy with which 
she supported the rights of Henry and her son. She defeated the duke of York at Wakefield in 1460, and in her 
march to London encountered at St. Albans (1461) the earl of Warwick, who had her husband with him as a 
prisoner ; her success in this battle set him free. But after the defeat at Towton, being unable to raise a new 
army in England, she crossed over to France to solicit succours from Louis XI., who refused them. The fatal 
battle of Tewkesbury (1471) put an end to all her enterprizes. Margaret was taken prisoner, and confined in 
the Tower, but was ransomed by Louis, in return for which she made over to him all her right to the duchies of 
Anjou, Lorraine, and Barr, and the county of Provence. Died in 1482. 



75 



PART II. 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS OF ENGLAND^ 



AMBASSADORS, ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY, MINISTERS PLE- 
NIPOTENTIARY, &c. FROM GREAT BRITAIN TO FOREIGN 
STATES. 

{From the Accession of King George III. 1760.) 



*^* After the year 1800, the respective dates are, in most cases, those of the Credentials, 



Ambassadors are frequently mentioned in early history. As civilization advanced, 
and intercourse between nations (its consequence) became greater, they were made 
resident at courts, thereby to render the friendly relations of these courts with each 
other, the more permanent and enlarged. In England, we have four classes or degrees 
of ministers to foreign courts. The first class are Ambassadors ; Envoys or Ministers- 
Plenipotentiary constitute the second class ; Ministers, called resident (though all are 
so) the third ; and Charges d' Affaires the fourth. The distinctions are usually regulated 
by the dignity of the individual, the importance of his mission, and the splendour of 
the court to which he is accredited. The Corps Diplomatique of Great Britain has 
furnished to her councils some of her greatest statesmen. Many of the personages 
who have been members of it have risen to the highest honours in reward of their 
eminent services to their country, not more by their consummate wisdom in conducting 
delicate and intricate negotiation, than by their prudence and address in removing 
those political asperities that sometimes occur in the great business of nations. 



EUROPE. 



To THE Empekor of Germany, afterwards of Austria. 



1763. David Murray, viscount Stormont (after- 
wards earl of Mansfield), ambassador. 
May 7. 

1772. Sir Robert-Murray Keith (afterwards 
Right hon.), ambassador. Aug. 14. 

1790. Thomas, earl of Elgin, ambassador extra- 
ordinary, to congratulate Leopold II. on 
his accession to the throne. 

1792. Thomas, earl of Elgin, ambassador to 

the emperor Francis II. Aug. 18. 

1793. Sir Morton Eden (afterwards Right hon. 

and lord Henley), envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. 

1794. George-John, earl Spencer, ambassador 

extraordinary, on particular affairs. 
1799. Gilbert, lord Minto, envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary. July 2. 
1801. Hon. Arthur Paget (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir Arthur), envoy extraordinary and 

minister plenipotentiary. Aug. 21. 

1805. Charles, earl of Harrington ; extraordinary 

mission. Nov. 28. 

1806. Robert Adair (afterwards Right hon. sir 

Robert), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. May 7. 



1807. George-Augustus, earl of Pembroke and 
Montgomery, ambassador. May 14. 

1809. Benjamin Bathurst J extraordinary mission, 
Feb. 14. 

1813. George-Hamilton Gordon, earl of Aberdeen, 

ambassador. July 29. 

— Hon. Frederick- James Lamb (afterwards 

sir Frederick, and lord Beauvale; 
succeeded as viscount Melbourne), 
minister plenipotentiary, ad hit, Aug. 6. 

1814. Charles-William, lord Stewart (afterwards 

succeeded as marquess of Londonderry), 
ambassador. 

— Robert, viscount Castlereagh (afterwards 

marquess of Londonderry), Richard, 
earl of Clancarty, William, earl Cath- 
cart, and Charles-William, lord Stewart, 
plenipotentiaries to the congress at Vi- 
enna. Aug. IL 

1815. Arthur, duke of Wellington, first plenipo- 

tentiary to the congress of Vienna. 
Jan. 18. 

— Hon. Robert Gordon (afterwards Right hon. 

sir Robert), minister plenipotentiarv, 
ad int. March 27. 



76 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1817. The same, ad int. June 24. 

1818. Robert, viscount Castlereagh, and Arthur 

duke of Wellington, plenipotentiaries 
to the conference at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Aug. 18. 

1821. Hon. Robert Gordon, again, minister 

plenipotentiary, ad int. Jan. 19. 

— Arthur, duke of Wellington, plenipotentiary 

to the conference at Vienna. Sept. 9. 

1822. Arthur, duke of Wellington ; extraordinary 

mission ; congress at Verona. Sept. 14. 

1823. Sir Henry Wellesley (afterwards lord Cow- 

ley), ambassador. Feb. 3. 

1831. Hon. Francis-Reginald Forbes, minister 

plenipotentiary, ad int. April 22. 

— Rt. hon. and hon. sir Frederick- James 

Lamb, again, ambassador. May 13. 

1832. John-George, lord (afterwards earl of) 

Durham ; extraordinary mission to 
Austria, to Prussia, and to Russia. 
Sept. 14. 



1834. Hon. William Thomas Horner Fox- 

Strangways, minister plenipotentiary, 
ad int. Oct. 8. 

1835. Right hon. sir Charles Bagot ; special mis- 

sion. April 7. 
— Hon. Henry-Edward Fox, afterwards lord 
Holland, minister plenipotentiary, ad 
int. July 2. 

1838. John-Ralph Milbanke, minister plenipo- 
tentiary, ad int. Nov. 7. 

1841. Right hon. sir Robert Gordon, ambassador. 
Oct. 16. 

1845. Arthur-Charles Magenis, minister plenipo- 

tentiary, ad int. June 18. 

1846. John, viscount Ponsonby, ambassador. 

Aug. 10. 

1849. Arthur-Charles Magenis, minister plenipo- 
tentiary, ad int. May 7. 

1851. John, earl of Westmorland, envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Jan. 27. The present Minister. 



[Diplomatic relations between England and the 
king of Bavaria, were established at the close 
of the war in 1814.] 

1814. George-Henry Rose (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir George), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Jan. 31. 

1815. Hon Frederick -James Lamb (afterwards 

sir Frederick, and lord Beauvale ; suc- 
ceeded as viscount Melbourne), envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiarv. Sept. 12. 



To THE King of Bavaria. 

(^See Germany, previous to 1814.) 

1820. Brook Taylor (afterwards right hon. sir 
Brook), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. March 6. 
1828. David Montagu, lord Erskine, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Jan. 4. 
1843. John-Ralph Milbanke, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Nov. 24. 
The PRESENT (1850) Minister to Ba- 
varia. 



To THE King of the Belgians. 



[Since the separation of Belgium from the king- 
dom of the Netherlands, and the establishment 
of a distinct monarchy, 1830-31.] 

1830. John, viscount Ponsonby ; special mission 

to provisional government. Dec. 1. 

1831. Rt. hon. sir Robert Adair ; special mission. 

Aug. 3. 

1832. Col. hon. John-Hobart Caradoc (after- 

wards succeeded as baron Howden) ; 
military special mission. Nov. 15. 
1835. Henrj^-Lytton Bulwer (afterwards Rt. hon. 
sir Henry), charge d'affaires. Dec. 3. 



1836. Sir George-Hamilton Seymour, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. April 4. 

1845. Thomas-Wathen Waller, charge d'affaires. 

Oct. 18. 

1846. Charles- Augustus, lord Howard de Walden 

and Seaford, envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Dec. 10. The 
PRESENT (1850) Minister to Belgium. 
— Rt. hon. sir Stratford Canning, extra- 
ordinary mission to Belgium, Germany, 
Greece, and Switzerland. 



To THE King of Denmark. 



1703. Dudley-Alexander-Sydney Cosby (after- 
wards lord Sydney, of Leix, in Ireland), 
resident. Sept. To. 

1765. William Gordon (afterwards sir William, 
bart.), envoy extraordinary. June 29. 
— Robert Gunning (afterwards sir Robert), 
resident. Nov. 23. 

1771. Robert-Murray Keith (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir Robert), envoy extraordinary. Feb. 

1772. Ralph Woodford, envoy extraordinary. 

Aug. 14. 

1774. Daniel De Laval, resident. July 15. 

1778. The same ; envoy extraordinary. June 10. 

1779. Morton Eden (afterwards Rt. hon. sir Mor- 

ton, and lord Henley), envoy extraor- 
dinary. March 17. 
1782. Hugh Elliot, envoy extraordinary, and 
(afterwards) minister plenipotentiary. 



1791. Daniel Hailes, envoy extraordinarv. Dec. 
14. 

1795. Lord Robert-Stephen Fitzgerald, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
July 7. 

1800. Charles, lord (afterwards viscount and 
earl) Whitworth; extraordinary mis- 
sion. Aug. 1. 

1803. Sir James Craufurd, envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary. Feb. 27. 
— Robert Liston (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 
Robert) ; extraordinary mission. June 23. 

1804. Benjamin Garlike, envoy extraordinary and 

minister plenipotentiary. Dec. 3L 

1805. Edward Thornton (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Edward), minister plenipotentiary to 
Denmark, the Hanse Towns, Lower 
Saxony, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz. May 4. 



AMBASSADOKS, ENVOYS, ETC. 



77 



1807. Brook Taylor (afterwards Et. hon. sir 
Brook), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary, ad int. July 17. 

1807. Francis- James Jackson, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary, ad 
int. July 24. 
— Anthony Merry, envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Oct. 3. 

1812. Edward Thornton, again, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
July 5. 



1813, 
1814. 
1824. 



General hon. Alexander Hope, envoy 
extraordinary, and minister plenipo- 
tentiary. Jan. 15. 

Augustus- John Foster (afterwards Rt. hon. 
sir Augustus), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. May 19. 

Henry-Watkin-Williams Wynn (after- 
wards Rt. hon. sir Henry), envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Sept. 14. The present (1850) 
Minister to Denmark. 



To France. 



17G1. 

1702. 
17G3. 

1765 

1766. 

1768. 

1772. 

1783. 



1784. 
1785. 

1790. 

1796. 

1797. 

1801. 

1802. 



1806. 



Hans Stanley, afterwards Rt. hon. Hans 
Stanley, charge d'affaires. 

John, duke of Bedford*, ambassador. Sept. 4. 

Francis Seymour, earl of Hertford, ambas- 
sador. 

Charles Lenox, duke of Richmond, am- 
bassador. 

William-Henry Nassau, earl of Rochford, 
ambassador. July 2. 

Simon Harcourt, earl Harcourt, ambas- 
sador. 

David Murray, viscount Stormont (after- 
wards earl of Mansfield), ambassador. 
Sept. 9. 

Francis-Godolphin Osborne, marquess of 

Carmarthen, ambassador. Feb. 10. 
George Montagu, duke of Manchester, 

ambassador. April 9. 
John -Frederick Sackville, duke of Dorset, 

ambassador. 
Daniel Hailes, minister plenipotentiary, ad 

int. April 28. 
Rt. hon. William Eden (afterwards lord 

Auckland), envoy extraordinary, and 

plenipotentiary for commercial affairs. 

Dec. 9. 

George Granville, earl Gower, ambassador. 
June 11. Recalled Sept. 1792. 

[The war interrupted the diplomatic re- 
lations between the two countries.] 

James, lord (afterwards earl of) Malmes- 
bury, ambassador extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary for negotiating 
a treaty of peace. Oct. 13. 

James, lord Malmesbury, again ; for nego- 
tiating a peace with the plenipoten- 
tiaries of the French republic at Lisle. 
June 30. 

Charles, marquess Cornwallis, plenipoten- 
tiary at the congress held at Amiens. 
Oct. 29. 

Francis-James Jackson, minister pleni- 
potentiary. Dec. 2. 

Anthony Merry, minister plenipotentiary. 
April 1. 

Charles, lord (afterwards viscount and 

earl) Whitworth, ambassador. Sept. 10. 

Left Paris, May 19, 1803. 
[The war with Napoleon again interrupted 

the diplomatic relations between the 

two countries.] 
Francis Seymour, earl of Yarmouth, and 

James, earl of Lauderdale, commission- 



1815. 



1824. 



ers for negotiating a peace with France. 
Aug. 1. 

1814. Sir Charles Stuart (afterwards lord Stuart 
de Rothesay), envoy extraordniary and 
minister plenipotentiary, ad int. June 4. 

— Rt. hon. Charles Bagot (afterguards sir 

Charles), minister plenipotentiary. 
July 11. 

— Arthur, duke of Wellington, ambassador. 
Aug. 8. 

Lord Fitzroy- James-Henry Somerset, mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. Jan. 18. 
Sir Charles Stuart, again ; ambassador, ad 

int. March 26. 
Granville, viscount (afterwards earl) Gran- 
ville; special mission, to congratulate 
Charles X. on his accession to the 
throne. Oct. 7. 

— Hon. Algernon Percy, minister plenipoten- 

tiary, ad int. Oct. 12. 

— Granville, viscount Granville, again, am- 

bassador. Nov. 3. 
1825. Hugh, duke of Northumberland; special 

embassy ; coronation of the king 

(Charies X.). April 30. 
1828. Lord Stuart de Rothesay, ambassador. 

July 1. 

1830. Viscount Granville, again ; ambassador. 
Dec. 8. 

1832. Hamilton-Charles- James Hamilton, mi- 

nister plenipotentiary, ad int. March 23. 

1833. Arthur Aston (afterwards sir Arthur), mi- 

nister plenipotentiary, ad int. April 19. 
1835. Henry, lord Cowley, ambassador. March 13. 

— Granville, earl (late viscount) Granville, 

ambassador. March 29. 

1837. Arthur Aston, again, minister plenipoten- 
tiary, ad int. July 24. 

1839. Henry Lytton Bulwer (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir Henry), minister plenipotentiarv, ad 
int. July 29. 

1841. Henrv, lord Cowley, again, ambassador. 
Oct. 16. 

1845. Lord William Hervey, minister plenipo- 

tentiary, ad int. July 29. 

1846. Constantine-Henry, marquess of Nor- 

man by, ambassador. Aug. 12. 

1848. Marquess of Normanby, continued; special 

and temporary mission to the French 
National Assembly. Aug. 16. 

1849. Marquess of Normanby, continued, am- 

bassador. Jan. 31. The present (1850) 
Ambassador to France. 



To Germany. 



1763. Philip Stanhope, envoy extraordinary to 
the diet of the empire. • March 22. 
— James Porter (afterwards sir James), 
minister plenipotentiary to the emperor 
of Germany's court at I3rus3els. May 7. 



1764. William Gordon (afterwards sir William), 

minister plenipotentiary at Ratisbon. 
April 3. 

1765. The same, now minister plenipotentiary at 

Brussels. Nov. 23. 



78 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



1765. Fulke Greville, envoy extraordinary to 
the elector of Bavaria, and minister 
plenipotentiary to the diet of Ratisbon. 
Nov. 23. 

1769. Lewis de Visme, minister plenipotentiary 
to the elector of Bavaria and diet of 
Ratisbon. 

1773. Hugh Elliot, minister plenipotentiary to 
the elector of Bavaria, and minister to 
the diet of Ratisbon. Dec. 24. 

1776. Morton Eden (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Morton, and lord Henley), to the same. 
Oct. 31. 

1777. AUeyne Fitzherbert (afterwards lord St. 

Helens), minister at Brussels. March 4. 

1779. Richard Oakes, minister to the diet of 

Ratisbon. 

1780. Hon. John Trevor, minister plenipoten- 

tiary to the elector palatine, and mi- 
nister to the diet of Ratisbon. April 7. 

1781. Ralph Heathcote, minister plenipotentiary 

to the elector of Cologne, &c. March 3. 
1783. George Byng, viscount Torrington, envoy 
extraordinary to the emperor's court at 
Brussels. 

— Robert, viscount Galway, envoy extraor- 

dinaiy to the elector palatine, and mi- 
nister to the diet of Ratisbon. Feb. 22. 

— Hon. Thomas Walpole, envoy extraordi- 

nary to the elector palatine. Nov. 19. 

1788. Hon. Thomas Walpole, envoy extraordi- 
nary and plenipotentiary to the same. 

1790. Charles-Henry Eraser, minister plenipoten- 
tiary to the circle of Lower Saxony, and 
resident at the Hanse Towns. Aug. 1 4. 

1792. Thomas, earl of Elgin, envoy extraordi- 
narv to the emperor's court at Brussels. 
Aug. 18. 

1796. William Elliot, minister plenipotentiary to 
the elector palatine, and minister to the 
diet of Ratisbon. 

1798. Hon. Arthur Paget (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir Arthur), envoy extraordinary to 
the elector palatine, and minister to 
the diet of Ratisbon. May 22. 

— Sir James Craufurd, bart., minister pleni- 

potentiary to the circle of Lower Saxony, 
and resident at the Hanse Towns. July 
28. 

1799. Francis Drake, envoy extraordinary to the 

same, and minister to the diet of Ratis- 
bon. June 11. 

1800. The same, to the elector palatine, new cre- 

dentiah, and envoy extraordinary to the 
diet of Ratisbon. May. 

1801. Brook Taylor (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Brook), minister plenipotentiary to 
Hesse -Cassel and to the elector of 
Cologne. Aug. 4. 

1802. Francis Drake, minister plenipotentiary to 

the elector palatine, in addition to his 
former character. July 1. 

1803. The same, minister plenipotentiary to the 

diet of Ratisbon. Feb. 27. 
1805. Hon. William Hill, envoy extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary to the circle of 
Franconia. March 1. 

— Edward Thornton (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Edward), minister plenipotentiary to 
Denmark, the Hanse Towns, and the 
circle of Lower Saxony, to Mecklen- 
burgh -Schwerin, and to Mecklenburgh- 
Strelitz. May 4. 
1815. Alexander Cockburn, envoy extraordinary 



to the Hanse Towns and to Lower 
Saxony. June 1. 

1817. Hon. Frederick-James Lamb (afterwards 
Rt. hon. sir Frederick, and lord Beau- 
vale ; succeeded as viscount Mel- 
bourne), minister plenipotentiary to the 
Germanic Confederation. Nov. 28. 

1820. The same, envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. March 6. 

1823. George-Hamilton Seymour (afterwards 

sir George), charge d'affaires, ad int., to 
the Germanic Confederation. Oct. 7. 

1824. Hon. Frederick Cathcart, minister plenipo- 

tentiary to the Germanic Confederation. 
April 2. 

1826. Hon. Frederick Cathcart, minister plenipo- 

tentiary to Hesse -Cassel. Feb. 2. 

1827. John-Ralph Milbanke, charge d'affaires, 

ad int., to the same. March 20. 

1828. Henry-Unwin Addington, minister pleni- 

potentiary to the Germanic Confedera- 
tion, and to Hesse-Cassel. Feb. 18. 

1829. George-William Chad, minister plenipo- 

tentiary to the Germanic Confederation, 
and to Hesse-Cassel. Nov. 2. 

1830. Thomas Cartwright (afterwards sir Tho- 

mas), minister plenipotentiary to the 
Germanic Confederation. Nov. 16. 

1831. The same, minister plenipotentiary to 

Hesse-Cassel. Jan. 14. 

1838. Hon. Henry-Edward Fox (afterwards lord 

Holland), minister plenipotentiary to 
the Germanic Confederation. May 2. 

— The same, to Hesse-Cassel. May 2. 

1839. Hon. Ralph Abercromby, minister pleni- 

potentiary to the Germanic Confedera- 
tion. Jan. 2. 

— The same, to Hesse Cassel. July 25. 

1840. Hon.William-Thomas-Horner Fox-Strang- 

ways, envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to the Germanic Con- 
federation, and minister plenipotentiary 
to Hesse-Cassel. Aug. 1. 

1841. Hon. Francis-Reginald Forbes, minister 

plenipotentiary to Saxe-Coburg Gotha. 
June 29. See Saxony. 
1843. Hon. Francis- George Molyneux, charge 
d'affaires to the diet. Jan. 24. 

1847. John, earl of Westmorland, minister pleni- 

potentiary to Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, 
and to Mecklenburgh-Strelitz. April 20. 
See Prussia. 

— Hon. John-Duncan Bligh, minister pleni- 

potentiar}' to Oldenburg. April 20. 
See Hanover. 

— The same, minister plenipotentiary to 

Brunswick. Oct. 15. See Hanover. 

— John, earl of Westmorland, minister pleni- 

potentiary to Anhalt-Dessau. Oct. 15. 
See Prussia. 

— Hon. Francis-Reginald Forbes, minister 

plenipotentiary to Saxe-Weimar-Eise- 
nach, to Saxe-Altenburg, and to Saxe- 
Meiningen. Oct. 15. See Saxony. 

— Hon.William-Thomas-Horner-Fox-Strang- 

ways, minister plenipotentiary to Hesse- 
Darmstadt, and to Nassau. Oct. 15. 

— Rt. hon. Sir Stratford Canning, extraordi- 

nary mission to Germany, Belgium, 
Greece, and Switzerland. 

1848. Henry-Richard-Charles, lord Cowley ; spe- 

cial mission to Frankfort, without cre- 
dentials. July 29. The present (1850) 
Minister. 



AMBASSADORS, EXYOYS, ETC. 



79 



To THE King of Greece. 



[Greece became a kingdom, Oct. 5, 1832 ; and 
Otho, of Bavaria, ascended the throne, as first 
king, Jan. 25, in the following year.] 
1833. Edward- James Dawkins, minister pleni- 
potentiary. Jan. 1. 
1835. Sir Edmund Lyons, minister plenipoten- 
tiary. July 2. 



1847. Rt. hon. sir Stratford Canning, extraordi- 
nary mission to Greece, Belgium, Ger- 
many, and Switzerland. 

1849. Rt. hon. Thomas Wyse, minister plenipo- 
tentiary. Feb. 14. The PRESENT (1850) 
Minister to Greece. 



To THE King of Hanover. 



[Hanover became separated from the crown of 
Great Britain by the demise of his Britannic ma- 
jesty, William IV., June 20, 1837, when Ernest, 
duke of Cumberland, ascended the throne.] 



1838. Hon. John-Duncan Bligh, envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
May 2. The present (1850) Minister 
to Hanover. 



To THE Hanse Towns. 



Philip Stanhope, resident. 

1762. Robert Colebrooke, resident. 

1763. Ralph Woodford, resident. March 22. 
Emmanuel Matthias, resident. Aug. 14. 
Charles-Henry Fraser, resident, and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary to Lower Saxony. 
Aug. 13. 

Sir James Craufurd, bart., resident, and 
minister plenipotentiary to Lower 
Saxony. July 28. 
1803. Sir George-Berriman Rumbold, bart.i, re- 
sident. Seized by the French govern- 
ment, and conveyed to Paris, Oct. 25, 
1804: restored to liberty, and arrived 
in London, Nov. 18, following. 



1772. 
1790. 



1798. 



1805. Edward Thornton (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 
Edward), resident, and minister pleni- 
potentiary to Denmark, Lower Saxony, 
Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, and Mecklen- 
burgh-Strelitz. May 4. 

1813. Alexander Cockburn; special mission. 
March. 

1815. Alexander Cockburn, envoy extraordinary. 
June 1. 

1836. Henry Canning, charge d'affaires to the 
Hanse Towns and to Lower Saxony. 
Nov. 29. 

1841. Colonel Lloyd Hodges, charge d'affaires, 
July 31. The present (1850) Minister 
to the Hanse Towns, &c. 



To THE Netherlands. 



Hon. Joseph Yorke (afterwards rt. hon. sir 
Joseph), envoy extraordinary and ple- 
nipotentiary. 
1784. Sir James Harris (afterwards lord and earl 
of Malmesbury), envoy extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary to the states-gene- 
ral of the United Provinces. July 3. 

1788. The same, ambassador extraordinary and 

plenipotentiary to the states general, &c. 
Feb. 8. 

1789. Rt. hon. Alleyne Fitzherbert (afterwards 

lord St. Helens), envoy extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary to the states gene- 
ral, &;c. May 16. 
— William Eden, lord Auckland, ambassa- 
dor to the states general, &c. Nov. 28. 

1790. Lord Henry-John Spencer, minister ple- 

nipotentiary, ad int., to their high 
mightinesses. April 7. 

1793. Hon. William Eliot (afterwards lord Eliot 

and earl of St. Germans), minister ple- 
nipotentiary, ad int. 

1794. Alleyne, lord St. Helens, envoy extra- 

ordinary and plenipotentiary. 



1802. Robert Liston (afterwards Rt. hon. sir Ro- 
bert), envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to the Batavian republic. 
Aug. 14. 

1813. Richard, earl of Clancarty, ambassador to 
the prince of Orange. Nov. 25. 

1815. Sir Charles Stuart (afterwards lord Stuart 
de Rothesay), ambassador to the prince 
of Orange. Jan. 16. 

— Sir Charles Stuart (afterwards lord Stuart 

de Rothesay), ambassador to the Low 
Countries. March 21. 

— John James, minister plenipotentiary, ad 

int. June 29. 

1817. Richard, earl of Clancarty, again, ambas- 
sador. Jan. 18. 

1819. George-William Chad, minister plenipo- 
tentiary, ad int. March 23. 

1824. Granville, viscount (afterwards earl) Gran- 
ville, ambassador. Feb. 14. 

— Andrew-Snape Douglas, minister plenipo- 

tentiary, ad int. Oct. 6. 

— Rt. hon. sir Charles Bagot, ambassador. 

Nov. 27. 



1 Sir George Rumbold's house, near Altona, was surrounded by a company of eighty soldiers (part of a detach- 
ment of 250) at one o'clock in the morning ; the doors were forced open, and his person and papers seized. On 
the instant, he was hurried into a carriage, taken to the banks of the Elbe, and thence conveyed to Harbourg, and 
to Hanover, and subsequently by land, escorted by a squadron of dragoons, to Paris, where, immediately on his 
arrival, he was lodged in the Temple. The British government appealed in strong terms to the corps diploma- 
tique against this outrage, and the different sovereigns of Europe were invoked to resent it. However, after an 
examination of his papers (in which nothing was found to implicate him in a supposed conspiracy), and an 
imprisonment of three days, he was released, and removed, still strongly guarded, first to Boulogne, and then to 
Cherbourg. At this latter place he was embarked for England in a fishing-smack, which, meeting in the channel 
the British frigate Niobe, she received him on board, and landed him at Portsmouth. This affair produced a 
great sensation at every court. 



80 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1829. Thomas Cartvvright (afterwards sir Tho- 
mas), minister plenipotentiary, ad int. 
July 28. 

1832. Hon. John-Duncan Bligh, minister pleni- 
potentiary, ad int. June 16. 



1833. Hon. George-Sulyarde- Stafford Jerning- 
ham, charge d'affaires. 

1835. Sir Edward-Cromwell Disbrowe, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary-, 
Dec. 30. The present (1850) Minister 
to the Netherlands. 



To THE King and Eepublic of Poland. 



Thomas Wroughton (afterwards sir Tho- 
mas), minister plenipotentiary. 

1778. Richard Oakes, minister plenipotentiary. 

June 10. 

1779. James Hare, minister plenipotentiary. Oct. 

19. 

1782. John, viscount Dalrymple (afterwards 
earl of Stair), minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Jan. 5. 



1784. Charles Whitworth (afterwards sir Charles, 
baron, viscount, and earl Whitworth), 
minister plenipotentiary. June 25. 

1788. Daniel Hailes, minister plenipotentiary. 
Sept. 13. 

1791. William Gardiner, minister plenipotentiary. 
Dec. 14. 

[Poland was finally partitioned by Russia, 
Austria, and Prussia, in 1795.] 



To THE Court of Portugal. 



Hon. Edward Hay, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. 
1766. William-Henry Lyttleton (afterwards lord 
Westcote, in Ireland), envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. Oct. 
25. 

1771. Hon. Robert Walpole, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. June 12. 

1786. William Fawkener, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary, for nego- 
tiating commercial affairs in conjunction 
with the hon. Robert Walpole. Oct. 4. 

1800. John-Hookhnm Frere, envoy extraordi- 
narv and minister plenipotentiary. Oct. 
14." 

1802. Lord Robert-Stephen Fitzgerald, envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Sept. 25. 

1806. James, earl of Rosslyn, John, earl of St. 

Vincent, and general Simcoe ; extraor- 
dinary mission. Aug. 9. 

— Percy Clinton, viscount Strangford, mi- 

nister plenipotentiary, ad int. Dec. 1. 
1808. Percy Clinton, viscount Strangford, envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. April 16. 
[Viscount Strangford went to the Brazils 
on the court of Portugal going thither.] 

— John-Charles Villiers, envoy extraordi- 

nary and minister plenipotentiary. Nov. 
27. 

1810. Charles Stuart (afterwards sir Charles, and 
lord Stuart de Rothesay), envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipoten tiary. 
Jan. 10. 



1814. Thomas Sydenham, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. May 26. 

— Rt. hon. George Canning, ambassador ; to 

congratulate the king on his return to 
his European dominions. Oct. 17. 
1817. Rt. hon. Edward Thornton (afterwards 
sir Edward), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. July 29. 
[Mr. Thornton went to the Brazils same 
year.] 

1819. The same, ambassador />ro ^em. April 12. 

1820. Edward- Michael Ward, charge d'affaires. 

March 6. 

1823. Rt. hon. sir Edward Thornton, again, envoy 

extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Aug. 7. 

1824. Sir William A'Court (afterwards lord 

Heytesbury), ambassador. Aug. 16. 

1825. Sir Charles Stuart (afterwards lord Stuart 

de Rothesay) ; special mission. March 

1827. Rt. hon. sir Frederick-James Lamb (after- 
wards lord Beauvale; succeeded as 
viscount Melbourne), ambassador. Dec. 
28. 

1833. Lord William Russell ; special mission. 
Aug. 7. 

— Charles- Augustus, lord Howard de Walden 

(afterwards lord Howard de Walden and 
Seaford), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. Nov. 26. 
1847. Sir George-Hamilton Seymour, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Feb. 2. The present (1850) Minister 
to Portugal. 



To THE King of Prussia. 



1765. Andrew Mitchell (afterwards sir Andrew), 
envoy extraordinary. Dec. 13. 

1771. Robert Gunning (afterwards sir Robert, 

bart.), envoy extraordinary. Feb. 13. 

1772. James Harris (afterwards sir James, lord 

and earl of Malmesbury), envoy extra- 
ordinary. Jan. 3. 

1776. HughEUiot, envoy extraordinary. Oct. 13. 

1782. George- J ames, earl of Cholmondeley, envoy 
extraordinary. June 14. 
— Sir John Stepney, bart., envoy extraor- 
dinary. Sept. 21. 

1784. John, viscount Dalrymple (afterwards earl 
of Stair), envoy extraordinary. 

1788. Joseph Ewart, envoy extraordinary. Aug. 5. 

1791. Sir Morton Eden (afterwards Rt^hon. and 



lord Henley), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Nov. 3. 

1793. James, lord (afterwards earl of ) Malmes- 
bury, envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary. 

1795. Lord Henry-John Spencer, envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary : 
died July, 1795. 
— Thomas, earl of Elgin, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Aug. 15. 

1800. John -Joshua, earl of Carysfort, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 

1802. Francis- James Jackson, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiarv. 
Oct 24. 



AMBASSADORS, ENVOYS, ETC. 



81 



1805. Edward Thornton (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Edward), minister plenipotentiary to 
Denmark, the Hanse Towns, Lower 
Saxony, Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, and 
Mecklenburgh-Strelitz. May 4. 

— Dudley, lord (Afterwards earl of) Harrow- 

by; extraordinary mission to Prussia 
and to Russia. Oct. 25. 

1806. Lord Granville-Leveson Gower (after- 

wards earl Granville); extraordinary 
mission. Jan. 8. 

— Charles, earl of Harrington ; extraordinary 

mission. Jan 9. 

— George Howard, viscount Morpeth (suc- 

ceeded as earl of Carlisle). Sept. 29. 

— John Hely, lord Hutchinson (succeeded as 

earl of Donoughmore). Nov. 18. 

1807. John-Hookham Frere, envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary. June 17. 

— Benjamin Garlike, envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary, ad int. 
July 17. 

1813. Hon. sir Charles Stewart (afterwards lord 
Stewart, and marquess of Londonderry), 
envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary. April 7. 

— Robert Stewart, viscount Castlereagh (suc- 

ceeded as marquess of Londonderry) ; 
extraordinary mission. Dec. 27. 
1815. George-Henry Rose (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir George), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Sept. 10. 



1822. Arthur, duke of Wellington; extraordinary 

mission to the congress at Verona. 
Sept. 14. 

1823. Richard Meade, earl of Clanwilliam, envoy 

extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Feb. 3. 

1827. Sir Brook Taylor (afterwards Rt. hon.), 
envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary. Dec. 28. 

1830. George- William Chad, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Sept. 20. 

1832. Gilbert, earl of Minto, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Aug. 22. 

— John-George, lord Durham (afterwards 

earl of Durham); extraordinary mis- 
sion to Austria, Prussia, and Russia. 
Sept. 14. 

1834. Sir George Shee, bart., envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary. Oct. 31. 

1835. Rt. hon. sir Robert Adair j special mission. 

July 28. 

— Lord George- William Russell, envoy ex- 

traordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Nov. 24. 

John, lord Burghersh (afterwards earl of 
Westmorland), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Oct. 16. 
Henry -Francis Howard, charge d'affaires 

ad int. May 28. 
[The earl of Westmorland is (as above) the 
PRESENT (1850) Minister to Prussia.] 



1841. 



1846. 



To THE Emperor of Russia. 



1762. 
1764. 
1766. 
1767. 

1768. 
1771. 
1776. 

1783. 
1788. 

1790. 
1801. 



Robert- Murray Keith (afterwards Rt. hon. 
sir Robert), envoy extraordinary. 

John, earl of Buckinghamshire, ambassa- 
dor extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary. July 17. 

Sir George (afterwards lord, viscount, and 
earl) Macartney, envoy extraordinary. 
Aug. 31. 

Rt. hon. Hans Stanley, ambassador extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Aug. 12. 

Sir George (afterwards lord, viscount, and 
earl) Macartney, ambassador extraor- 
dinarv and minister plenipotentiarv. 
Oct. i4. 

Charles Shaw, lord Cathcart, ambassador 
extraordinarv and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Feb. 23. 

Robert Gunning (afterwards sir Robert, 
bart.), envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary. Dec. 13. 

Sir James Harris (afterwards lord, and earl 
of INIalmesbury), envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Nov. 
30. 

Alleyne Fitzherbert (afterwards lord St. 
Helens), envoy extraordinary and minis- 
ter plenipotentiary^ Aug. 19. 

Charles Whitworth (afterwards sir Charles, 
and lord, viscount, and earl Whitworth), 
envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary. Oct. 13. 

William Fawkener, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary, ad int. 

Alleyne, lord St. Helens, ambassador to 
the emperor Alexander on his accession. 
April 24. 

Benjamin Garlike, minister plenipotentiary, 
ad int. July 13. 



1802. Sir John-Borlase Warren, bart., ambassa- 
dor. Sept. 5. 

1804. Lord Granville-Leveson Gower (afterwards 

earl Granville), ambassador. Aug. 10. 

1805. William Shaw, lord (afterwards viscount, 

and earl) Cathcart, ambassador. Nov. 28. 

— Dudley, lord (afterwards earl of) Harrow- 

by; extraordinary mission (and to 
Prussia). Nov. 28. 

1806. Lord Granville-Leveson Gower (afterwards 

earl Granville), again, ambassador. 
May 17. 

— Alexander Hamilton, marquess of Douglas 

and Clydesdale (succeeded as duke of 
Hamilton), ambassador. May 28. 

1812. William Shaw, viscount (afterwards earl) 

Cathcart, ambassador. July 25. 

— Horatio, lord Walpole (succeeded as earl of 

Orford), minister plenipotentiary, ad int. 
Aug. 4. 

1813. Robert, viscount Castlereagh (succeeded as 

marquess of Londonderry) ; special mis- 
sion. Dec. 27. 

1817. Lewis Casamaj or, minister plenipotentiary, 
ad int. July 5. 

1820. Rt. hon. sir Charles Bagot, ambassador. 
May 23. 

— Lt.-col. hon. Frederick Cathcart, minister 

plenipotentiary'^, ad int. 
1822. Arthur, duke of Wellington ; extraordinary 
mission to the congress of Yerona. 
Sept. 14. 

1824. Edward-Michael Ward, minister plenipo- 

tentiary, ad int. June 30. 

— Rt. hon. Stratford Canning (afterwards sir 

Stratford) ; special mission. Dec. 8. 

1825. Edward - Cromwell Disbrowe (afterwards 

sir Edward), minister plenipotentiary, 
ad int. Feb. 23. 



82 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1825. Percy Clinton, viscount Strangford, am- 

bassador. Oct. 10. 

1826. Arthur, duke of Wellington, again ;'special 

mission. Feb. 6. 

— William-Spencer Cavendish, duke of 

Devonshire; special embassy; corona- 
tion of the emperor Nicholas. May 5. 

— Edward-Cromwell Disbrowe (afterwards 

sir Edward), minister plenipotentiary, 
ad int. May 31. 
1828. Hon. William Temple, minister plenipo- 
tentiary, ad int. J an. 4. 

— William, lord Heytesburj'", ambassador. 

June 7. 

1832. John-George, lord (afterwards earl of) 
Durham ; extraordinary mission to 
Austria, Russia, and Prussia. July 3. 



1832. Hon. John-Duncan Bligh, minister pleni- 
potentiary, ad int. Sept. 3. 

1835. John-George, earl of Durham, ambassador 

July 8. 

1836. John-Ralph Milbanke, minister plenipo- 

tentiary, ad int. Sept. 29. 
1838. Ulick-John, marquess of Clanricarde, am- 
bassador. Oct. 6. 

1840. Hon. John-Arthur-Douglas Bloomfield, 

(afterwards lord Bloomfield), minister 
plenipotentiary, ad int. March 28. 

1841. Charles, lord Stuart de Rothesay, ambas- 

sador. Oct. 16. 
1844. John - Arthur - Douglas, lord Bloomfield, 
envoy extraordinary and minister ple- 
nipotentiary. March 9. The present 
(1850) Minister to Russia. 



To THE King of Sardinia. 



1761. 
1768. 
1779. 
1783. 
1789. 
17C9. 



Hon. James-Stuart Mackenzie, envoy ex- 
traordinary. 

George Pitt (afterwards lord Rivers), envoy 
extraordinary. 

Sir William Lynch, envoy extraordinary. 
Oct. 1. 

John, viscount Mountstuart, envoy extra- 
ordinary and plenipotentiary. Aug. 16. 

Hon. John Trevor, envoy extraordinary. 
Feb. 22. 

The same, as minister plenipotentiary. 
June 16. 

Thomas Jackson, minister plenipotentiary. 
April 13. 



1807. Hon. William Hill, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Dec. 9. 

1824. Right hon. Augustus-John Foster (after- 
wards sir Augustus), envoy extraordi- 
nary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Sept. 14. 

1840. Hon. Ralph Abercromby, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
May 30. 

1847. Gilbert, earl of Minto ; extraordinary mis- 
sion to Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, and 
Switzerland. Sept. 14. 
Hon. Ralph Abercromby (as above), the 
PRESENT (1850) Minister to Sardinia. 



To THE Court of Saxony. 



David Murray, viscount Stormont (after- 
wards earl of Mansfield), envoy extra- 
ordinary to the elector. 
1764. Philip Stanhope, envoy extraordinary. 
April 3. 

1768. Robert-Murray Keith (afterwards right 
hon. sir Robert) envov extraordinary. 
Nov. 27. 

1771. John Osborne, envoy extraordinary. Feb.ll. 

1775. Sir John Stepney, bart., envoy extraordi- 
nary. Nov. 30. 

1783. Morton Eden (afterwards right hon. sir 
Morton, and lord Henley), envoy ex- 
traordinary. 

1789. Morton Eden, now minister plenipotentiary. 

1791. Hugh Elliot, envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Nov. 13. 

1803. Henry-Watkin-Williams Wynn (after- 
wards right hon. sir Henry), envoy 
extraordinary. June 25. 



[ Saxony was erected into a kingdom, con- 
formably with the treaty of Posen (signed 
Dec. 11. 1806) between France and Fre- 
derick-Augustus, the then elector, after- 
wards king J 
1816. John-Philip INIorier, envoy extraordinary. 
Jan. 5. 

1824. George-William Chad, minister plenipo- 
tentiary. Dec. 11. 

1828. Edward- Michael Ward, minister plenipo- 
tentiary. Feb. 18. 

1832. Hon. Francis-Reginald Forbes, minister 
plenipotentiary. Nov. 26. 

1842. Thomas, earl of Wilton, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary ; 
special mission. Sept. 24. 
— Hon. Francis-Reginald Forbes (as above), 
the PRESENT (1850) Minister to Saxony. 
See also Germany. 



To THE King of the (Two) Sicilies. 



1800. 



1801. 



Sir James Gray, bart., envoy extraordinary. 
1764. William Hamilton (afterwards right hon. 
sir William), envoy extraordinary. 
Hon. sir Arthur Paget (afterwards right 
hon.), envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary. Jan. 17. 
Rt. hon. William Drummond, envoy extra- 
ordinary. Aug. 4. 
1803. Hugh Elliot, envoy extraordinary and 

minister plenipotentiary. Feb. 9. 
1806. General Henry-Edward Fox, envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
(military). May 29. 
— Rt. hon. William Drummond, again, en- 
voy extraordinary^ and minister pleni- 
potentiary. Oct. 3. 



1809. William Pitt, lord (afterwards earl) Am- 
herst, envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary. Feb. 1. 

1811. Lord William-Cavendish Bentinck, envoy 

extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. June 4. 

1812. Hon. Frederick-James Lamb (afterwards 

sir Frederick, and lord Beauvale, and 
succeeded as viscount Melbourne), mi- 
nister plenipotentiary, ad int. May 
18. 

1814. William A'Court (afterwards sir William, 
and lord Heytesbury), envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
March 5. 

1822. William-Richard Hamilton, envoy extra- 



AMBASSADORS, ENVOYS, ETC. 



83 



ordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Feb. 12. 

1824. Right hon. William-Noel Hill, envoy ex- 

traordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Sept. 14. 

1825. John, lord Burghersh (succeeded as earl 

of Westmorland) ; special mission on 
the accession of the king (Francis L), 
as king of the Two Sicilies. Feb. 
23. 

1830. John, lord Burghersh (afterwards earl of 
Westmoreland), again; envoy extra- 



ordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Nov. 16. Not sent, 
1832. John, lord (afterwards viscount) Ponsonby, 
envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary. June 8. 

— Hon. William Temple, envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary. Nov. 27. 
1847. Gilbert, earl of Minto ; extraordinary mis- 
sion to Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, and 
Switzerland. Dec. 17. 

— Hon. William Temple (as above). The pre- 

sent (1850) Minister to the Two Sicilies. 



To Spain. 



1763. 

1766. 
1770. 

1771. 

1783. 

1784. 
1787. 
1789. 
1794. 
1795. 

1802. 

1809. 

1810. 



George-William Hervey, earl of Bristol, 
ambassador. 

John Montagu, earl of Sandwich, ambas- 
sador. Feb. 19. 

William-Henry Nassau, earl of Rochford, 
ambassador. June 18. 

Sir James Gray, bart., ambassador. Nov. 25. 

George Pitt (afterwards lord Rivers), am- 
bassador. Feb. 19. 

Thomas Robinson, lord Grantham, ambas- 
sador. Jan. 25. 

James Harris (afterwards sir James, and 
lord and earl of Malmesbury), minister 
plenipotentiary, ad int. Feb. 22. 

John, viscount Mountstuart, ambassador. 
March 12. 

Philip Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield, am- 
bassador. Dec. 31. 

Robert Liston (afterwards right hon. sir 
Robert),minister plenipotentiary, ad int. 

Rt. hon. William Eden (afterwards lord 
Auckland), ambassador. Aug. 18. 

Charles-Henry Fraser, minister plenipoten- 
tiary, ad int. July 18. 

Sir Morton Eden (afterwards lord Henley), 
ambassador. March 15. 

John, earl of Bute (late viscount Mount- 
stuart, afterwards marquess of Bute), 
again, ambassador. April 23. 

John-Hookham Frere (afterwards right 
hon.), envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary. Sept. 20. 

Richard, marquess Wellesley, ambassador. 
June 9. 

Bartholomew Frere, minister plenipoten- 
tiary, ad int. Sept. 17. 

Right hon. and hon. Henry Wellesley (af- 
terwards sir Henry, and lord Cowley), 



envoy extraordinary and minister ple- 
nipotentiary. Jan. 3. 

1811. The same; ambassador. Oct. 1. 

1813. Charles-Richard Vaughan (afterwards Rt. 

hon. sir Charles), minister plenipoten- 
tiary, ad. int. July 16. 

1820. Lionel Hervey, minister plenipotentiary, 
ad int. Nov. 25. 

1822. Sir William A'Court (afterwards lord 
Heytesbury), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Aug. 8. 

1825. Right hon. and hon. Frederick- James 
Lamb (afterwards sir Frederick, and 
lord Beauvale; succeeded as viscount 
Melbourne), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Feb. 18. 

1829. Henry-Unwin Addington, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary, 
Dec. 7. 

1832. Right hon. sir Stratford Canning ; special 

mission. Dec. 13. 

1833. Hon. George- William-Frederick Yilliers 

(afterwards sir George; succeeded as 
earl of Clarendon), envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Sept. 5. 
1835. Lord Elliot, military mission. 

1839. Hon. George-Sulyarde Stafford Jerning- 

ham, charge d'affaires. Oct. 18. 

1840. Arthur Aston (afterwards sir Arthur), en- 

voy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary. Feb. 13. 

1843. Henry-Lytton Bulwer (afterwards right 
hon. sir Henry), envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary.^ Nov. 25. 

1850. John Hobart, lord Howden, envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
May 9. The present (1850) Minister 
to Spain. 



To THE King of Sweden. 



Sir John Goodricke, bart., envoy extraor- 
dinary. 

1773. Lewis De Visme, envoy extraordinary. 

Nov. 29 : died in 1776. 
1776. Horace St. Paul, envoj^ extraordinary. 

Oct. 31. 

1778. Thomas Wroughton (afterwards sir Tho- 
mas), envoy extraordinary. June 10, 

1787. The same; now minister plenipotentiary. 
April 27 : died Sept. this year. 
— Charles Keene, charge d'affaires. Sept. 22. 



1788. Robert Liston (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 
Robert), minister plenipotentiary. Sept. 
13. 

1793. Lord Henry-John Spencer, envoy extra- 
ordinary. July 13. 

1795. Daniel Hailes, minister plenipotentiary, 
July 11. 

1802. Charles Arbuthnot (afterwards Rt. hon.), 
envoy extraordinary. Sept. 5. 

1804. Hon. Henry-Manvers Pierrepont (after- 
wards Rt. hon.), envoy extraordinary 



^ hi May 1848, Mr. Bulwer was ordered by the Spanish government to quit Madrid within forty-eight hours, 
on the alleged ground of his imprtiper interference in the internal affairs of the kingdom. The minister of Spain, 
in London (M. Isturiz) was, in consequence, informed by the British government that he could not be allowed 
to continue at the court of Great Britain as minister from the Queen of Spain. M. Istur z took his departure, 
therefore, from London on the 14th June following; and diplomatic relations were not renewed between the two 
countries until April 1850; when Lord Howden was appointed British minister to the court of Madrid, and 
M. Isturiz returned to the court of London. 

G 2 



84 STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



and minister plenipotentiary. April 
20. 

1807. Alexander Straton, envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary. Jan. 19. 

— Rt. hon. Henry- Man vers Pierrepont ; spe- 

cial mission. May. 

— Edward Thornton (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Edward), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. Dec. 10. 

1808. Anthony Merry, envoy extraordinary and 

minister plenipotentiary. Nov. 1. 

1811. Edward Thornton, again; special mission. 

Oct. 

1812. Edward Thornton, agaiuy envoy extraor- 

dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Aug. 5. 

1817. Perc}' Clinton, viscount Strangford, envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. July 18. 

1820. Rt. hon. William-Fitzgerald-Vesey Fitz- 
gerald (afterwards lord Fitzgerald and 
Vesci), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. Aug. 7. 



1823. Sir Benjamin Bloomfield (afterwards lord 
Bloomfield), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. April 24. 

1832. Charles- Augustus, lord Howard de Walden 

(afterwards lord Howard de Walden 
and Seaford), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Sept. 21. 

1833. Sir Edward Cromwell Disbrowe, envoy 

extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Nov. 26. 
1835. Hon. John Duncan Bligh, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiaiy. 
Nov. 3. 

1838. Sir Thomas Cartwright, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Oct. 6. 

1850. George-John-Robert Gordon, charge d^af- 

faireSf May 2, during the absence of 
sir Thomas Cartwright. 

1851. Sir Edmund Lyons, bart., envoy extraor- 

dinary and minister plenipotentiary, 
Jan. 27. The present Minister to 
Sweden. 



To THE Swiss Cantons. 



Arthur Villettes, minister. 

1765. William Norton, minister. Jan. 1. 
Colonel Braun, charge d'affaires. 

1792. Lord Robert-Stephen Fitzgerald, minister 
plenipotentiary. May 12. 

1795. William Wickham (afterwards Rt. hon.), 
minister plenipotentiary. July 11. 

1798. James Talbot, minister, ac? inf. Jan. 22. 

1814. Stratford Canning (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 
Stratford), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. June 28. 

1820. Edward-Cromwell Disbrowe (afterwards 
sir Edward), charge d'affaires, ad int. 
June 12. 

1822. Henry -Watkin -Williams Wynn (after- 

wards Rt. hon. sir Henry), envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Feb. 12. 

1823. Charles-Richard Vaughan (afterwards Rt. 



hon. sir Charles), minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Feb. 28. 

1825. Hon. Algernon Percy, minister plenipo- 
tentiary. Oct. 10. 

1832. David-Richard Morier, minister plenipo- 
tentiary. June 21. 

1847. Gilbert, earl of Minto ; extraordinary mis- 

sion to the Italian States, Sardinia, Si- 
cily, and Switzerland. Sept. 14. 
— Rt. hon. sir Stratford Canning, again ; ex- 
traordinary mission to Belgium, Ger- 
many, Greece, and Switzerland. Nov. 26. 

1848. Henry-Richard-Charles, lord Cowley, mi- 

nister plenipotentiary. Feb. 29. 

1849. Sir Edmund Lyons, minister plenipoten- 

tiary. Feb. 9. 
1851. Arthur-Charles Magenis, minister plenipo- 
tentiary, Jan. 27. The present Minis- 
ter to Switzerland. 



To Turkey. — The Ottoman Porte. 



James Porter (afterwards sir James), am- 
bassador. 

1761. Hon. Henry Grenville, ambassador. 
1765. Robert Colebrooke, ambassador, July 31. 

— John Murray, ambassador, Nov. 30 : died 

at Venice, Aug. 9, 1775. 
1 775. Sir Robert Ainslie, kt., ambassador, Sept. 20. 
1793. Robert Liston (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Robert), ambassador, Oct. 1. 
1796. Francis-James Jackson, ambassador, July 

23. 

— John-Spencer Smith, minister plenipo- 

tentiary, ad int. 
1799. Thomas, enrl of Elgin, ambassador, April 13. 

1803. Rt. hon. William Drummond, ambassador, 

Feb. 9. 

1804. Rt. hon. Charles Arbuthnot, ambassador, 

June 5. 

1807. Hon. sir Arthur Paget (afterwards Rt. 

hon.), ambassador, Mslj 15. 

1808. Robert Adair (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 

Robert) ; special mission, July 5. 

1809. Robert Adair (afterwards sir Robert), am- 

bassador, April 14. 

— Stratford Canning (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 



Stratford), minister plenipotentiary, 

1812. Robert Liston, again, ambassador, March 
2. 

1820. Bartholomew Frere, minister plenipoten- 
tiar3% March 6. 

1820. Percy Clinton, viscount Strangford, am- 
bassador, Aug. 7. 

1824. William Turner, minister plenipotentiary, 

ad int.y May 18. 

1825. Rt. hon. Stratford Canning, again, ambas- 

sador, Oct. 10. 

1827. Col. the hon. John Hobart Caradoc (after- 
wards lord Howden) ; special mission to 
Egypt and Greece, July 4. 

18"29. Rt. hon. Robert Gordon (afterwards sir 
Robert), ambassador, April 8. 

1831. Rt. hon. sir Stratford Canning, again, 

ambassador, Oct. 31. 
— John-Henry Mandeville, minister pleni- 
potentiary, ad int., Nov. 7. 

1832. John, lord (afterwards viscount) Ponsonby, 

ambassador, Nov. 27. 
1837. Sir Charles-Richard Vaughan, ambassador, 
March 1. 



AMBASSADORS, ENVOYS, ETC. 



85 



1841. Charles Bankhead, minister plenipoten- 
tiary, ad int.f March 30. 
— Rt. hon. sir Stratford Canning, again, am- 
bassador, Oct. 16. 

1845. Hon. Henry-Richard-Charles Wellesley 



(afterwards lord Cowley), minister ple- 
nipotentiary, ad int., June 14. 
1845. Sir Stratford Canning (as above). The 
PRESENT (1850) Ambassador to 
Tm'key. 



To THE Grand Duke of Tuscany, &c. 



Sir Horace Mann, bart., envoy extraordi- 
nary : died Nov. 1786, having been forty- 
six years minister at this court. 

1787. William Fawkener, envoy extraordinary, 
pro tern. April 27. 

1787. John- Augustus, lord Hervey, envoy ex- 
traordinary. Aug. 4. 

1791. The same, minister plenipotentiary. July 22. 

1794. Hon. William- Frederick Wyndham, envoy 
extraordinary. Jan. 25. 

1800. Hon. WlUiam-Frederick-Wyndham, in 
the additional character of minister 
plenipotentiary. Feb. 8. 

1814. John, lord Burghersh (afterwards earl of 
Westmorland), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Aug 14. 

1818. The same, in the same character, to Parma, 
and to Modena. Feb. 14. 

— The same, in the same character, to Lucca, 

March 5. 

1830. George- Hamilton Seymour (afterwards sir 

George), minister resident, Nov. 16. 

— John, lord Burghersh, minister plenipo- 

tentiary to Parma, &c. Nov. 16. Not sent. 

1831. Sir George-Hamilton Seymour, minister 



1839. 



1841. 



resident to Parma, to Lucca, and to 
Modena. June 13. 
1835. Hon. Ralph Abercromby, minister resident 
to Tuscanv, to Parma, and to Lucca. 
Dec. 26. 

Hon. Henrj^-Edward Fox (afterwards 
lord Holland), minister plenipotentiary 
to Tuscany, to Parma, and to Lucca. 
Jan. 2. 

Henry-Edward, lord Holland, minister 
plenipotentiary to Modena. May 14. ^ 

1846. Sir George-Baillie Hamilton, minister ple- 

nipotentiary to Tuscany, to Parma, to 
Modena, and to Lucca. May 23. 

1847. Gilbert, earl of Minto ; extraordinary mis- 

sion to the Italian States, Sardinia, Si- 
cily, and Switzerland. Sept. 14. 

— Sir George-Baillie Hamilton : died at 

Florence while minister plenipotentiary, 
in Sept. 1850. 
1850. Hon. Peter Campbell Scarlett, chaj-ge d'af- 
faires. 

— Rt. hon. Richard Lalor Sheil, minister 

plenipotentiary. Oct. 24. The present 
(1850) Charge d' Affaires. 



To THE Republic of Yenice. 



John Murray, resident. 

1761. Charles Compton, earl of Northampton, 

ambassador extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary. 

1762. John Murray, resident. 

1765. James Wright (afterwards sir James, 

bart.), resident. 
1773. John Strange, resident. Oct. 19. 

1788. Robert Ritchie, charge d'affaires. 

1789. Sir Francis Vincent, bart., resident. Sept. 

26 : died Aug. 1791. 



1791. William Lindsay, resident. Nov. 3. 
1793. Francis Drake, resident. Jan. 19. 
— Sir Richard Worsley, bart., resident. July 
27. 

[The republic of the Venetian States was 
wholly overthrown in 1797. The em- 
peror took possession of these dominions 
in that year ; it being settled by a pri- 
vate article in the treaty of Campo For- 
mio, that he accepted them in compen- 
sation for the Netherlands.] 



To THE King of 

1803. John-Spencer Smith, envoy extraordinary 
to the elector of Wurtemberg. Oct. 5. 
[The electorate of Wurtemberg was, by 
the provisions of the treaty of Pres- 
burg, erected into a kingdom, and the 
elector, Frederick IL, was proclaimed 
king, Jan. 1, 1806.] 

1814. Brook Taylor (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 
Brook), envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary to Wurtemberg. 
July 11. 

1820. Alexander Cockburn, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary to Wur- 
temberg. March 6. 

1823. Henry-Watkin -Williams Wynn (after- 
wards Rt. hon. sir Henry), envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary to Wurtemberg. March 7. 



Wurtemberg, etc. 

1824. David Montagu, lord Erskine, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
to Wurtemberg. Sept. 14. 

1828. Edward-Cromwell Disbrowe (afterwards 
sir Edward), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to the "^same. 
Jan. 4. 

1833. Lord William Russell, minister plenipo- 
tentiary to the same. Nov. 26. 

1835. Sir George Shee, bart., envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
the same. Nov. 24. 

1841. Sir George Shee, bart, ; also minister pleni- 
potentiary to Baden. June 29. 

1844. Sir Alexander Malet, bart., envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
to Wurtemberg and to Baden. Sept. 17. 
The PRESENT (1850) Minister. 



86 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEES. 



ASIA. 



To THE Chinese Empire. 



1792. George, lord (afterwards viscount and earl) 
Macartney, ambassador extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary ; special 
mission to the emperor. May 22. 
Commissioners to the embassy, Henry 
Browne, Eyles Irwin, and William Jack- 
son. 



Secretary of legation, sir George L. Staun- 
ton. 

1816. William Pitt, lord Amherst, ambassador; 

special mission. Jan. 20. 
— Henry Ellis (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 
Henry), minister plenipotentiary, ad 
int. Jan. 24. 



To Persia. 



1807. Sir Harford Jones (afterwards sir Harford 
Jones Brydges), envoy extraordinar3^ 
June 5. 

1810. Sir Gore Ouseley, bart. (afterwards Rt. 

hon.), ambassador. March 6. 
1814. James Morier, minister plenipotentiary, 

int. April 18. 
— Henry Ellis (afterwards Rt. hon.), minister 

plenipotentiary, ad int., in the event of 

Mr. Morier's absence. April 18. 



1826. 



1835. 
1836. 

1844. 



Col. Macdonald, envoy extraordinary from 
the supreme government of India. July 
29. 

Rt. hon. Henry Ellis, ambassador. July 8. 
John M'Neill, envoy extraordinary and 

minister plenipotentiary. May 25. 
Lt. col. Justin Sheil, envoy extraordinary 

and minister plenipotentiary. Sept. 17. 

The PRESENT (1850) Minister to Persia. 



AFRICA. 
To THE Barbary States. 



1813. William A'Court (afterwards sir William, 
and lord Heytesbury), envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
the Barbary States. Jan. 5. 

1821. Sir Thomas Reade, agent, to Tunis. 



1829. Edward- William- Auriol-Drummond Hay, 
agent, to Morocco. May 11. 

1845. John-Hay-Drummond Hay, agent, to Mo- 
rocco. Aug. 9. 

1849. Sir Edward Stuart Baynes, agent, to Tunis. 
Oct. 25. 



NORTH AMERICA. 

To the New States in North America. 



1835. Richard Pakenham (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir Richard), minister plenipotentiary, 
to Mexico. March 12. 

1842. Captain Charles Elliot, charge d'affaires, 

to Texas. June 28. 

1843. Percy- William Doyle, charge d'affaires, 

to Mexico. Jan. 4. 
— Charles Bankhead, minister plenipoten- 
tiary, to Mexico. Dec. 14. 



1847. Percy- William Doyle, again, charge d'af- 
faires, to Mexico. 

1849. Frederick Chatfield, charge d'affaires, to 

Guatimala. June 16. 

1850. The same, charge d'affaires (in addition to 

his previous appointment), to Costa Rica. 
Feb. 20. The present charge des affaires. 
— Charles Bankhead. The present (1850) 
Charge des Affaires to Mexico. 



To THE United States of North America. 



1791. George Hammond, minister plenipoten- 
tiary. July 5. 
[Mr. Hammond was the first minister sent 
from Great Britain to America.] 

1796. Robert Liston (afterwards Rt. hon. sir 
Robert), envoy extraordinarv and 
minister plenipotentiary. March 10. 



1803. Anthony Merry, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. Sept. 
16. 

1806. Hon. David-Montagu Erskine (afterwards 
succeeded as lord Erskine), envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. July 22. 



AMBASSADORS, ENVOYS, ETC. 



87 



1807. George-Henry Rose (aftemards Rt. lion.) ; 
special mission. Oct. 23. 

1809. Francis-James Jackson, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
July 6. 

1811. Augustus-John Foster (afterwards Rt. 

hon. sir Augustus), envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
February. 

1815. Hon. Charles Bagot (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir Charles), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. July 31. 

1820. Rt. hon. sir Stratford Canning, envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. July 18. 

1825. Rt. hon. Charles-Richard Vaughan (after- 



wards sir Charles), envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. May 21. 
1835. Henry -Stephen Fox, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Oct. 2. ^ J 

1842. Alexander Baring, lord Ashburton ; ex- 

traordinary and special mission. Jan. 18. 

1843. Rt. hon. Richard Pakenham (afterwards 

sir Richard), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Dec. 14. 
1849. Rt. hon. sir Henry-Lytton Bulwer, envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. April 27. The present (1850) 
Minister to the United States of North 
America. 



SOUTH AMEKICA. 



To THE Eoteror of Brazil. 



[Since the separation of Brazil from Portugal, 
and its erection into an empire in November, 
1825.] 

1826. Hon. Robert Gordon (afterwards Rt. hon. 

sir Robert), envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. July 31. 

1828. John, lord (afterwards viscount) Pon- 
sonby, envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. Feb. 12. 
— Percy Clinton, viscount Strangford ; special 
mission. Aug. 19. 

1832. Henry- Stephen Fox, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary. June 1. 



1835. Hamilton-Charles-James Hamilton, envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Oct. 2. 

1838. William -Gore Ouseley, charge d'affaires, 
April 20. 

1842. Rt. hon. Henry Ellis; extraordinary and 
special mission. Aug. 27. 

1847. John Hobart, lord Howden, envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary. 
Jan. 25. 

1850. James Hudson, envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. May 13. The 
PRESENT (1850) Minister to Brazil. 



To Buenos Ayres. 



1826. John, lord (afterwards viscount) Pon- 
sonby, envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. (Rio de la 
Plata). Feb. 28. 

1830. Henry - Stephen Fox, minister plenipo- 
tentiary. July 9. 

1834. Hamilton-Charles-James Hamilton, mi- 
nister plenipotentiary. July 5. 



1835. John-Henry Mandeville, minister pleni- 
potentiary. Oct. 2. 

1844. William-Gore Ouseley, minister plenipo- 
tentiary. Dec. 13. 

1848. Henry Southern, minister plenipotentiary. 

May 31. The present (1850) Minister. 



To THE OTHER NeW StATES OF SoUTH AMERICA. 



1826. Alexander Cockburn, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary, to Colom- 
bia. Feb. 28. 

1829. William Turner, envoy extraordinary, to 
the same. Sept. 21. 

1835. Sir Robert-Ker Porter, charge d'affaires, 
to Venezuela. July 2. 

1837. William Turner, envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary, to New Gre- 
nada. June 27. 

— Belford-Hinton Wilson, charge d'affaires, 

to Bolivia. Nov. 18. 

1841. Col. the hon. John Walpole, charge d'af- 

faires, to Chili. May 24. 

— Robert Stewart, charge d'affaires, to New 

Grenada. Aug. 4. 

1842. William -Pitt Adams, charge d'affaires, 

to Bolivia. Nov. 30. 



1843. Adolphus Turner, charge d'affaires to 
Uraguay. April 11. 

— Daniel-Florence O'Leary, charge d'affaires, 

to New Grenada. Nov. 28. The pre- 
sent (1850) Charge d'affaires, to New 
Grenada. 

1847. William-Gore Ouseley, minister plenipo- 

tentiarv; special mission to Uraguay. 
Jan. 2." 

— Capt. hon. Robert Gore, R. N., charge 

d'affaires, to Uraguay. Oct. 3. 

1848. Hon. Frederick Bruce, charge d'affaires, 

to Bolivia. April 14. 

1849. Stephen-Henry Sullivan, charge d'affaires, 

to Chili. Mav 30. The presei^t 
(1850) Charge d' Affaires to Chili. 



G 4 



88 



THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND. 



The higher Officers of the Government, holding their offices at pleasure, and removable 
on political change, are collectively called " the Administration," and are almost in- 
variably members of one or other house of parliament. A select number of these, 
filling the most important offices, who assemble to concert on, and conduct the mea- 
sures of the Administration, are called the Cabinet, a name not known to the Consti- 
tution \ but which is, in fact, a Committee of the Privy Council — constituting the 
responsible advisers of the Crown. 

In old times the chief minister was the Chancellor^ whose office originally included, 
besides its legal functions, the duties subsequently performed by Secretaries of State. 
In modern times, the extension and importance of the financial department, and, above 
all, the influence created by financial and fiscal patronage, have generally induced 
the chief minister to take the Treasury department, either as Lord High Treasurer or 
as First Lord Commissioner of the Board of Treasury. In the latter case, when he is a 
member of the house of commons, he has generally also been Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer. We believe the only exceptions to this practice have been in the recent 
cases of Sir Robert Peel and Lord John Russell. Nor is it of necessity that the First 
Minister should be First Lord of the Treasury. Lord Chatham, in his first ministry 
(1756), chose rather to be Secretary of State, and in that of 1766, Privy Seal. 

The Cabinet Ministers usually are, the First Lord of the Treasury, the Lord High 
Chancellor, the Lord President of the Council, the Lord Privy Seal, the First Lord of 
the Admiralty, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the three Principal Secretaries of 
State, and, latterly, the President of the Board of Controul, and President of the 
Board of Trade. To these are occasionally added one or more of the following, viz. : 
the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, the Chief Commissioner of Woods and 
Forests, the Secretary-at-War, the Master- General of the Ordnance, the Postmaster- 
General, the Master of the Mint, and, recently, the Chief Secretary for Ireland. 

Sometimes, personages of distinguished rank and political weight are invited to a 
seat in the Cabinet, without office^ as instanced in the late appointment of the Duke of 
W ellington ; his grace was, however, at the time, Commander-in-Chief. Lords Sid- 
mouth and Harrowby remained in the Cabinet for a short time after their resignation 
of office ; and Lord Mulgrave continued a cabinet minister without office in 1 820. 
Lord Ellenborough, Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, had a seat in the Cabinet 
in the Administration known by the derisive appellation of "All the Talents." This 
last appointment was generally condemned as unconstitutional, but it was sanctioned 
by a majority in parliament. Lord Ellenborough, however, afterwards declared him- 
self opposed to such appointments. 



Administrations of England. 

(^From the Accession of King Henry VIII.) 
King Henry VIII. 
1509. William Warham, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, lord chancellor ; Dr. Thomas 
Howard, earl of Surrey (afterwards 
duke of Norfolk), lord treasurer; Dr. 
Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester 



(former secretary to Henry YII.), privy 
seal ; George, earl of Shrewsbury, lord 
steward ; Charles, lord Herbert, lord 
chamberlain; Dr. John Fisher, bishop 
of Rochester and cardinal, &c. 
1514. Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York and 



\ The term cabinet council is of comparatively modern date, and originated thus : The affairs of state in the 
reign of Charles I. were principally managed by the archbishop of Canterbury, the earl of Strafford, and the lord 
Cottmgton ; to these were added the earl of Northumberland, for ornament ; the bishop of London for his place, 
bemg lord treasurer ; the two secretaries, Vane and Windebank, for service and intelligence ; only the marquess of 
Hamilton, by his skill and interest, meddled just so far, and no further, than he had a mind. These persons 
made up the committee of state, reproachfully called the junto, and afterwards, enviously, the cabinet council.— 
Lord Clarendon. 

There is no list of the cabinet: they are necessarilv privy councillors, and have an extra official summons or 
notice to attend ; and each member holds a master-key of the despatch boxes of all the various departments, bv 
means of which each cabinet minister circulates, as it is called, intelligence received, or despatches proposed, &c.', 
for the information and advice of his colleagues. 



ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND. 



89 



cardinal, lord chancellor ; Thomas, duke 
of Norfolk, lord treasurer ; Charles, earl 
of Worcester, lord chamberlain ; Thomas 
Routhal, bishop of Durham, secretary 
of state (made privy seal), &c. The 
duke of Norfolk afterwards resigned in 
favour of his son. 
1523. Thomas, earl of Surrey, lord high trea- 
surer ; Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of 
London, privy seal ; Dr. Richard Pace 
(succeeded by Dr. Knight), secretary 
of state. 

1529. Sir Thomas More, lord chancellor ; Thomas 
Howard, duke of Norfolk, lord high 
treasurer ; Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of 
London, privy seal; Dr. Stephen Gar- 
diner, afterwards bishop of Winchester, 
secretary of state ; Dr. Thomas Cran- 
mer, afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury, &c. 

1532. Sir Thomas Audley (afterwards lord Aud- 
ley), lord keeper ; Thomas Boleyn, earl 
of Wiltshire, privy seal ; Thomas Crom- 
well, afterwards earl of Essex ; Thomas 
Cranmer, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury, &c. 

1540. Thomas, lord Audley, lord chancellor ; 

Thomas, duke of Norfolk, lord high 
treasurer ; Charles, duke of Suffolk, lord 
president ; Henry, earl of Surrey, bishop 
Gardiner, lord Russell, &;c. Sir Thomas 
(afterwards lord) Wriothesley and sir 
Ralph Sadler, secretaries of state. 

1544. Thomas, lord Wriothesley, lord chancellor ; 

Thomas, duke of Norfolk ^ lord trea- 
surer; Charles, duke of Suffolk, lord 
president ; John, lord Russell, privy 
seal ; William, lord St. John, John, lord 
Lisle, sir Anthony Brown, &c. Sir 
William Petre and sir William Paget, 
secretaries of state. 

King Edward VL 
1547. William, lord St. John, lord keeper and 
lord president (succeeded by Richard, 
lord Rich, as lord chancellor) ; Edward, 
earl of Hertford, lord protector, created 
duke of Somerset, and made lord trea- 
surer; John, lord Russell, privy seal; 
Henry, earl of Arundel, lord chamber- 
lain; Thomas, lord Seymour, sir An- 
thony Brown, &c. Sir William Paget 
and sir William Petre, secretaries of 
state. 

1551. Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, lord 
keeper, afterwards lord chancellor ; John 
Dudley (late lord Lisle) earl of Warwick, 
created duke of Northumberland, lord 
high admiral ; William, late lord St. 
John, now earl of Wiltshire (lord trea- 
surer in 1550), president of the council ; 
John, earl of Bedford, privy seal ; Tho- 
mas, lord Wentworth, lord chamberlain, 



&c. Sir William Petre and sir William 

Cecil, secretaries of state. 

Queen Mary. 
1554. Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, 
lord chancellor; William, marquess of 
Winchester (late lord Wiltshire), lord 
treasurer; earl of Arundel, lord presi- 
dent ; John, earl of Bedford (succeeded 
by Edward, earl of Derby), privy seal ; 
William, lord Howard, lord high ad- 
miral; sir Edward Hastings, sir John 
Baker, Edmund Bonner, bishop of Lon- 
don, &c. Sir William Petre, sir John 
Cheke, and sir John Bourne, (three) 
secretaries of state. 

It appears by the Council Register, folio 725, that 
three secretaries of state were appointed 7 Ed- 
ward VI. June 2, 1553. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

1558. Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper and privy 
seal ; William, marquess of Winchester, 
lord treasurer; Edward, lord Clinton, 
lord admiral ; sir Robert Dudley, after- 
wards earl of Leicester (a favourite), 
lord Howard of Effingham, lord Arun- 
del, sir Francis Knollys, &c. Sir Wil- 
liam Cecil, secretary of state. [This 
last illustrious statesman (afterwards 
lord Burleigh) continued secretary or 
chief minister during almost the whole 
of this long reign. ] 

1572. Sir William Cecil, now lord Burleigh, lord 
high treasurer; sir Nicholas Bacon, 
lord chancellor; lord Howard of Ef- 
fingham, privy seal ; Robert Dudley, 
earl of Leicester, master of the horse, 
sir Henry Cocks, the earl of Sussex, 
&c. Sir Francis Walsingham, secre- 
tary of state. 

1579. Sir Thomas Bromley, lord chancellor; 

William, lord Burleigh, lord treasurer ; 
Edward, earl of Lincoln, lord high ad- 
miral ; Ambrose, earl of Warwick, ord- 
nance ; Thomas, earl of Sussex, Robert, 
earl of Leicester, sir Walter Mild may, 
James Windebank, &c. Sir Francis 
Walsingham and sir Thomas Wilson, 
secretaries of state. 

1537. Sir Christopher Hatton, lord chancellor; 

William, lord Burleigh, lord treasurer ; 
Robert Devereux, earl of Essex (a fa- 
vourite), &c. 

1599. Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst, after- 
wards earl of Dorset, lord high trea- 
surer ; sir Thomas Egerton (afterwards 
lord Ellesmere, and subsequently vis- 
count Brackley) lord keeper ; Charles, 
lord Howard of Effingham, &c. Sir 
Robert Cecil (son of lord Burleigh), 
secretary of state. 



1 This nobleman was marked by Henry for death, and his escape from it was signally providential. Upon the 
most frivolous charges, he had been condemned, without trial or evidence, by the obsequious peers, and a bill of 
attainder had passed their house against him. Norfolk wrote a pathetic letter to the king, protesting his entire 
innocence and pleading his past services; his son had already suffered on the scaffold. But the vengeance of 
Henry, though his own end was fast approaching, was not to be appeased. Fearing his victim might escape 
him, he sent a message to the commons to hasten the bill, to which he affixed the royal assent by commission, 
and issued orders for Norfolk's execution on the morning of the 29th of January. News, however, having 
reached the Tower that the king himself had expired that night, the lieutenant deferred obeying the warrant, and 
it was not thought advisable hj the council to begin a new reign by the unmerited death of the greatest nobleman 
in the kingdom. — Hume. 



90 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEES. 



King James I. 

1603. Thomas, earl of Dorset, lord treasurer; 

Thomas, lord Ellesmere, lord chancellor ; 
Charles, earl of Nottingham, lord ad- 
miral; Thomas, earl of SuiFolk, Ed- 
ward, earl of Worcester, sir Richard 
Vernon, George, lord Hume of Berwick, 
James Hay, lord Hay, &c. Robert 
Cecil, afterwards earl of Salisbury, se- 
cretary of state. 

1609. Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, lord high 
treasurer ; Thomas, lord Ellesmere, lord 
chancellor; Henry, earl of Northamp- 
ton, privy seal; Charles, earl of Not- 
tingham, Thomas, earl of Suffolk, &c. 

1612. Henry, earl of Northampton, first com- 
missioner of the treasury; Thomas, 
lord Ellesmere, lord chancellor ; Edward, 
earl of Worcester, sir Ralph Winwood, 
Charles, earl of Nottingham, &c. Robert 
Carr ^ (a favourite), viscount Rochester, 
afterwards earl of Somerset, lord cham- 
berlain. 

1615. Thomas, earl of Suffolk, lord treasurer; 

Thomas, lord Ellesmere, lord chancellor ; 
Edward, earl of Worcester, privy seal ; 
Charles, earl of Nottingham, sir George 
Villiers^ (a favourite), afterwards vis- 
count Villiers, and successively earl, 
marquess and duke of Buckingham 
(lord high admiral in 1619), sir Ralph 
Winwood, sir Thomas Lake, &c. 

1620. Sir Henry Montagu, afterwards viscount 

Mandeville and earl of Manchester, lord 
treasurer. 

1621. Lionel, lord Cranfield, afterwards earl of 

Middlesex, Edward, earl of Worcester, 
John, earl of Bristol, John Williams, 
dean of Westminster, George Villiers, 
now marquess of Buckmgham, sir 
Edward Conway, afterwards lord Con- 
way, &c. 

King Charles I. 

1628. Richard, lord Weston, afterwards earl of 
Portland, lord treasurer ; sir Thomas 
Coventry, afterwards lord Coventry, 
lord keeper ; Henry, earl of Manchester 
(succeeded by James, earl of Marlbo- 
rough, who, in turn, gave place to Ed- 
ward, lord, afterwards viscount, Con- 
way), privy seal ; William Laud, bishop 
of London, sir Albertus Morton, &c. 

1635. William Laud, now archbishop of Canter- 
bury, first commissioner of the treasury ; 
Francis, lord Cottington, James, mar- 
quess of Hamilton, Edward, earl of 



Dorset, sir John Coke, sir Francis 
Windebank, &c. The great seal in 
commission. 

1640. William Juxon, bishop of London, lord 
treasurer ; sir John Finch, afterwards 
lord Finch, lord keeper; Francis, lord 
Cottington, Wentworth, earl of Straf- 
ford, Algernon, earl of Northumber- 
land, James, marquess of Hamilton, 
Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, and 
sir Francis Windebank and sir Henry 
Vane, secretaries of state. 
[When the civil war commenced all went 
into confusion. The unfortunate king 
was beheaded, Jan. 30, 1649. 

Commonwealth. 

1653. Oliver Cromwell, made protector. He 
named a council whose number at no 
time was to exceed twenty-one mem- 
bers, nor be less than thirteen. 

1658. Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, succeeded 
on the death of the latter. A council of 
officers ruled at Wallingford House. 

King Charles II. 
(From the Restoration of the King.) 
[Until this time there was not, in point of 
fact, anything that could be exclusively 
called a cabinet. The sovereign had 
latterly governed by a collection of 
privy councillors, sometimes of larger, 
sometimes of smaller number, and not 
always holding the same offices, and 
still less the same men. ] 

1660. Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Cla- 
rendon, lord chancellor ; George Monk, 
general of the king's forces in the three 
kingdoms, and master of the horse, 
created duke of Albemarle ; Thomas, 
earl of Southampton, soon made lord 
treasurer ; Edward Montagu, created 
earl of Sandwich, general and admiral ; 
James, duke of York, brother to the 
king, lord high admiral ; lord Sey and 
Sele, privy seal ; sir Robert Long, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer; earl of Man- 
chester, lord Seymour, &c. Sir Edward 
Nicholas and sir William Morrice, se- 
cretaries of state. 

1667. George Monk, duke of Albemarle, made 
first commissioner of the treasury, &;c. 

1670. "The Cabal" Ministry. Sir Thomas 
Clifford, afterwards lord Clifford (C); 
Anthony Ashley, afterwards earl of 
Shaftesbury (A) ; George Villiers, 
duke of Buckingham (B) ; Henry, lord 



1 Robert Carr, a young Scotchman, became a great favourite with the king. His majesty created him viscount 
Rochester, and as long as he followed the advice of Sir Thomas Overbury, his favouritism was not very dis- 
pleasing to the English. But young Carr, falling in love with the too celebrated Frances Howard, lady Essex, 
and she with him, it was contrived to divorce her from her husband ; they were married, and he was promoted 
to the earldom of Somerset. Overbury disapproving of the whole affair, Somerset, upon some other pretence, 
got him imprisoned in the Tower, where, in a short time after, he was poisoned with an envenomed clyster. 
The perpetrators were executed, all but Somerset and his countess, who, though condemned, were pardoned by 
the king. He afterwards gave them a small pension upon which they retired, and languished out old age in 
Infamy and obscurity. — Charles Home's England. 

2 The king, on a visit to Cambridge, saw a young man of good family, George Villiers, who had, in fact, thrown 
himself in the king's way by appearing in a play acted before his majesty by the Cambridge scholars. In a very 
short tirne Villiers disputed James's favour with Somerset, upon whose fall he at once rose to the height of 
power, riches, and honours. " Of all wise men living, James was most delighted with handsome persons, and 
Villiers was of fine person and exceedingly handsome." — Lord Clarendon. " Villiers became duke of Bucking- 
ham, lord high admiral of England, warden of the Cinque Ports, and master of the horse ; and disposed of all the 
offices and all the honours in the three kingdoms. The votes and remonstrances that were passed against him 
by the parliament as an enemy of the people were all in vain. This favourite was, however, afterwards assas- 
undXe^. — Charles Home. Lord Clarendon. 



ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND. 



SI 



Arlington, afterwards earl of Arling- 
ton (A); and John, duke of Lauder- 
dale (L). This private council obtained 
the name of Cahal from the initial let- 
ters of their five names, which composed 
the word.i — Charles Home's England. 

1G72. Thomas, lord Clifford, Anthony* earl of 
Shaftesbury, late lord Ashley, Henry, 
earl of Arlington, Arthur, earl of An- 
glesey, Sir Thomas Osborne, created 
viscount Latimer, Rt. hon. Henry Co- 
ventry, sir John Duncombe, sir George 
Carteret, Edward Seymour, &c. 

1673. Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards cre- 
ated earl of Danby, made lord high 
treasurer. June 26. 

1679. Arthur, earl of Essex, made first com- 
missioner of the treasury, March 26; 
succeeded by Laurence Hyde, after- 
wards earl of Rochester, Nov. 21, both 
in this year. Robert, earl of Sunder- 
land, secretary of state, vice sir Joseph 
Williamson, &c. 
[The king nominated a new council this 
year (on April 21), consisting of thirty 
members only, of whom the principal 
were the great ofiicers of state and great 
officers of the household.] 

1684. Sidney, lord Godolphin, Lawrence, earl of 

Rochester, Daniel, earl of Nottingham, 
Robert, earl of Sunderland, sir Thomas 
Chicheley, George, lord Dartmouth, 
Henr}^, earl of Clarendon, earls of Bath 
and Radnor, &c. 

James II. 

1685. Lawrence, earl of Rochester, George, mar- 

quess of Halifax, sir George Jeffreys, 
afterwards lord J effreys and lord chan- 
cellor, Henry, earl of Clarendon, sir 
John Ernley, knt., duke of Queensberry, 
viscount Preston, &c. 

1687. The earl of Rochester was displaced, and 

John, lord Belasyse, made first com- 
missioner of the treasury in his room. 
Jan. 4 ; the earl of Sunderland made 
president of the council ; viscount Pres- 
ton, secretary of state ; and various 
other changes took place in this and 
the following year. 

1688. [At the close of this reign, the advisers of 

the king were chosen as creatures of 
his narrow and desperate policy. Several 
Roman Catholics had been admitted of 
the council ; Protestants had been super- 
seded in the army; judges removed, 
and prelates imprisoned ; and no man's 
liberty or life was safe in England; 
while in Ireland the earl of Tyrconnel 
ruled despotically. 



In the end, the king left Whitehall in 
the night of Dec. 17, and, quitting the 
kingdom, landed at Ambleteuse, in 
France, Dec. 23, 1688.3] 

King William III. 

1689. Charles, viscount Mordaunt, first com- 

missioner of the treasury ; Thomas Os- 
borne, earl of Danby, created marquess 
of Carmarthen, afterwards duke of 
Leeds, lord president ; George, marquess 
of Halifax, privy seal ; Arthur Herbert, 
afterwards lord Torrington, first com- 
missioner of the admiralty; earls of 
Shrewsbury, Nottingham, and Sunder- 
land, earl of Dorset and Middlesex, 
William, earl (afterwards duke) of De- 
vonshire, lord Godolphin, lord Montagu, 
lord De la Mere, &c. The great seal in 
commission. 

1690. Sidney, lord Godolphin, first commissioner 

of the treasury ; Thomas, earl of Danby, 
lord president ; Rt. hon. Richard Hamp- 
den, chancellor of the exchequer ; Tho- 
mas, earl of Pembroke, admiralty; 
Henry, viscount Sydney and Daniel, 
earl of Nottingham, secretaries of state, 
&c. The great seal and privy seal in 
commission. 

1698. Charles Montagu, afterwards lord Halifax, 
first commissioner of the treasury ; May 
1 ; succeeded by Ford, earl of Tanker- 
ville, Nov. 15, 1699. 

Queen Anne. 

1702. Sidney, lord (afterwards earl) Godol- 
phin, treasury ;Thomas,earl of Pembroke 
and Montgomery, lord president ; John 
Sheffield, marquess of Normanby, after- 
wards duke of Normanby and Bucking- 
ham, privy seal; hon. Henry Boyle, 
chancellor of the exchequer ; sir Charles 
Hedges and the earl of Nottingham 
(the latter succeeded by the Rt. hon. 
Robert Harley, created earl of Oxford, 
in 1704), secretaries of state, &c. 

1711. Robert, EARL of Oxford, treasury; sir 
Simon (afterwards lord) Harcourt, lord 
keeper; John, duke of Normanby and 
Buckingham, lord president ; John, 
bishop of Bristol (afterwards of London), 
privy seal; Henry St. John, afterwards 
viscount Bolingbroke, and William, lord 
Dartmouth, secretaries of state ; Rt. 
hon. Robert Benson, afterwards lord 
Bingley, chancellor of the exchequer, &;c. 

1714. Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, treasury. 

July 30 (two days before the queen's 
demise). Patent revoked Oct. 13, fol- 
lowing. 



1 At the time that this appellation had generally obtained, about 1672, lord Clifford held the office of lord trea^ 
surer; lord Ashley had become lord chancellor; the duke of Buckingham was lord president ; lord Arlington, 
secretary of state ; and the duke of Lauderdale lord president of Scotland, 

2 William, prince of Orange, had published (Oct. 1, 1688) a declaration of his reasons for his expedition to 
England: the principal were, " to facilitate the calling of a free parliament, to inquire into the birth of the prince 
of Wales, and to secure the Protestant religion, which was in great danger." On Oct. 16, he formally took leave 
of the States General, and on the 19th set sail from Holland ; but, having been driven back by a storm, he did 
not finally set sail until Nov. 1. His forces consisted of nearly 50 ships of war and 300 transports, having on 
board 14,322 men. The prince was in the centre of the fleet, accompanied by the earls of Shrewsbury and 
Macclesfield, and other nobles : his ship bore at the main mast-head the British flag and their Mightinesses' arms, 
with the words " The Protestant Religion and the Liberties of England," surrounding both ; while another fldg 
floated at the mizen with the motto of the house of Nassau " Je maintiendrai:'' The armament, entering the 
channel, passed the Gunfleet on Nov. 3 ; and, on the 5th (according to Dr., afterwards bishop Burnet, who was 
with the prince ; not the 4th, as some historians have it) Wilham landed at Torbay. 



92 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEPvS. 



King George I. 

1714. Charles, earl of Halifax, first lord 

of the treasury (succeeded on his death 
by the earl of Carlisle) ; William, lord 
Cowper, afterwards earl Cowper, lord 
chancellor ; Daniel, earl of Nottingham, 
lord president ; Thomas, marquess of 
Wharton, privy seal; Edward, earl of 
Oxford, admiralty; James Stanhope, 
afterwards earl Stanhope, and Charles, 
viscount Townshend, secretaries of state ; 
sir Richard Onslow, chancellor of the 
exchequer ; dukes of Montrose and 
Marlborough, lord Berkeley, Rt. hon. 
Robert Walpole, Mr. Pulteney, &c. 

1715. Rt. HON. Robert Walpole, first lord of the 

treasury and chancellor of the exche- 
quer, &c. 

1717. Rt. HON. James Stanhope, afterwards 

earl Stanhope, treasurer and chancellor 
of the exchequer ; William, lord Cowper, 
Charles, earl of Sunderland, the duke 
of Kingston, lord Berkeley, Rt. hon. 
Joseph Addison, &c. 

1718. Charles, earl of Sunderland, first lord 

of the treasury; Thomas, lord Parker, 
afterwards earl of Macclesfield, lord 
chancellor ; the earl Stanhope, the duke 
of Kent, lord Berkeley, Mr. Craggs, 
Mr. Aislabie, &c. 
1721. Rt. HON. Robert Walpole, afterwards sir 
Robert, first lord of the treasury and 
chancellor of the exchequer; Thomas, 
lord Parker, created earl of Macclesfield, 
lord chancellor; Henry, lord Carleton 
(succeeded by William, duke of Devon- 
shire), lord president ; Evelyn, duke of 
Kingston (succeeded by lord Trevor), 
privy seal ; James, earl of Berkeley, 
first lord of the admiralty; Charles, 
viscount Townshend, and John, lord 
Carteret (the latter succeeded by the 
duke of Newcastle), secretaries of state ; 
John, duke of Marlborough (succeeded 
by the earl of Cadogan), ordnance ; Rt. 
hon. George Treby (succeeded by Rt. 
hon. Henry Pelham), secretary-at-war ; 
viscount Torrington, &;c. 

George II. 
1727. Sir Robert Walpole, &c. continued, 

[The following was the state of the Cabinet 



near the close of sir Robert Walpole's 
long administration.] 
1740. Sir Robert Walpole, first lord of the 
treasury and chancellor of the exche- 
quer ; Philip, lord Hardwicke, lord chan- 
cellor ; Spencer, earl of Wilmington, lord 
president; John, lord Hervey, privy 
seal ; John Potter, archbishop of Canter- 
bury ; duke of Newcastle and the earl 
of Harrington, secretaries of state; sir 
Charles Wager, first commissioner of the 
admiralty ; duke of Dorset, lord steward ; 
duke of Grafton, lord chamberlain ; duke 
of Richmond, master of the horse ; earl 
of Pembroke, groom of the stole, &c. 

These great household officers were at this period 
always in what was called the Cabinet, but there 
was an interior council, of Walpole, the chan- 
cellor, and the secretaries of state, who, in the 
first instance, consulted together on the more 
confidential points. i 
1742. [Sir Robert Walpole, having been in a 
minority of 16 on an inquiry into the 
Chippenham election, declared he would 
never again enter the house of com- 
mons. 2 He went to court and resigned 
all his employments, February 8, hav- 
ing been first minister twenty-one con- 
secutive years. He was created earl of 
Oxford, viscount Walpole, and baron 
Houghton. The earl of Wilmington 
was made minister in his room. 3] 

1742. Earl of Wilmington, first lord of the 

treasury; lord Hardwicke, lord chan- 
cellor; Mr. Sandys, chancellor of the 
exchequer; earl of Harrington, presi- 
dent of the council ; earl Gower, privy 
seal; lord Carteret and the duke of 
Newcastle, secretaries of state ; earl of 
Winchilsea, first lord of the admiralty ; 
duke of Argyll, commander of the 
forces and master-general of the ord- 
nance ; Mr. Henry Pelham, paymaster 
of the forces, &c. Feb. 
[The duke of Argyll resigned, and was 
succeeded by the earl of Stair, as com- 
mander of the forces, and by the duke 
of Montagu at the ordnance.] 

1743. Rt. HON. Henry Pelham, first lord of 

the treasury and chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, in the room of Spencer earl of 
Wilmington, deceased. Aug. 25. 

1744. The "Broad Bottom ^ Administration :" 



1 Lord Hervey' s Memoirs of the Eeign of George II. by the Rt. Hon. John Wilson Croker — Mr. Croker adds, 
" The duke of Bolton, without a right to it from his office of captain of the Band of Pensioners, in which em- 
ployment he succeeded the duke of Montagu on his removal to the ordnance, was likewise admitted to the 
cabinet council, because he had been of the cabinet seven years previously, at the time he was turned out of all 
his offices." And he further says, Sir John Norris (vice-admiral of England) was called m, as an auxihary, 
when anything was under deliberation in relation to our then maritime war with Spam." 

2 Sir Robert Walpole had risen to a power no minister had ever before attamed. From his conduct m ad- 
ministration, he was called the Father of Corruption ; he used to say " that every man had his price," and boasted 
of knowing what that price was. He was either mistaken in the assertion, or he had not the means of buying the 
votes of the commons, as it now appeared. , ,^ tt ^ 

3 The prince of Wales (father of George III.) received in January, 1742, a message from the kmg (George II.), 
then not on cordial terms with the prince, his son, offering him, provided he wrote a letter of submission to his 
majesty, an addition to his revenue of ^€50,000 per annum, and a sum of £200,000 for the discharge of his debts. 
The prince answered, that he had the utmost respect for his royal father, and that whenever his majesty thought 
proper to admit him to his presence, he should throw his person at his feet without any conditions ; but that 
he would give no countenance to the minister in his management of public affairs. Sir Robert Walpole was, 
he said, a bar between his majesty and the offictions of his people, between his majesty and foreign powers, and 
between his majesty and himself. " This," said the prince, *' is my answer. But I would have it understood that 
I take the message to come from the minister, and not from the throne." 

On the change in the administration, the prince of Wales presented himself at court, where he was most gra- 
ciously and affectionately received, and a guard of honour was immediately ordered to attend his royal highness 
at Carlton-House. The joy of the people at this reconciliation was unbounded; bonfires, illuminations, the 
ringing of all the public bells, and acclamations from the multitude, and other demonstrations of popular satis- 
faction and delight took place in London and in all the towns and villages adjacent, in the evening. — Coxe. 

* This ministry was ludicrously called the ''Broad Bottom Administration," because comprising a grand coali- 



ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND. 



93 



Rt. lion. H(^niy Pelham, first lord of the 
treasury and chancellor of the exchequer ; 
lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor ; duke 
of Dorset, president of the council ; earl 
Gower, privy seal ; duke of Newcastle, 
secretary of state for the Southern, 
and the earl of Harrington for the 
Northern, department; duke of Mon- 
tagu, master-general of the ordnance ; 
duke of Bedford, first lord of the ad- 
miralty; duke of Argyll, keeper of 
the great seal of Scotland; marquess 
of Tweeddale, secretary of state for 
Scotland ; duke of Grafton, lord cham- 
berlain ; duke of Richmond, master of 
the horse ; all of the cabinet. Nov. 

1746. [Mr. Pelham and his friends having ten- 
dered their resignation to the king, 
the formation of a new administration 
(which expired within two days, while 
yet incomplete) was undertaken by the 
earl of Bath : the members of it actually 
appointed, and submitted for approval 
to his majesty, were {Feh. 10) viz.] 
The " Short-lived Ministry:" Earl of 
Bath, first lord of the treasury; lord 
Carlisle, privy seal; lord Winchilsea, 
first lord of the admiralty; and lord 
Granville, one of the secretaries of 
state.i Expired, Feb. 12. 

1746. Rt. HON. Henry Pelham, first minister, 
returned, with his colleagues, to power. 
Feb. 12. 

[The duke of Bedford resigned the ad- 
miralty to the earl of Sandwich, and 
succeeded the earl of Chesterfield as 
secretary of state, Feb. 1748 ; and the 
earl of Holdernesse succeeded the duke 
of Bedford, June, 1751, in the same 
ofiice. Mr. Pelham died, March 6, 
1754.] 

1754. Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of New- 
castle, first lord of the treasury ; hon. 
Henry Bilson Legge, chancellor of the 



exchequer ; earl of Holdernesse and sir 
Thomas Robinson (afterwards lord Gran- 
tham), secretaries of state; the latter 
succeeded by the Rt. hon. Henry Fox ; 
lord Anson, first lord of the admiralty ; 
lord Granville, lord president ; lord 
Gower (succeeded by the duke of Marl- 
boro ug;h), privy seal ; duke of Grafton, 
earl of Halifax, Rt. hon. George Gren- 
ville, &c. Earl of Hardwicke, lord 
chancellor. April. 

). William, duke of Devonshire, first 
lord of the treasury ; Rt. hon. William 
Pitt, secretary of state for the Southern 
department ; Hon. Henry Bilson Legge, 
chancellor of the exchequer ; earl Gran- 
ville, lord president ; earl Gower, privy 
seal; earl of Holdernesse, secretary of 
state for the Northern department ; Rt. 
hon. George Grenville, earl of Halifax, 
dukes of Rutland and Grafton, earl of 
Rochford, &c. The great seal in com- 
mission. Nov. 

\ Duke of Newcastle's and Mr Pitt's 
Administration. Thomas Holies Pel- 
ham, duke of Newcastle, first lord of 
the treasury; Rt. hon. William Pitt, 
afterwards lord Chatham, secretary of 
state for the Northern department, and 
leader of the house of commons; lord 
Henley, lord keeper; lord Granville, 
lord president ; earl Temple, privy seal ; 
Mr. Legge, chancellor of the exchequer ; 
earl of Holdernesse, secretary of state 
for the Southern department; duke of 
Devonshire, lord chamberlain ; duke of 
Rutland, lord steward ; lord Anson, ad- 
miralty; duke of Marlborough (suc- 
ceeded by lord Ligonier), master-general 
of the ordnance; Rt. hon. Henry Fox 
(afterwards lord Holland), paymaster. 
Rt. hon. George Grenville, lords Ha- 
lifax and Gower, James Grenville, &c. 
June. 



King George III. 



1760. Duke of Newcastle's and Mr. Pitt's 
ministry, continued. 
[The following were among the changes 
subsequent to the accession of George 
III. : sir Robert Henley, created lord 
Henley, lord chancellor, Jan. 1761 ; the 
earl of Bute, secretary of state, vice the 
earl of Holdernesse, March ; and the 
earl of Egremont, vice Mr. Pitt, Oct., 
same year ; lord North, a lord of the 
treasury, &c.] 



1762. John, earl of Bute, first lord of the trea- 
sury ; lord Henley, lord chancellor ; sir 
Francis Dashwood (afterwards lord le 
Despencer), chancellor of the exchequer ; 
lord Granville, lord president; duke of 
Bedford, privy seal ; earl of Halifax, 
admiralty; earl of Egremont and Rt. 
hon. George Grenville, secretaries of 
state ; lord Ligonier, ordnance ; Rt. hon. 
Henry Fox, paymaster ; Viscount Bar- 
rington, lord Sandys, duke of Marl- 



tion of all parties. The whigs were satisfied because their influence was predominant, and the tories, though 
considered accessory and subordinate, were yet pleased, because many of their leaders, who had been hitherto 
excluded, were admitted into offices of trust and power. The members not of the cabinet were : the earl of Stair 
commander of the forces ; the duke of Devonshire, lord steward ; duke of Bolton, governor of the Isle of Wight ; 
Mr. Waller, cofferer of the household ; Mr. Dodington, treasurer of the navy ; Mr. Lyttelton, Mr. Arundel, the 
earl of Middlesex, and Mr. Fox, lords of the treasury ; and the earl of Sandwich, Mr. Grenville, lord Archibald 
Hamilton, lord Vere Beauclerk, lord Baltimore, and Mr. Anson, admiralty lords — Coxe's Meinot'rs of the Rt. hon. 
Henry Pelham. 

1 Lord Granville had the seals of one secretary of state, with the seals of the other, " to be given to whom he 
might chuse." Among the jeux cf esprit of the day was a History of the Long Administration, bound up with the 
works printed for children, and sold for a penny : it concluded with the following ironical eulogium: " And thus 
endeth this astonishing administration, which lasted 48 hours, three quarters, seven minutes, and eleven seconds ; 
the most wise and honest of all ministries ; never having said one silly thing, or committed one rash act, and 
having left as much money in the treasury as they found in it. This history is recorded in this mighty volume, 
that it may be read with the valuable works of the immortal Thomas Thumb by our children, grand-children, 
and great-grandchildren to the end of the world." — Coxe's Memoirs of Fclham. 



94 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



borough, lords Huntingdon, and North, 
&c. 3Iay. 

1763. Rt. HON. George Grenville, first lord 
of the treasury and chancellor of the 
exchequer; earl Granville (succeeded 
by John, duke of Bedford), lord pre- 
sident; duke of Marlborough, pri\y 
seal; lord Henley (afterwards earl of 
Northington), lord chancellor; earls of 
Halifax and Sandwich, secretaries of 
state; earl Gower, lord chamberlain; 
lord Egmont, admiralty; marquess of 
Granby, ordnance; lord Holland (late 
Mr. Fox) paymaster ; Rt. hon. Welbore 
Ellis, secretary-at-war ; lord Hillsbo- 
rough, first lord of trade ; duke of Rut- 
land, lord North, &c. May, et seq. 

1765. Cpiarles, marquess of Rockingham, 

first lord of the treasury ; Rt. hon. Wil- 
liam Dowdeswell, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer; earl of Winchilsea and Not- 
tingham, lord president ; duke of New- 
castle, privy seal; duke of Portland, 
lord chamberlain; duke of Rutland, 
master of the horse ; lord Talbot, lord 
steward ; general the hon. Henry Sey- 
mour Conway, and the duke of Grafton, 
secretaries of state; lord Egmont, ad- 
miralty ; marquess of Granby, ordnance ; 
viscount Barrington, secretary-at-war; 
viscount Howe, treasurer of the navy ; 
hon. Charles Townshend, paymaster; 
earl of Dartmouth, first lord of trade; 
lord John Cavendish, Thomas Towns- 
hend, &c. Earl of Northington (late 
lord Henley), lord chancellor. July, et 
seq. 

1766. Earl of Chatham (late Rt. hon. William 

Pitt), first minister and privy seal; 
duke of Grafton, first lord of the trea- 
sury; hon. Charles Townshend, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer ; earl of North- 
ington, lord president ; William, earl of 
Shelburne and general Conway, secre- 
taries of state; sir Charles Saunders 
(succeeded by sir Edward Hawke), ad- 
miralty ; marquess of Granby, ordnance ; 
lord Hillsborough, first lord of trade; 
lord Barrington, secretary-at-war ; Fre- 
derick, lord North, a joint paymaster; 
viscount Howe, &c. Lord Camden, lord 
chancellor. Aug. 

1767. [William, lord Mansfield, lord chief justice 

of the king's bench, became, ex officio, 
chancellor of the exchequer, pro tern., on 
the death of Mr. Townshend, Sept. this 
year; and Frederick, lord North, was 
appointed chancellor of the exchequer, 
Dec. following.] 
1767. Augustus-Henry, duke of Grafton, 
first lord of the treasury; Frederick, 
lord North, chancellor of the exche- 
quer; earl Gower, lord president; earl 
of Chatham 1, lord privy seal until Oct. 
1768, then succeeded by the earl of 
Bristol ; earl of Shelburne, secretary of 
state for the Southern department ; vis- 
count Weymouth, Northern department ; 



and lord Hillsborough, colonies; sir 
Edward Hawke, first lord of the ad- 
miralty ; marquess of Granby, ordnance ; 
lords Sandwich and le Despencer, joint 
postmasters - general ; lord Hertford, 
Thomas Townshend, &c. Lord Camden, 
lord chancellor. Dec. 
1768. [Viscount Weymouth, secretary of state for 
the Southern department, vice lord Shel- 
burne; earl of Rochford, secretary of 
state for the Northern department, vice 
lord Weymouth. Nov.~\ 

1770. Frederick, lord North, first lord of the 

treasury and chancellor of the ex- 
chequer; earl Gower, lord president; 
earl of Halifax, privy seal ; lord Roch- 
ford, lord Weymouth (succeeded by 
lord Sandwich), and lord Hillsborough 
(colonies), secretaries of state ; sir Ed- 
ward Hawke, admiralty ; lord Granby, 
ordnance; sir Gilbert Elliot, treasurer 
of the navy ; lord Barrington, secretary- 
at-war; lord Hertford, lord Carteret, 
&c. Jan. The great seal was de- 
livered to Mr. Attorney-general Yorke, 
made lord chancellor; but before the 
patent for his peerage, under the title of 
lord Morden, was completed, he died 
suddenly, and the seal, after being a 
year in commission, was given to the 
hon. Henry Bathurst, one of the com- 
missioners, created lord Apsley. 
[Lord North continued minister eleven 
years, during the whole of the American 
war. The changes within this period 
were numerous ; among them were : ] 

1771. Lord Halifax, secretary of state, vice lord 

Sandwich (who went to the admiralty), 
succeeded as lord privy seal by the earl 
of Sufiblk and Berkshire. Jan. The 
latter gave place to the duke of Graf- 
ton, and became secretary of state. 
June. 

1772. Lord Dartmouth, secretary of state, vice 

lord Hillsborough. Aug. Yiscount 
TowTishend, ordnance, vice marquess of 
Granby. Oct. 
1775. Yiscount Weymouth, again secretary of 
state, vice Rochford; and lord George 
Sackville Germaine, vice Dartmouth, 
made privy seal. Nov. 

1778. Lord Thurlow, lord chancellor. June. 

1779. Lords Stormont and Hillsborough, secre- 

taries of state. Earl Bathurst, lord 
president. Nov. 
1782. Marquess of Rockingham, first lord of 
the treasury ; lord John Cavendish, 
chancellor of the exchequer ; lord Cam- 
den, president of the council ; duke of 
Grafton, privy seal; William, earl of 
Shelburne, and Rt. hon. Charles James 
Fox, secretaries of state ; Rt. hon. Au- 
gustus Keppel, first lord of the admi- 
ralty ; duke of Richmond, master- 
general of the ordnance ; Rt. hon. 
Thomas Townshend, secretary- at-war ; 
Rt. hon. Isaac Barre, treasurer of the 
navy; Rt. hon. Edmund Burke, pay- 



1 This was the last office in the state filled by lord Chatham ; but he continued to take a forward part in the 
house of lords, for a period of ten years afterwards. On April 8, 1778, while enforcing, with his accustomed 
energy, in the house, the wisdom of a reconciliation with America, he was seized with a convulsive fit, and died 
on the 11th of the following month. His remains lay in state some days in the Jerusalem chamber, whence 
they were deposited in Westminster Abbey. 



ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND. 



9o 



master; &c. Lord Thurlow, lord chan- 
cellor. March, 
[The death of the marquess of Rockingham 
(July 2, 1782) led to the administration 
of lord Shelburne, who accepted the 
office of first minister, without the 
privity of his colleagues, and Mr. Fox, 
lord John Cavendish, and others, re- 
signed.] 

1782. Earl of Shelburne (afterwards mar- 

quess of Lansdowne), first lord of the 
treasury ; Rt. hon. William Pitt, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer; lord (after- 
wards earl) Camden, president of the 
council; duke of Grafton, lord privy 
seal; Thomas, lord Grantham, home, 
and Rt. hon. Thomas ToAvnshend, 
foreign, secretaries ; Augustus, viscount 
Keppel, admiralty ; duke of Richmond, 
ordnance; Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, 
treasurer of the navy ; Isaac Barre, pay- 
master; sir George Yonge, secretary- 
at-war ; &c. Lord Thurlow, lord chan- 
cellor. July. 

1783. The "Coalition Ministry." i Duke of 

Portland, first lord of the treasury; 
viscount Stormont, president of the 
council ; earl of Carlisle, lord privy seal ; 
Frederick, lord North, and Rt. hon. 
Charles James Fox, home and foreign 
secretaries ; lord John Cavendish, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer ; viscount Kep- 
pel, first lord of the admiralty ; viscount 
Townshend, master-general of the ord- 
nance; Rt. hon. Charles Townshend, 
treasurer of the navy ; Rt. hon. Edmund 
Burke, paymaster; Rt. hon. Richard 
Fitzpatrick, secretary-at-war ; &c. The 
great seal in commission ; lord Lough- 
borough, chief justice of the common 
pleas, first commissioner. April. 
1783. Rt. HON. William Pitt, first lord of the 
treasury and chancellor of the exche- 
quer ; earl Gower, lord president ; duke 
of Rutland, privy seal ; marquess of Car- 
marthen, and earl Temple (the latter 
immediately succeeded by lord Sydney), 
secretaries of state ; duke of Richmond, 
ordnance; viscount Howe, admiralty; 
lord Mulgrave and Rt. hon. William 
Wyndham Grenville, afterwards Lord 
Grenville, joint - paymasters ; Henry 
Dundas, &c. Lord Thurlow, lord chan- 
cellor. Dec. 
[During Mr. Pitt's long administration 
numerous changes in the ministry took 
place ; among these were : earls Camden, 
Fitzwilliam, Mansfield, and Chatham, 
successively presidents of the council; 



marquess of Stafford, and earls of 
Chatham, Spencer, and Westmoreland, 
lords privy seal ; earl of Chatham and 
earl Spencer, first lords of the admiralty ; 
and Mr. Grenville (afterwards lord 
Grenville), Mr. Dundas, and duke of 
Portland, secretaries of state, &c. Mr. 
Pitt resigned in 1801.2] 

1801. Rt. HON. Henry Addington, first lord of 
the treasury and chancellor of the ex- 
chequer; duke of Portland, lord presi- 
dent ; earl of Westmoreland, privy seal ; 
lord Pelham, home, lord Hawkesbury, 
foreign, and lord Hobart, colonial se- 
cretaries ; earl St. Vincent, admiralty ; 
earl of Chatham, ordnance; Rt. hon. 
Charles Yorke, secretary-at-war; vis- 
count Lewisham, India board; lord 
Auckland, board of trade, &c. Lord 
Eldon, lord Chancellor. March, et seq. 
[Changes: viscount Castlereagh, India 
board. Sept 1802; Rt. hon. Charles 
Yorke, home secretary. Jm/z/1803.] 

1804. Rt. HON. William Pitt, first minister; 

duke of Portland (succeeded by lord 
Sidmouth, late Mr. Addington, Jan. 
1805), lord president ; earl of Westmore- 
land, privy seal ; lord Hawkesbury, home 
secretary ; lord Harrowby (succeeded by 
lord Mulgrave) foreign secretary; and 
earl Camden (succeeded by viscount 
Castlereagh, colonial secretary ; viscount 
Melville, succeeded by lord Barham), 
admiralty ; duke of Montrose, board of 
trade; lord Mulgrave, duchy of Lan- 
caster ; Rt. hon. Mr. Dundas, Rt. hon. 
George Canning, &c. Lord Eldon, lord 
chancellor. May, et seq. 
[The death of Mr. Pitt (Jan. 23, 1806), 
led to the formation of another cabinet. ] 

1806. "All the Talents administration: 
Lord Grenville, first lord of the trea- 
sury ; Lord Henry Petty, chancellor of 
the exchequer; earl Fitzwilliam, lord 
president; viscount Sidmouth, privy 
seal; Charles James Fox, foreign, earl 
Spencer, home, and William Windham, 
war, secretaries; earl of Moira, ord- 
nance; sir Charles Grey (afterwards 
viscount Howick and earl Grey), ad- 
miralty ; lord Minto, board of controul ; 
lord Auckland, board of trade, &c. Lord 
Erskine, lord chancellor. Lord Ellen - 
borough, lord chief justice, had a seat in 
the cabinet. Feb 

1806. [The death of Mr. Fox (Sept. 13) caused 
several changes, viz. : viscount Sid- 
mouth, president of the council ; lord 
Holland, privy seal; lord Howick, fo- 



1 So called, from the disgraceful coalition of lord North and Mr. Fox, who had, for years previously, opposed 
and even abused each other. This was universally regarded as one of the most odious events that had ever 
occurred in political life, for they had coalesced manifestly with a view to forcing themselves into power, which, 
however, they did not long retain : the ministry (which he had accepted from necessity) was dismissed by his 
majesty at the close of the year. 

2 It has been said, that yielding to the public wish that an experiment for peace should be tried, Mr. Pitt 
retired from office, in order to this experiment being made. But he had identified himself with Roman Catholic 
emancipation to secure the union with Ireland ; and we have his own evidence and that of his successor, lord 
Sidmouth, in proof, that his inability to propose his " resolutions " in relation to that measure, as a minister, was 
*' the sole cause of his resignation." 

3 The friends of this ministry gave it the appellation of All the Talents, which, being echoed in derision by the 
opposition, became fixed upon it. Besides the members above named, it consisted of, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 
treasurer of the navy ; earl of Derby, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster ; general Fitzpatrick, secretary at 
war; earls of Buckinghamshire and Carysfort, postmasters-general ; earl Temple, vice president of the board of 
trade; lord John Townshend, joint-paymaster of the forces; lord Charles Spencer, master of the mint; Mr. 
Pigot, attorney-general ; Mr. Romilly, solicitor-general, etc. Duke of Bedford, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 



96 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



reign secretary, vice Mr. Fox ; Rt. lion. 
Thomas Grenville, admiralty ; Mr. Tier- 
ney, board of controul, &c.] 

1807. Duke of Portland, first lord of the trea- 
sury ; earl Camden, lord president ; earl 
of Westmoreland, privy seal ; hon. Spen- 
cer Perceval, chancellor of the exchequer 
and leader of the house of commons; 
lord Hawkesbury, Mr. Canning, and 
viscount Castlereagh, home, foreign, and 
colonial, secretaries ; earl Bathurst, board 
of trade ; Mr. Dundas, India board ; lord 
Mulgrave, admiralty ; earl of Chatham, 
ordnance, &c. Lord Eldon, lord chan- 
cellor. March. 

1809. [A quarrel and duel (Sept. 22) between 
lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning (the 
latter wounded) led to the retirement of 
both. This, with the subsequent retire- 
ment of the duke of Portland, who died 
shortly after (Oct. 30, 1809) dissolved 



the administration, which, after some 
negotiation with the whigs, was recon- 
stituted under ] 

1809. Rt. HON. Spencer Perceval, first lord 

of the treasury, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, and chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster ; earl Camden, lord president ; 
earl of Westmoreland, privy seal ; hon. 
Richard Ryder, home, marquess Welles - 
ley, foreign, and earl of Liverpool, colo- 
nial, secretaries ; lord Mulgrave, admi- 
ralty ; Mr. Dundas, board of controul ; 
earl Bathurst, board of trade; earl of 
Chatham, ordnance; viscount Palmer- 
ston, secretary-at-war, &c. Lord Eldon, 
lord chancellor. Nov. and Dec. 

1810. ["Lord Mulgrave went to the ordnance, and 

was succeeded at the admiralty by the 
Rt. hon. Charles Yorke. Mai/. Some 
subordinate changes took place.] 



Regency of George Prince of Wales. 



1811. Mr. Spencer Perceval and his col- 

leagues, continued. Feb. 
[The death of Mr. Perceval, who was assas- 
sinated, by a man named BelUngham, in 
the lobby of the house of commons (May 
11, 1812) led to several changes. After 
much fruitless negotiation with the 
Whigs the former government was re- 
constituted under the] 

1812. Earl of Liverpool, first lord of the trea- 

sury ; earl of Harrowby, lord president ; 
earl of Westmoreland, privy seal ; Mr. 
Vansittart, chancellor of the exchequer ; 
earl of Mulgrave, ordnance ; lord Mel- 
ville, admiralty ; viscount Sidmouth, 
viscount Castlereagh, and earl Bathurst, 
home, foreign, and colonial secretaries ; 



earl of Buckinghamshire, board of con- 
troul ; marquess Camden, lord Palmer- 
ston, earl of Clancarty, &c. Lord Eldon, 
lord chancellor. 3Iay. June. 

1814. [Among the changes that afterwards took 
to place, were the following : 

1819. Mr. Charles Bragge Bathurst, chancellor 
of the duchy of Lancaster, a cabinet 
minister; and Mr. W. Wellesley Pole 
advanced to the cabinet as master of the 
mint, 1814. Mr. Canning made presi- 
dent of the board of controul, 1816. 
Mr. Frederick John Robinson, president 
of the board of trade, 1818; and the 
duke of Wellington, master-general of 
the ordnance, 1819.] 



King George IV. 



1820. Earl of Liverpool and his colleagues, 
continued. The cabinet at the com- 
mencement of this reign was constituted 
thus: Earl of Liverpool, first minister 
and first lord of the treasury; earl of 
Harrowby, president of the council; 
earl of Westmoreland, privy seal; 
Mr. Vansittart, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer ; viscount Melville, admiralty ; 
duke of Wellington, ordnance ; viscount 
Sidmouth, viscount Castlereagh, and 
earl Bathurst, home, foreign and co- 
lonial secretaries; Mr. Canning, board 
of controul ; Mr. Frederick J. Robin- 
son, board of trade; Mr. Charles B. 
Bathurst, duchy of Lancaster ; Mr. Wel- 
lesley Pole, master of the mint ; earl of 
Mulgrave without office. Lord Eldon, 
lord chancellor. Jan. 

1822. [The Rt. hon. Robert Peel became home 
secretary, Jan., and Mr. W. W. Wynn, 
president of the board of trade, in Feb. 
1822; and, on the death of viscount 
Castlereagh (then marquess of London- 
derry), Mr. Canning became foreign 
secretary, Sept. same year. Viscount 



Sidmouth continued a member of the 
cabinet, without oflfiice. In 1823, Mr. 
Huskisson united the board of trade 
with the treasurership of the navy ; and 
a few other changes subsequently oc- 
curred.] 

1827. Earl of Liverpool, continued. At the 
close of lord Liverpool's long adminis- 
tration, it consisted of the following 
members : Earl of Liverpool, first lord 
of the treasury; Mr. Frederick J. Ro- 
binson, chancellor of the exchequer; 
lords Harrowby and Westmoreland, lord 
president and privy seal; Mr. Peel, 
Mr. Canning, and earl Bathurst, secre- 
taries of state for the home, foreign, and 
colonial departments ; lord Melville, ad- 
miralty ; duke of Wellington, ordnance ; 
lord Bexley (late Mr. Vansittart), duchy 
of Lancaster; Mr. Charles W.W.Wjmn 
and Mr. Huskisson, boards of controul 
and trade ; lord Sidmouth, without of- 
fice, &;c. Lord Eldon, lord chancellor. 
Dissolved, owing to lord Liverpool's ill- 
ness'^, April, 1827. 

1827. Rt. HON. George Canning, first lord of 



1 Lord Liverpool was attacked by a fit of apoplexy, Feb. 17, 1827. His illness continuing, Mr. Canning was 
appointed first lord of the treasury, April 10, following; on the llth, the duke of Wellington sent in his resigna- 
tion, and six other members of the cabinet immediately afterwards followed his example. Mr. Canning was, in 
consequence, entrusted with the formation of a new government. Lord Liverpool lingered until the 4th Dec. 
1828, when he died. 



ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND. 



97 



the treasury and chancellor of the ex- 
chequer; lord Harrowby, lord presi- 
dent of the council ; duke of Portland, 
privy seal ; lord Dudley, viscount Go- 
derich, and Mr. Sturges Bourne, foreign, 
colonial, and home secretaries; Mr. 
Wynn, board of controul ; Mr. Hus- 
kisson, board of trade ; lord Palmerston, 
secretary-at-war ; lord Bexley, duchy 
of Lancaster; duke of Clarence, lord 
high admiral. Lord Lyndhurst, lord 
chancellor. April. 

»^* The marquess of Lansdowne had a seat in the 
cabinet, to which were soon added the seals of the 
home department. 

[The death of Mr. Canning, Aug. 8, follow- 
ing, led to several changes.] 

1827. Viscount Goderich, first minister ; duke 

of Portland, lord president ; earl of Car- 
lisle, privy seal ; viscount Dudley, Mr. 
Huskisson, and marquess of Lansdowne, 
foreign, colonial, and home secretaries 
respectively; lord Palmerston, secre- 
tary-at-war ; Mr. Wynn, board of con- 
troul; Mr. Charles Grant, board of 
trade ; Mr. Tierney, master of the mint ; 
&c. Lord Lyndhurst, lord chancellor. 
August. 

1828. Duke of Wellington, first lord of the 

treasury ; Mr. Goulburn, chancellor of 
the exchequer ; earl Bathurst, president 



of the council ; lord Ellenboroiigh, privy 
seal ; Mr. Peel, earl Dudley, and Mr. 
Huskisson, home, foreign, and colonial 
secretaries ; viscount Melville, board of 
controul ; Mr. Grant, board of trade ; 
lord Palmerston, secretary-at-war ; Mr. 
Herries, master of the mint; earl of 
Aberdeen, duchy of Lancaster ; Mr. Ar- 
buthnot, Mr. V. Fitzgerald, Sec. Lord 
Lyndhurst, lord chancellor. Jan. 

[Mr. Huskisson, earl Dudley, viscount 
Palmerston, and Mr. Grant, quit the 
ministry, and changes follow.] 
1828. Duke of" Wellington, first minister; 

earl Bathurst, lord president ; lord El- 
lenborough, privy seal ; Mr. Peel, earl 
of Aberdeen, and sir George Murray, 
home, foreign, and colonial secretaries ; 
viscount Melville and Mr. Vesey Fitz- 
gerald, boards of controul and trade; 
sir Henry Hardinge, secretary-at-war ; 
viscount Lowther, first commissioner of 
land revenues, &c. Lord Lyndhurst, 
lord chancellor. Mai/ and June. 

[The duke of Clarence surrendered the 
ofiice of lord high admiral, Aug. 12 ; and 
lord Melville became first lord of the 
admiralty, Sept. 19 ; lord Ellenborough 
became president of the board of con- 
troul, and lord Kosslyn privy seal. ] 



King William IV. 



Duke of Wellington and his colleagues, 
continued. 

1830. Earl Grey, first lord of the treasury ^ ; 

viscount Althorpe, chancellor of the 
exchequer ; marquess of Lansdowne, 
president of the council; earl of Dur- 
ham, privy seal; viscounts Melbourne, 
Palmerston, and Goderich, home, fo- 
reign, and colonial secretaries ; sir James 
Graham, first lord of the admiralty; 
lord Auckland and Mr. Grant, presi- 
dents of the boards of trade and con- 
troul ; lord Holland, duchy of Lan- 
caster ; lord John Russell, paymaster of 
the forces (not of the cabinet at first) ; 
duke of Richmond, earl of Carlisle, Mr. 
Wynn, &c. Lord Brougham, lord chan- 
cellor. November. 
[Sir Henry Parnell afterwards became 
secretary-at-war, vice Mr. Wynn ; and 
subsequently sir Henry Parnell, was 
succeeded by sir John Hobhouse.] 

1832. Earl GreV resigns, owing to a majority 
against him in the lords on a question 
relating to the Reform bill. May 10 ; 
great public excitement prevails; and 
he resumes office, May 18. 
[The earl of Ripon (late viscount Goderich) 
succeeds the earl of Durham as lord 
privy seal, April 3, 1883, when, also, 
the Rt. hon. E. G. S. Stanley (previously 



of the cabinet as secretary for Ireland) 
becomes colonial secretary, and Mr. 
Eunice, secretary-at-war.] 

1834. Viscount Melbourne, first minister; 

marquess of Lansdowne, president of the 
council ; earl of Mulgrave, privy seal ; 
viscount Althorpe, chancellor of the 
exchequer ; viscount Duncannon, home 
secretary ; viscount Palmerston, foreign 
secretary; Mr. Spring Rice, war and 
colonies'^; lord Auckland, admiralty; 
Mr. Grant and Mr. C. P. Thomson, 
boards of controul and trade ; lord J ohn 
Russell, paymaster of the forces; sir 
John Hobhouse, Mr. Ellice, marquess of 
Conyngham, Mr. Littleton, &c. Lord 
Brougham, lord chancellor. July. 
[Viscount Melbourne's administration dis- 
solved.2 The duke of Wellington takes 
the helm of state provisionall}^, waiting 
the return of sir Robert Peel from Italy. 
November 14.] 

1834. Sir Robert Peel, first lord of the trea- 
sury and chancellor of the exchequer; 
lord Wharnclifie, privy seal ; earl of 
Rosslyn, lord president ; Rt. hon. Henry 
Goulburn, duke of Wellington, and earl 
of Aberdeen, home, foreign, and colonial 
secretaries; earl de Grey, first lord of 
the admiralty; lord Ellenborough and 
Rt. hon. Alexander Baring, afterwards 



1 On this change of ministry, the Rt. hon. John Wilson Croker, secretary to the admiralty, retired. We men- 
tion the circumstance, as it was the first occasion on which a personage holding that office resigned it with the 
minister. Mr. Croker had been secretary full twenty-one years, embracing one of the brightest periods in our 
naval administration. 

2 On the death of the earl Spencer, lord Althorpe succeeded to the earldom, and lord Melbourne went to 
Brighton to receive the king's commands as to the appointment of a new chancellor of the exchequer, in the 
latter's room; but his majesty informed the minister, that, under the circumstances, he considered the adminis- 
tration at an end. This announcement created great surprise and excitement in the political circles and through- 
out the nation. The duke of Wellington being sent for, his grace advised the king to appoint Sir Robert Peel 
premier, and this was done accordingly. 

H 



98 



STATESMEN" AND STATE OFFICERS. 



lord Ashburton, boards of controul and 
trade; sir Edward Knatchbull, pay- 
master of the forces ; Mr. Herries, secre- 
tary-at-war ; sir George Murray, master- 
general of the ordnance, &c. Lord 
Lyndhurst, lord chancellor. November 
and December. 
1835. YiscouNT Melbourne, again, prime mi- 
nister; marquess of Lansdowne, lord 
president; viscount Duncannon, lord 
privy seal, with the woods and forests ; 
Mr. Spring Rice, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer; lord John Kussell, viscount 
Palmerston, and lord Glenelg (late Mr. 
Charles Grant), home, foreign, and co- 



lonial secretaries; earl of Minto, first 
lord of the admiralty ; presidents of the 
boards of controul and trade, sir John 
Hobhouse and Mr. Poulett Thomson ; 
lord Holland, duchy of Lancaster ; vis- 
count Howick, secretary-at-war ; sir 
Henry Pamell, Mr. Labouchere, lord 
Morpeth, &c. The great seal in com- 
mission. April. 
[The chancellorship, which had been in 
commission from the formation of this 
ministry, was given to sir Charles C. 
Pepys, Jan. 1836, with the title of lord 
Cottenham.] 



Queen Victoria. 



1837. Viscount Melbourne and his colleagues, 
continued. June 20. 
[Rt. hon. F. T. Baring afterwards becomes 
chancellor of the exchequer, vice Mr. 
Rice, created lord Monteagle ; the mar- 
quess of Normanby (late earl of Mul- 
grave), home secretary, vice lord John 
Russell, made colonial secretary; Mr. 
T. B. Macauley, secretary-at-war, in 
the room of viscount Howick; earl of 
Clarendon, lord privy seal, in room of 
viscount Duncannon ; Mr. Labouchere, 
president of the board of trade, vice Mr. 
C. Poulett Thomson, &c.] 

1839. Ministers announce their determination to 
resign, inconsequence of the division in 
the commons on the Jamaica bill, in 
which they had a majority of onlyj^ve. 
May 7. Sir Robert Peel receives the 
queen's commands to form a new ad- 
ministration. May 8 ; but owing to the 
refusal of her majesty to dismiss the 
ladies of her household, on which sir 
Robert insisted, this command is with- 
drawn, and on May 10 lord Melbourne 
and his friends return to power. 

1841. Sir Robert Peel, first lord of the trea- 
sury and first minister ; duke of Wel- 
lington, without civil ofiice, commander- 
in-chief; lord WharnclitFe, lord presi- 
dent ; duke of Buckingham, lord privy 
seal ; sir James Graham, earl of Aber- 
deen, and lord Stanley, home, foreign, 
and colonial secretaries ; Mr. Goulburn, 
chancellor of the exchequer; earl of 
Haddington, admiralty ; earl of Ripon, 
board of trade ; lord Ellenborough, board 
of controul; sir Henry Hardinge, sir 
Edward Knatchbull, sir George Mur- 
ray, &c. Lord Lyndhurst, lord chan- 
cellor. Aug. and Sept. 

1841. [Among the many succeeding changes 
to were : lord Fitzgerald and Vesey to the 

1846. board of controul, vice lord Ellenborough 
appointed governor-general of India, 
Oct. 1841 ; duke of Buccleuch, lord 
privy seal, Feb. 1842. Earl of Ripon, 



from the board of trade to the board of 
controul, vice lord Fitzgerald, deceased, 
May, 1843. Sir Thomas Fremantle, 
secretary-at-war, vice sir Henry Har- 
dinge, appointed governor-general of 
India, May, 1844. Earl of Dalhousie, 
to the board of trade, and Mr. Sidney 
Herbert, secretary-at-war, Feb. 1845. 
Mr. W. E. Gladstone, colonial secretary, 
vice lord Stanley, who resigned; duke 
of Buccleuch, lord president, vice lord 
Wharnclifie, deceased; earl of Had- 
dington, lord privy seal; and earl of 
Ellenborough, admiralty. Jan. 1846. 

1846. Lord John Russell, first lord of the 

treasury and first minister; marquess 
of Lansdowne, lord president; earl of 
Minto, lord privy seal ; sir George Grey, 
viscount Palmerston, and earl Grey, 
home, foreign, and colonial secretaries ; 
Mr. (now sir Charles) Wood, chancellor 
of the exchequer ; earl of Auckland, 
admiralty ; sir John Hobhouse and earl 
of Clarendon, boards of controul and 
trade; lord Campbell, duchy of Lan- 
caster ; viscount Morpeth (now earl of 
Carlisle), woods and forests ; marquess 
of Clanricarde, Mr. Macauley, Mr. La- 
bouchere, &c. Lord Cottenham, lord 
chancellor. July. 

1847. [Changes: Mr. Labouchere to board of 
to trade, vice earl of Clarendon, appointed 

1850. lord lieutenant of Ireland, July, 1847. 

Earl Granville, paymaster general, vice 
Mr. Macauley, 3Iay, 1848. Sir Francis 
Thornhill Baring, first lord of the ad- 
miralty, vice earl of Auckland, deceased, 
Jan. 1849. Mr. Fox Maule, secretary- 
at-war, to be of the cabinet, Nov. 1849. 
Earl of Carlisle from Woods and Forests 
to the duchy of Lancaster, March; 
and sir Thomas Wylde, created lord 
Truro, lord chancellor, vice lord Cotten- 
ham, who resigned, and was created earl 
of Cottenham, July, 1850.] 

1850. Lord John Russell (as above) and his 
colleagues, the present Ministers. 



99 



THE GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE> 



THE LORD HIGH STEWAED OF ENGLAND. 

The first great officer of the crown was formerly the Lord High Steward of 
England, or Viceroy, for so the word signifies in the Saxon language : in Latin he 
is styled Magnus Anglice Seneschallus. This honourable office is of great antiquity, 
having been established prior to the reign of Edward the Confessor. The Lord High 
Steward was the prime officer under the king, and the office was annexed to the 
lordship of Hinckley, in Leicestershire ; and this lordship belonging to the family 
of Montfort, earls of Leicester, they were, in right of it. Lord High Stewards of 
England. But Simon de Montfort, the last earl of this family, having made a bad use 
of the power which this office had given him, raised a rebellion against his sovereign 
Henry IH., and was attainted, and his estate forfeited. Henry and his successors, 
wisely judging that the power was too great, in some measure abolished the office, as, 
in the hands of an ambitious subject, it might be made subservient to the worst 
purposes. It is now, therefore, only revived pro hac vice, to officiate at a coronation, 
or the trial of a peer. By his commission for the first, the Lord High Steward sits 
judicially himself, or appoints commissioners to act for him : he keeps his court in the 
king's palace, where he receives the petitions of noblemen and others, who, by tenure 
or otherwise, claim to do service at the coronation of the king. When he is appointed 
to preside at the trial of a peer or peeress of the realm, the lords being assembled, his 
commission is read, and a white rod, his emblem of office, is put into his hand, and his 
" Grace," for so he is then styled, takes the seat allotted to him as Lord High 
Steward, and proceeds to the trial of the personage arraigned before him. As soon 
as the investigation is over, his Grace breaks the rod, which ends his commission. 



Lord High Stewards of England since the Restoration of 
King Charles IL 



1676. 



1677. 



1661. James Butler, duke of Ormond, for his 

majesty's coronation. April 20. 
1666. Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon (lord 
chancellor), for the trial of Thomas 
Parker, lord Morley and Monteagle. 
April 12. 

Heneage Finch, lord Finch (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of Charles Corn- 
wallis, lord Cornwallis. June 15. 
Heneage Finch, lord Finch (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of Philip, earl of 
Pembroke and Montgomery. March 18. 

1679. Heneage Finch, lord Finch (lord chan- 

cellor), for the trial of Thomas Osborne, 
eari of Danby. May 10. 
— Heneage Finch, lord Finch (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of William Herbert, 
earl of Powis ; William Howard, viscount 
Stafford ; Henry Arundel, lord Arundel 
of Wardour ; William Petre, lord Petre ; 
and John, lord Belasyse. May 27. 

1680. Heneage Finch, lord Finch (lord chan- 

cellor), for the trial of William Howard, 
viscount Stafford. November 30. 
1685. James Butler, duke of Ormond, for the 
coronation of James II. April 21. 
George Jeffereys, lord Jeffereys (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of Henry Booth, lord 
Delamere. January 9. 



1689. 
1692. 
1699. 

1702. 
1714. 
1716. 



1717. 



William Cavendish, earl of Devonshire, for 
the coronation of William III. and 
Mary II. April 11. 

Thomas Osborne, marquis of Carmarthen, 
for the trial of Charles Mohun, lord 
Mohun. March 25. 

John Somers, lord Somers (lord chancellor), 
for the trial of Edward-Henry Rich, earl 
of Warwick and Holland, and of Charles 
Mohun, lord Mohun. Jan. 31. 

William Cavendish, duke of Devonshire, 
for the coronation of Queen Anne. 

Charles Fitzroy, duke of Grafton, for the 
coronation of George I. 

William Cowper, lord Cowper (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of James RadclifFe, 
earl of Derwentwater ; William Wid- 
drington, lord Widdrington ; William 
Maxwell, earl of Nithsdale; Robert 
Dalziel, earl of Carnwath ; William 
Gordon, viscount Kenmure; and Wil- 
liam Nairne, lord Nairne. Jan. 10. 

William Cowper, lord Cowper (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of George Seton, 
earl of Wintoun. March 15. 

William Cowper, lord Cowper (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of Robert Harley, 
earl of Oxford and earl Mortimer, 
June 24. 



H 2 



100 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1725. Peter King, lord King (lord chancellor), 
for the trial of Thomas Parker, earl of 
Macclesfield ; which trial began May 14. 

1727. Lionel Cranfield Sackville, duke of Dorset, 
for the coronation of George II. 

1746. Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke (lord chan- 

cellor), for the trial of William Boyd, 
earl of Kilmarnock ; George Mackenzie, 
earl of Cromarty ; and Arthur Elphin- 
stone, lord Balmerino. July 5. 

1747. Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke (lord chan- 

cellor), for the trial of Simon Fraser, 
lord Lovat. March 9. 

1760. Eobert Henley, lord Henley (lord keeper), 

for the trial of Lawrence Shirley, earl 
Ferrers. April. 

1761. William Talbot, earl Talbot, for the coro- 

nation of George III. 
1765. Robert Henley, earl of Northington (lord 

chancellor), for the trial of William 

Byron, lord Byron. May. 
1776. Henry Bathurst/earl Bathurst (lord chan- 



cellor), for the trial of Elizabeth Chud- 
leigh, duchess of Kingston. Feb. 10. 

1788. Edward lord Thurlow (lord chancellor), for 
the trial of Warren Hastings. Feb. 12. 

1793. Alexander, lord Loughborough (lord chan- 
cellor), for the trial of the same. Jan. 28. 
This trial continued seven years, and 
ended in the acquittal of Mr. Hastings, 
April 23, 1795. 

1806. Thomas, lord Erskine (lord chancellor), 
for the trial of Henry Dundas, viscount 
Melville. April 29. 

1821. Henry- William, marquess of Anglesey, for 
the coronation of George IV. July 19. 

1831. Alexander, duke of Hamilton, for the coro- 
nation of William IV. Sept. 8. 

1838. Alexander, duke of Hamilton, for the coro- 
nation of Queen Victoria. June 28. 

1841. Thomas, lord Denman, lord chief justice of 
the queen's bench, for the trial of James 
Thomas Brudenell, earl of Cardigan. 
Feb. 16. 



THE LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR. 

The second great officer of the Crown is the Lord High Chancellor, or Lord Keeper 
of the Great Seal. Formerly this office was conferred upon some dignified clergyman, 
remarkable for his abilities, and his knowledge of the civil law. After the princes 
of the blood royal, he is the first lay-subject, and is reputed the keeper of the king's 
conscience. Among the many great prerogatives of his office, he has a power to 
judge according to equity, conscience, and reason, where he finds the law of the land 
so defective as that the subject would be injured thereby. If a man be imprisoned 
illegally during the vacation, he has power to grant a writ of habeas corpus, and do 
him justice according to law ; whereas, neither the court of king's bench, nor the 
common pleas, can grant that writ but in term-time. The Lord Chancellor and Lord 
Keeper are the same in authority, power, and precedence ; they are appointed by the 
King's delivery of the great seal to them, and by taking the oath of office. They 
difier only in this point, that the Lord Chancellor has also letters-patent; whereas 
the Lord Keeper has none. The business of the chancery, originally transacted in 
the exchequer department of the Curia Regis, was removed to a separate court about 
the close of Richard I.'s reign, from which time the annual rolls descend regularly. 



Lord High Chancellors of England. 



William the Conqueror. 
1067. Arfastus, or Herefast ^ chaplain to tne 

king ; bishop of Elmham. 
1070. Osbert, afterwards bishop of Exeter. 
1073. Osmund, afterwards bishop of Salisbury. 
1078. Maurice, afterwards bishop of London. 
* * William Velson, or Welson (de Bellofago), 
chaplain to the king ; afterwards bishop 
of Thetford. 

1036. William Giffard; afterwards bishop of 
Winchester. 

King William II. 
1087. William Giffard, continued. 



1090. Robert Bloet, or Bluet, afterwards bishop 
of Lincoln. 

1093. Baldric, or Galdricus ; and Drogo, keeper 

under him. 

1094. William Giffard, again. 

King Henry I. 

1100. William Giffard, bishop of Winchester, 

continued. 

1101. Roger, afterwards bishop of Salisbury. 

1103. William Giffard, again. 

1104. Waldricus. 

107. Ranulph, or Arnulph : died 1123. 

[Richard, a chaplain, was, according to 



1 Dugdale, and mostofthe earlier writers, and, later, Hardy, place Arfastus as the first chancellor, in this year. 
Other writers fix a subsequent date. Mr. Foss, an excellent' authority, says, that he held the office at Whit- 
suntide 1068 ; a- d he mentions his name (with the addition of " chancellor ") as being affixed to the charter which 
William then granted to the church of St. Martin's-le-Grand, in London. Mr. Foss adds, that " Thynne, Phili- 
pot, and Spelman, state the date correctly." We are indebted to Mr. Hardy for the greater portion of this Ust, 
and follow him, as being infinitely more certain than Dugdale, nearly all through. — Editor. 



LORD HIGH CHANCELLOKS. 



101 



Thynne, keeper of the seal under Ra- 
nulph ; but this is doubtful : he became 
bishop of Hereford in 1120.] 
1124. Geoffrey Kufus, afterwards bishop of Dur- 
ham. 

King Stephen. 
1135. Roger Pauper, son of Roger, bishop of 

Salisbury. 
1139. Philip. 

1142. Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury ; con- 
stituted by the empress Maud. 

* * William Fitzgilbert ; constituted by the 

empress Maud. 

* * William de Yere ; also constituted by the 

empress, in reversion. 

* * Robert de Gant, lord chancellor : died in 

1153. 

King Henry II. 
1154. Thomas a Becket, afterwards archbishop 

of Canterbury : resigned in 1162. 
1173. Ralph de Warneville, treasurer of York. 
1177. Walter de Constantiis, bishop of Lincoln 

and archbishop of Rouen, vice-chancellor 

or deputy. 1 

1182. Geotfrey Plantagenet, bishop of Lincoln, 
and afterwards archbishop of York. 

King Richard I. 

1189. William de Longchamp, afterwards bishop 

of Ely: died in 1197. 

1190. John de Alen^on, archdeacon of Lisieux ; 

vice-chancellor. 
1192. Roger Malus Catulus, vice-chancellor. 
March. 

— Benet, vice-chancellor. Oct. 

1195. Eustace, afterwards bishop of Ely, vice- 
chancellor. 

1198. Warine, or Guarinus, prior of Loches, in 

Touraine, vice-chancellor. 

— Eustace, bishop of Ely ; chancellor. 

— Roceline, vice-chancellor. 

King J ohn. 

1199. Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury. 
1205. W alter-de-Grey, afterwards bishop of Wor- 
cester and archbishop of York. 

1213. Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Winchester. 

1214. Walter de Grey, again. Jan. 

— Richard de Marisco, afterwards bishop of 

Durham. Oct. 

King Henry III. 

1216. Richard de Marisco, continued. 

1218. Ralph de Nevill, afterwards bishop of Chi- 
chester, keeper. 

1226. Ralph de Nevill, chancellor. 

[The king took the great seal from him in 
1238, and delivered it to Geoffrey, a 
Templar, and to John de Lexinton; 
but Ralph had still the emoluments of 
the chancellorship.] 

1238. Simon Normannus, or de Cantilupe, keeper. 

1240. Richard Crassus, abbot of Evesham, keeper. 



1242. Silvester de Everdon, or Eversden, keeper. 

1246. John Mansel, provost of Beverley, keeper. 

1247. John de Lexinton, again keeper, in the 

absence of J ohn Mansel on an embassy. 

1248. John Mansel, on his return, again keeper. 
1250. William de Kilkenny, afterwards bishop of 

Ely, keeper. 

1255. Henry de Wingham, bishop of London, 
keeper. 

1258. Walter de Merton, bishop of Rochester, 
keeper. 

1260. Nicholas de Ely, afterwards bishop of 

Worcester and Winchester, keeper. 

1261. Walter de Merton, bishop of Rochester, 

chancellor. 
1263. Nicholas de Ely, chancellor. 

1265. Thomas de Cantilupe, bishop of Hereford. 

Feb. 

— Walter Giffard, bishop of Bath and Wells. 

Aug. 

1266. Godfrey Giff'ard, bishop of Worcester. 

1268. John de ChishuU, afterwards bishop of 

London, keeper. 

1269. Richard de Middleton ; first, keeper, after- 

wards chancellor. 
1272. John de Kirkeby, afterwards bishop of Ely. 

King Edward I. 

— Walter de Merton, bishop of Rochester. 
1274. Robert Burnell, archdeacon of York. 
1292. John de Langton, afterwards bishop of 

Chichester. 

1302. William de Grenefield, dean of Chichester, 

afterwards archbishop of York. 
1304. William de Hamilton, dean of York. 

— John de Benstede, keeper, until the new 

chancellor's arrival to receive the seal. 
1307. Ralph de Baldoc, Baldok, or Beaudake, 
bishop of London. 

King Edward II. 
1307. Ralph de Baldoc, continued. 

— John de Langton, bishop of Chichester. 

1310. WilHam de Melton, Robert de Bardelby, 

Ingelard de Warlegh, and John Fraun- 
ceis, keepers. 

— Walter Reinalds, or Reynolds, bishop of 

Worcester, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury. July. 

1311. Adam de Osgodeby, master of the rolls, 

Robert de Bardelb}^ and William de 
Ayremynne, keepers. 

1312. Walter Reynolds, again, keeper. 

1314. John de Sandale, afterwards bishop of 

Winchester. Sept. 
1318. John de Hotham, or Hothum, bishop of 

Ely. June. 
1320. John Salmon, bishop of Norwich. Jan. 
1323. Robert de Baldoc, or Baldok, archdeacon 

of Middlesex (and elected bishop of 

Norwich). Aug. 

King Edward III. 
1327. John de Hotham, again. Jan. 

— Henry de Clyff", master of the rolls, keeper. 

March. 



^ In Henry I.'s reign, a keeper of the seal under the chancellor Ranulph is mentioned, but upon somewhat 
doubtful authority. In this reign (Henry II. 's) Walter de Constantiis is called " Vice- Chancellor" by one author, 
and is described by another as having the duties of the Chancellor in the Curia Regis committed to him by 
Ralph de Warneville. In the following reign (that of Richard I.), the title, it will be found, was officially 
adopted. He was, perhaps, the deputy of the chancellor mentioned in the Bialogus de Scaccario, to whom the 
custody of the rolls was entrusted, and in whose appointment probably originated the office of master of the 
rolls. — Foss's Judges of England. 

H 3 



102 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



1327. Henry de Burghersh, bishop of Lincoln. 
May. 

1330. John de Stratford, bishop of Winchester. 
Nov. 

1334. Richard de Angarville, or Bury, bishop of 

Durham. Sept. 

1335. John de Stratford, again, now archbishop 

of Canterbury. June. 

1337. Robert de Stratford, archdeacon of Can- 

terbury. March. 

1338. Richard de Bynteworth, or Wentworth, 

bishop of London. July. 

— John de St. Paul, master of the rolls, and 

Thomas de Baumburgh, keepers, pro 
tem. July. 

1339. John de St. Paul, Michael de Wath, and 

Thomas de Baumburgh, keepers. Dec. 

1340. John de Stratford, the third time. April : 

resigned from infirmity. 

— John de St. Paul, keeper. June. 

— Robert de Stratford, now bishop of Chi- 

chester. July. 

— William de Kildesby, keeper. Dec. 1. 

— Sir Robert Burghchier, or Bourchier, knt. 

Dec. 14. 

1341. Sir Robert Parnyng, knt. : died, Aug. 26, 

1343. 

1343. John de Thoresby, master of the rolls, 
John de St. Paul, Thomas de Brayton, 
and Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of 
Warwick, keepers. Aug. 

— Robert de Sadyngton. Sept. 

1345. John de Offord, or Ufford, dean of Lincoln : 
appointed archbishop of Canterbury, 
but died. May 20, 1349, before conse- 
cration. 

1349. David de Wollore, master of the rolls, John 
de St. Paul, Thomas de Brayton, and 
Thomas Cotyngham, keepers. May 28. 

— John de Thoresby, bishop of St. David's. 

June 16. 

1356. William de Edington, bishop of Winches- 
ter. Nov. 27. 

1363. Simon Langham, bishop of Ely, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury. Feb. 19. 

1367. William de Wyckham, or Wykeham, 
bishop of Winchester. 

1371. Sir Robert de Thorpe, knt. March 26: 

died June 29, 1372. 

1372. Sir Richard le Scrope, lord Scrope, of Bol- 

ton, treasurer ; keeper. June 29. 

— Sir John Knyvet, knt. July 5. 

1377. Adam de Houghton, or Hoghton, bishop 
of St. David's. Jan. 11. 

King Richard IL 

1377. Adam de Hoghton, continued, 

1378. Sir Richard le Srcope, lord Scrope. Oct. 29. 

1379. Simon de Sudbury, archbishop of Canter- 

bury, July 4. Beheaded by the rebels 
under Wat Tyler, June 14, 1381. 

1381. Richard, earl of Arundel, keeper. June 14. 

— Hugh de Segrave, steward of the king's 

household, keeper. June 16. 

— William Courtenay, bishop of London. 

Aug. 10. 

— Richard, lord Scrope, again. Dec. 4. 

1382. Hugh de Segrave, treasurer of England, 

William de Dighton, privy seal, John 
de Waltham, master of the rolls (July 
11), and Walter de Skirlawe (Aug. 8), 
keepers. 

— Robert de Bravbroke, bishop of London. 

Sept. 20. " 



1383. John de Waltham, keeper. March 10. 

— Sir Michael de la Pole. March 13. 
1386. Thomas de Arundel, or Fitz-Alan, bishop 

of Ely ; afterwards archbishop of York 
and of Canterbury. Oct. 24. 

1389. William de Wykeham, bishop of Winches- 
ter, again. May 4. 

1391. Thomas de Arundel, now archbishop of 
York, again. Sept. 27. 

1396. Edmund Stafford, bishop of Exeter. Nov. 23. 

1399. Thomas de Arundel, now archbishop of 
Canterbury ; the third time. Sept. 

— John de Scarle. Sept. 

King Henry IV. 
1399. John de Scarle, continued. 
1401. Edmund Stafford, again. March 9. 
1403. Henry de Beaufort, bishop of Lincoln. Feb. 
1405. Thomas Longley, keeper of the privy seal, 

March 2 ; bishop of Durham in 1406. 
1407. Thomas de Arundel, the fourth time. Jan. 

30. 

1410. Sir Thomas de Beaufort, afterwards earl of 
Dorset and duke of Exeter. Jan. 31. 

1412. Thomas de Arundel, the fifth time. Jan. 5. 

King Henry V. 

1413. Henry de Beaufort, bishop of Winchester 

(translated from Lincoln). March 21. 
1417. Thomas Longley, bishop of Durham, again. 
July 23. 

King Henry VI. 
1422. Simon Gaunstede, master of the rolls, 

keeper. Sept. 28. 
1424. Henry de Beaufort, again. July 6. 
1426. John Kempe, bishop of London. March 16. 
1432. Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, keeper. 

Feb. 25. 

— John Stafford, Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

March 4. 

1450. John Kempe, now a cardinal, and arch- 
bishop of York. Jan. 31 ; died March 2, 
1454. 

1454. Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury. April 2. 

1455. Thomas Bourchier, archbishop of Canter- 

bury. March 7. 

1456. William de Waynflete, bishop of Winches- 

ter. Oct. 11. 

1460. Thomas Bourchier, archbishop of Canter- 

bury, keeper. July 7. 

— George Neville, bishop of Exeter, after- 

wards archbishop of York, July 25. 

King Edward IV. 

1461. The bishop of Exeter, continued. 

1463. Robert Kirkeham, master of the rolls, 

keeper during the chancellor's absence. 

Aug. 23, and subsequently. 
1467. Robert Stillington, bishop of Bath and 

Wells. June 20. 
1473. John Morton, master of the rolls, keeper. 

June 18. 

— Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, keeper. 

June 23. 

— John Morton, again keeper. July 17. See 

year 1487. 

— Lawrence Booth, bishop of Durham. J uly 

27. 

1475. Thomas Rotheram, bishop of Lincoln. 

— John Alcock, bishop of Rochester. April 27. 

— Thomas Rotheram, again. Sept. 28. 

King Edward V. 
1483. John Russell, bishop of Lincoln. 



LORD HIGH CHAN^CELLORS. 



103 



King Richard III. 
1483. The bishop of Lincoln, continued. 
1485. Thomas Barowe, master of the rolls, keeper. 
Aug. 1. 

King Henry VII. 

1485. John Alcock, now bishop of Worcester, 
and afterwards bishop of Ely. 

1487. John Morton, now archbishop of Canter- 
bury. Aug. 8. He had been made 
bishop of Ely in 1478 ; died Sept. 1500. 

1500. Richard Nikke, dean of the chapel royal, 
keeper. Sept. 16. 

1502. Henry Deane, bishop of Salisbury, after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury, keeper. 
Oct. 13. 

— William Barons, master of the rolls, keeper. 

July 27. 

— William Warham, bishop elect of London, 

keeper. Aug. 11. 
1504. William Warham, now bishop of London, 
and archbishop elect of Canterbury, lord 
chancellor. Jan. 21. 

King Henry VIII. 
1509. William Warham, continued, 
1515. Thomas Wolsey, cardinal, and archbishop 

of York. Dec. 22. 
1529. Thomas, duke of Norfolk, treasurer, and 

Charles, duke of Suffolk, earl marshall, 

keepers. Oct. 17. 

— Sir Thomas More. Oct. 25 : he resigned 

the seal May 16th, 1532.^ 

1532. Sir Thomas Audley, keeper. May 20. 

1533. Sir Thomas Audley, chancellor. Jan. 26 ; 

created lord Audley, of Walden, Nov. 
29, 1538. 

1544. Thomas, lord Wriothesley, keeper. April 
22. 

— Thomas, lord Wriothesley, lord chancellor. 

May 3. 

King Edward VI. 
1547. Lord Wriothesley, continued, and created 
earl of Southampton. 

— William Paulet, lord St. John, keeper. 

— March 7. 

— Richard, lord Rich. Oct. 23. 

1551. Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, keeper. 
Dec. 22. 



1552. Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, lord 

chancellor. Jan. 19. 

Queen Mary. 

1553. Stephen Gardiner, or Gardyner, bishop of 

Winchester. Aug. 23. 
1556. Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York. Jan. 1. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
1551. The Queen, keeper. Nov. 18. 

— Sir Nicholas Bacon 2, keeper ; Dec. 22 : the 

first lord keeper that ranked as lord 
chancellor. Died Feb. 20, 1579. 
1579. The Queen. Feb. 20. 

— William Cecil, lord Burleigh, and Robert, 

earl of Leicester, lord keepers. Feb. 24. 

— Sir Thomas Bromley, knt., lord chancellor. 

April 26 : died April 12, 1587. 
1517. Henry, lord Hunsdon ; William, Lord Cob- 
ham ; and sir Francis Walsingham, lord 
keepers. April 15. 

— William, lord Burleigh; Robert, earl of 

Leicester ; and sir Francis Walsingham, 
lord keepers. April. 26. 

— Sir Christopher Hatton, lord chancellor. 

April 29 : died Nov. 20, 1591. 

1591. William, lord Burleigh ; Henry, lord 

Hunsdon ; William, lord Cobham ; and 
Thomas, lord Buckhurst, commissioners 
of the great seal. Nov. 22. 

— Sir Gilbert Gerrard, master of the rolls, 

and others, commissioners for hearing 
causes. Nov. 22. 

1592. Sir John Puckering, knt., lord keeper. 

May 28 : died April 30, 1596. 
1596. Sir Thomas Egerton, knt. 3 lord keeper. 
May 6. 

King James I. 
1603. Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper, co/i- 
tinued. March 24. 

— Sir Thomas Egerton, now lord Ellesmere, 

lord chancellor, July 24 : aftei-wards 
created viscount Brackley : died March 
15, 1617. 

1617. Sir Francis Bacon, knt., lord keeper. 

March 7. 

1618. Sir Francis Bacon 4 made lord chancellor, 

Jan. 4 : created lord Verulam, and after- 
wards viscount St. Alban's. 



1 Sir Thomas More was the first layman that had held the great seal as lord high chancellor. He resigned 
because he could not concur with the court in the king's divorce from Catharine of Arragon. His conscientious 
opposition to the tyrant's will was enough to prove the ruin of this excellent man — " vir, doctrind et probitate 
spcctabilis,'' as he is called by Thuanus, the historian. His unfortunate fate is too well known to be related here. 

2 Camden gives him this character : " Vir prcepinguis, ingenio acerrimo, singularia pt-udentia, surmna elo- 
qucntia, tenacia memoria, et sacris conciliis alterurn columen.^^ Of person very corpulent, most quick wit, sin- 
gular prudence, admirable eloquence, retentive memory, and another pillar to the privy council. This corpulency 
of body grew upon him in his old age, and whenever queen Elizabeth alluded to it, she used to say, " Sir Nicholas's 
soul lodges well." 

3 Lord Campbell, who seems to delight in bestowing just praise, says of this personage: " It is refreshing to 
have to contemplate the life of a man remarkable alike for talent, learning, and probity, who raised himself from 
obscurity by his own exertions, and who reached the highest honours without affixing any stain on his character, 
and with merits so acknowledged, that he did not even excite the envy of rivals." — Lord CayyipbeW s Lives of the 
Lord Chancellors. 

His lordship relates an early anecdote of Egerton, which he takes, he says, from the Rev. Francis Egerton's 
Memoirs of him: " He first gave earnest of his future eminence by interposing diS amicus cur ice while yet a 
student, when a verdict was about to be pronounced which would have ruined a worthy old lady who kept a 
house of public entertainment in Smithfield. Three graziers had deposited a sum of money with her, to be 
returned to them on their joint application. One of them fraudulently pretending that he had authority to 
receive it, induced her to give him the whole of the money, and absconded with it. The other two brought their 
action against her, and (as the story goes) were about to recover, when young Egerton begged permission to 
befriend the court, by pointing out a fatal objection which had escaped her counsel as well as my lord judge. 
Said he : ' The money by the contract was to be returned to three, but only two sue ; where is the third ? Let 
him appear with the others; till then the money cannot be demanded of her.' This turned the fortune of the 
day ; the plaintiffs were nonsuited, and our young student was from that day considered to be of great mark and 
likel hood." — Lord Campbell's Lord Chancellors. 

This great man was accused of bribery and corruption by a committee of the commons; adjudged guilty 
(May 3, 1621); and sentenced to a fine and ransom of £40,000, to imprisonment in the Tower during the king's 

H 4 



104 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICEES. 



1G21. Sir J ulius Ciesar, master of the rolls, and 
other commissioners, to hear causes in 
chancery. May 1. 

— Sir John Ley, knt. and bart., chief justice, 

and other commissioners, to hear causes 
in the lords. May 1. 

— Henry, viscount Mandeville, lord treasurer ; 

Ludowic, duke of Richmond; and the 
eari of Arundel, to use the seal. May 1. 

— John Williams, dean of Westminster, after- 

wards bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper. 
July 10. 

King Charles I. 
1625. The bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper, con- 
tinued: resigned the seal, Oct. 30. 

— Sir Thomas Coventry, lord keeper, Nov. 1 : 

afterwards lord Coventry : died Jan. 13, 
1640. 

1640. Sir John Finch, chief justice CP., lord 

keeper. Jan. 17 : afterwards lord Finch. 

1641. Sir Edward Lyttleton, chief justice C. P., 

lord keeper. Jan. 19. Created lord 
Lyttleton in Feb. 1641. 

1642. The King. May 21. 

1643. Oliver, earl of Bolingbroke ; Henry, earl of 

Kent ; Oliver St. John, John Wilde, 
Samuel Browne, and Edmund Prideaux, 
parliamentary commissioners or keepers. 
Nov. 30. 

1645. Sir Richard Lane, royal keeper. Oct. 23. 

1646. The earl of Salisbury, in the room of the 

earl of Bolingbroke, deceased, parlia- 
mentary commissioner. Aug. 11. 

— Edward, earl of Manchester, speaker of the 

house of lords, and William Lenthall, 
speaker of the commons and master of 
the rolls, parliamentary commissioners 
or keepers. Oct. 31. 

1648. Henry, earl of Kent, and William, lord 

Grey, of Werke, parliamentary keepers. 
March 17. 

— Sir Thomas Widdrington, and Bulstrode 

Whitelocke, parliamentary keepers, 
joined to the preceding. April 12. 

The Commonwealth. 

1649. Bulstrode Whitelocke, and John Lisle, esqrs., 

and Serjeant Keeble, parliamentary com- 
missioners. Feb. 8. 

1653. Sir Edward Herbert, attorney-general, 

king's lord keeper. April 5. 

1654. Bulstrode Whitelocke, sir Thomas Wid- 

drington, and John Lisle, esq., parlia- 
mentary commissioners. April 4. 

— Sir Thomas Widdrington, parliamentary 

keeper, Whitelocke being abroad, and 
Lisle unwell. May 30. 



1654. Bulstrode Whitelocke, sir Thomas Wid- 

drington, and Mr, Lisle, parliamentary 
keepers. July 14. 

1655. Nathaniel Fiennes and Mr. Lisle, parlia- 

mentary commissioners. Oct. 10. 

1658. Sir Edward Hyde, knt. and bart., made 

king's lord keeper at Bruges, Jan. 13 ; 
and king's lord chancellor, Jan. 29. 

— Nathaniel, lord Fiennes, and John, lord 

Lisle (summoned as peers to the com- 
monwealth parliament), parliamentary 
commissioners. Sept. 20. 

1659. Nathaniel, lord Fiennes ; John, lord Lisle ; 

and Bulstrode, lord Whitelocke (also 
summoned as a peer of the common- 
wealth), parliamentary commissioners 
or keepers. Jan. 22. 

— William Lenthall, parliamentary keeper. 

May 14. 

— J ohn Bradshaw, Thomas Terryll, and John 

Fountain, parliamentary commissioners. 
June 3. 

— Bulstrode (lord) Whitelocke, again, par- 

liamentary keeper. Nov. 1. 

1660. William Lenthall, parliamentary keeper. 

Jan. 13. 

— Sir Thomas Widdrington, Thomas Terryll, 

and John Fountain, parliamentary com- 
missioners. Jan. 16. 

— Edward, earl of Manchester, joined to the 

above. May 7. 

The Restoration. 

1660. Sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor. June 1 ; 

afterwards created lord Hyde, viscount 
Cornbury, and earl of Clarendon : re- 
moved Aug. 1667. 

1667. Sir Orlando Bridgeman, knt. and bart., lord 
keeper. Aug. 31. 

1672. Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord 

chancellor. Nov. 17. 

1673. Sir Heneage Finch, bart., lord keeper. 

Nov. 9. 

1675. Heneage, now lord Finch, lord chancellor. 

Dec. 19 ; afterwards created earl of Not- 
tingham! : died Dec. 18, 1682. 

1682. Sir Francis North, created lord Guildford, 
lord keeper. Dec. 20. 

King James II. 
1685. Francis, lord Guildford, lord keeper, con- 
tinued : died Sept. 5, 1685. 

— George, lord Jeffreys^, chief justice K. B., 

lord chancellor. Sept. 28. 

AYlLLIAM AND MaRY. 

1689. Sir John Maynard, knt. ; sir Anthony 
Keck, knt., and sir William Rawlin- 



pleasure, and declared incapable of any office, place, or employment in the state: he was "never more to sit in 
parhament, or come within the verge of the court." James shed tears at his fate, and appears (after he had been 
a short time m confinement) to have remitted his sentence ; as we find him summoned to the House of Peers 1st 
^/ r/ 7 " greatest genius of his Sige:' — Boyle. " The father of experimental philosophy." 

TT . "His works are, for expression as well as thought, the glory of our nation." — SAf^VW 

Duke of Buckingham. 

1 The Duke of Wharton said of this lord chancellor: " To figure this great and inestimable man aright, and 
to paint him in true colours, and with some warmth of imagination, but with the greatest submission to truth, 
1 would seat him on his throne, with a ray of glory about his head, his ermine without spot or blemish, his 
balance m the right hand, mercy on his left, splendour and brightness at his feet, and his tongue, in silver tones, 
dispensing goodness, virtue, and justice to mankind." 

It appear^ that a patent was made out shortly before the king's flight, creating Jeffreys, earl of Fiini — 
ijranger. Ihis is a mistake : The titles of earl of Flint and viscount Wickham were sarcastically applied to 
inis notorious personage. Granger was deceived by a work, " Dissertatio Lithologica, &c." dedicated to " Honora- 
I,oI!!:^ Crforgzo comtti Flintensi, vicecomiti de Weickhain, baroni de Weim, supremo Anglice cancellario, 

Lfr.I.?J^^^^c" ./rtco6o 6e^ziwGfo regi Anglice a secretioribus cotisiliis j " a sarcastic dedication to him as the JUntv 
Jeilreys — Sir Harris Nicolas. <> n 



LORD HIGH CHANCELLORS. 



105 



son, knt., commissioners or keepers. 
March 4. 

1690. Sir John Trevor, knt. ; sir William Raw- 
linson, knt., and sir George Hutchins, 
knt. ; commissioners or keepers. May 14. 

1693. Sir John Somers, lord keeper. March 23. 

1697. Sir John Somers, lord chancellor. ^ April 
22. Created lord Somers. Deprived of 
the seal, April 27, 1700. — Lord Bay- 
mond's Reports. 

1700. Lord chief justice Holt, K.B., sir George 
Treby, chief justice C. P., and chief 
baron sir Edward Ward, lord keepers. 
April 27. 

— Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper. May 21. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper, continued: 

removed in 1705. 
1705. Rt. hon. William Cowper^, lord keeper, 

Oct. 11 ; afterwards lord Cowper. 
1707. William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor, 

May 4 : resigned Sept. 25, 1710. 
1710. Sir Thomas Trevor, chief justice C. P., 

Robert Tracy, justice C. P., and baron 

Scrope (of Scotland) lord keepers. Sept. 

26. 

— Sir Simon Harcourt, attorney-general, lord 

keeper, Oct. 19 : created lord Harcourt. 

1713. Simon, lord Harcourt, lord chancellor. 

April 7. 

King George I. 

1714. Simon, lord Harcourt, continued : deprived 

Sept. .21. 

— William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor, 

Sept. 21 : afterwards earl Cowper. 
1718. Sir Robert Tracy, sir John Pratt, and sir 
James Montague, lord keepers. April 18. 

— Thomas, lord Parker, lord chancellor. 

May 12 : afterwards earl of Macclesfield : 
surrendered the seal. Jan. 4, 1725. 
1725. Sir Joseph Jekyll, master of the rolls, sir 
Jeffrey Gilbert, B. E., and sir Robert 
Raymond, justice K. B., lord keepers. 
Jan. 7. 

— Sir Peter King, created lord King, lord 

chancellor. June 1. 

King George II. 
1727. Lord King, continued: resigned Nov. 1733. 



1733. Hon. Charles Talbot, created lord Talbot, 
lord chancellor, Nov. 29 : died Feb. 
1737. 

1737. Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke^, lord chan- 
cellor, Feb. 21 : resigned Nov. 19. 
1756. 

1756. Sir John Willis, chief justice C. P., sir 

Sidney Stafford Smythe B. E., and sir 
John Eardley Wilmot, justice K. B., 
lord keepers. Nov. 19. 

1757. Sir Robert Henley, attorney-general, lord 

keeper, June 20 : afterwards lord Henley. 

King George III. 

1760. Lord Henley, lord keeper, continued. 

1761. Lord Henley, lord chancellor, Jan. 16; 

afterwards viscount Henley, and earl of 
Northington : resigned July 30, 1766. 
1766. Charles, lord Camden, chief justice CP., 
lord chancellor, July 30 : resigned Jan. 
17, 1770. 

1770. Hon. Charles Yorke, attorney-general, lord 

chancellor, Jan. 17 : created lord Mor- 
den : died Jan. 20, before the seals were 
put to his patent of peerage; he held 
the great seal only three days. 

— Sir Sidney-Stafford-Smythe, B. E. ; hon. 

Henry Bathurst, justice C. P. ; and Sir 
Richard Aston, justice K.B., commis- 
sioners. Jan. 21. 

1771. Hon. Henry Bathurst, created lord Apsley, 

lord chancellor. Jan. 23. Succeeded his 
father as earl Bathurst 1775 : resigned. 
1778. Edward Thurlow, attorney-general, created 
lord Thurlow, lord chancellor, June 3 : 
resigned. 

1783. Alexander, lord Loughborough ; sir Wil- 
liam-Henry Ashhurst, knt., justice K.B. ; 
and sir Beaumont Hotham, B. E., knt. 
commissioners. April 9. 

— Edward, lord Thurlow, lord chancellor, 

Dec. 23 : resigned June 15, 1792. 

1792. Sir James Eyre, knt. C.B. ; sir William- 

Henry Ashhurst, knt. justice K.B. ; and 
sir John Wilson, knt., justice C. P., com- 
missioners. June 15. 

1793. Alexander, lord Loughborough, lord chan- 

cellor, Jan. 21 : resigned. 
1801. John, lord Eldon* chief justice CP., lord 
chancellor, April 14 : resigned. 



^ Lord Somers was one of those divine men, who, like a chapel in a palace, remain unprofaned, while all the 
rest is tyranny, corruption, and folly. The most incorrupt lawyer, and the honestest statesman ; a master orator, 
a genius of the finest taste, and a patriot of the most expansive views ; a man who dispensed blessings by his life, 
and planned them for posterity — Horace Walpole. 

It being customary on New- Year's day for those who practised in chancery to present the lord chancellor 
with a New Year's gift, which usually amounted to about 1500/., the lord keeper, Cowper, refused to accept this 
contribution, it appearing too much like bribery. A rare example of an independent spirit and of proud integrity ! 
— Ann. of Great Britain, 1706. 

3 Lord Hardv/icke continued, it is said, chief justice of the king's bench (which he had previously been) until 
June 7, 1737, though he had kissed hands for the great seoX. — Burrow'' s Settlement Cases. Woolrych. " Lord 
Hardwicke valued himself more upon being a great minister of state, which he certaiuly was not, than upon 
being a great chancellor, which he certainly was." — Lord Chesterfield. 

George IIL gave Lord Eldon a seal on which was engraven Justice, with eyes unbandaged, directed in her 
path by Religion. On presenting him this seal, the king observed, that " Justice was generally painted blmd, 
but he did not know why it should be so, when her path was so guided." Lord Eldon acknowledged his infirmity 
of doubting. " He preferred dull truth to brilliant error, slow accuracy to expeditious misdirection." — Sir Charles 
Wetherell. " No man who has sat in the court where he [Lord Eldon] presides, ever brought to the public 
service a more consummate knowledge of all its principles and practice ; no one could be better qualified to 
decide in that forum with rapidity, yet how often does he there pause and reconsider, risking the appearance of 
being dilatory and undecided, rather than mistake the rights of the meanest individual whose interests are in his 
hands." — Lord Erskine in the House of Peers. " If lord Eldon have a fault, it is that of an over-anxiety to do 
justice." — Sir Samuel Romilly. His lordship himself once said, " It has been a principle on which many who 
have presided in this court, have acted, that a judge is obliged to know nothing more than the counsel think 
proper to disclose, relative to the case. But for myself, I have thought and acted otiierwise, and I know, if I had 
given judgment on the statements only that have been made to me by counsel on both sides, I should have dis- 
posed of numerous estates to persons who had no more title to them than / have ; and believe me, I feel a 
comfort in that thought, — a comfort, of which all the observations upon my conduct can never rob me." 



106 



STATESMEI^ AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



1806. Hon. Thomas Erskine', created lord Ers- 

kine» chancellor. Feb. 7 : resigned. 

1807. John, lord Eldon, again. April 1. 

King George IV. 

1820. Lord Eldon, continued: afterwards earl of 

Eldon : resigned. 
1827. John Singleton Copley, master of the 

rolls, created lord Lyndhurst, lord 

chancellor. May 2. 

King William IV. 

1830. Lord Lyndhurst, continued : resigned. 
— Henry Brougham, created lord Brougham 
and Vaux, lord chancellor. Nov. 22 : 
resigned. 

1834. Lord Lyndhurst, again, Nov. 22 : resigned. 

1835. Sir Charles -Christopher Pepys, master of 

the rolls, vice-chancellor Shadwell, 
and justice Bosanquet C. P., commis- 
sioners. April 23. 

1836. Sir Charles-Christopher Pepys, lord chan- ' 



cellor, Jan. 16.: created lord Cot- 
tenham. 

Queen Victoria. 

1837. Lord Cottenham, continued. Resigned 
Sept. 3, 1841. 

1841. Lord Lyndhurst, third time, lord chancellor. 
Sept. 3 : resigned. 

1846. Lord Cottenham, again. July 6. Resigned, 
June 19, 1850. His lordship, on signi- 
fying his intention to retire from office, 
was created earl of Cottenham. 

1850. The great seal in commission: Henry, 
lord Langdale, master of the rolls, sir 
Launcelot Shadwell, knt., vice-chan- 
cellor of England, and sir Robert Mou- 
sey Rolfe, knt., a baron of the exche- 
quer, commissioners. June 19. 
— Sir Thomas Wilde (chief justice of the 
common pleas) made lord chancellor, 
and created lord Truro. July 15. 
The PRESENT Lord High Chancellor 
of England. 



THE LOED HIGH TREASURER OF ENGLAND. 

The Lord High Treasurer is the third great officer of the Crown ; and is appointed 
by letters-patent. After he has taken the oaths before the lord chancellor, or lord 
keeper, he repairs to the court of exchequer, where, his letters-patent having been 
read, he takes his seat upon the bench. This is now only an honorary usage, he never 
sitting among the barons as formerly (with the chamberlains) judicially. He is a 
lord by his office, and governs (nominally) the upper court of exchequer, and has the 
custody of the king's treasure, and of the foreign and domestic records there deposited, 
and the appointment of all commissioners and other officers employed in collect- 
ing the revenues of the crown. — Beatson. The Lord High Treasurer holds his place 
during pleasure. The office is now executed by five or more persons, who are called 
Lords Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Treasurer. 

The office of Chancellor of the Exchequer is always held by one of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Treasury. He is styled Chancellor and Under Treasurer of the 
Exchequer ; and has the custody of the exchequer seal : he has also the controlment 
of the rolls of the Lords of the Treasury, and sits (on occasions) in the court of 
exchequer above the barons. — Beatson, 

Lord High Treasurers of England. 



William the Conqueror. 
Odo, Earl of Kent. 

King Henry L 
GeofFry de Clinton. 

Ranulph Flambard, Bishop of Durham. 
Roger, Bishop of Salisbury. 
Nigellus, Bishop of Ely. 

King Henry IL 
Geoffrey Ridel, bishop of Ely. 
Richard de Ely. 



King Richard L 
Richard de Ely, continued. 
WiUiam de Ely. 

King John. 
William de Ely, continued. 
* * Dean of St. Paul's, London. 

Walter de Grey, bishop of Worcester. 
Geoffrey, archdeacon of Norwich. 

King Henry IIL 
John Ruthal. 



« Ip^°^? Erskine owed both his title and official dignity to his faithful attachment to Mr. Fox. When the 
lalents administration was in course of formation, Mr. Fox submitted to the king a list of such persons as 
his party considered ehgible for the chancellorship. At the head of this list was Mr. Erskine's name placed 
ar»?l^1^^''lf ^r^^^h ^^^^^"^ ^"^i regard, than from any expectation that his majesty would consent to his 
appointment. The king, however, did not make the anticipated objection : he merely said, " Well, if Mr. Erskine 
^^^X f chancellor remember he is your chancellor, not mine. Mr. Erskine was accordingly m.ide chancellor 



LORD HIGH TREASURERS. 



107 



1217. Eustace de Fauconbridge, afterwards bishop 
of London. 

— John de Fontibus, bishop of Ely. 

Walter Maclerk, or Lacklatine, bishop of 

Carlisle. 

— Hubert de Burgo. 

— Peter de Orial. 

[Under him, Robert Passelewe was chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, or deputy trea- 
surer.] 

1234. Hugh de PatteshuU. 

— Galfridus Templarius. 

— William HaverhuU, canon of St. Paul's, 

London. 

— Richard de Barking, abbot of Westminster. 

— Philip Lovel ; deposed by the barons in the 

year 1258. 

1258. John Crackhall, archdeacon of Bedford. 

1260. John, abbot of Peterborough ; made trea- 
surer by the barons. 

1263. Nicholas de Ely, archdeacon of Ely. 

1266. Thomas de Wymundham. 

1269. John de ChishuU, dean of St. Paul's Lon- 
don ; afterwards bishop of London. 

1271. Philip de Ely. 

King Edward I. 

1274. Joseph de Clancy. 

1275. Walter GifFard, bishop of Bath and Wells, 

afterwards archbishop of York. 

— Robert Burnel, bishop of Bath and Wells. 

1278. John de Clancy, prior of St. John's of Je- 

rusalem, in England. 

1279. Thomas Beck, archdeacon of Dorchester. 

1280. Richard de Warren, or de Ware, abbot of 

Westminster. 
1284. Walter Wenlock, abbot of Westminster. 
1286. Roger de Longespee, alias de Molend, bishop 

of Lichfield. 

— John de Kirkeby, archdeacon of Coventry, 

afterwards bishop of Ely. 
1290. William de Marchia, bishop of Bath and 
Wells. 

1293. Peter de Leicester, baron of the exchequer, 
who, with the two chamberlains of the 
exchequer, executed the office of trea- 
surer until the appointment of 

1295. Walter de Langton, bishop of Lichfield. 

[Under whom, Peter Willeby was chan- 
cellor of the exchequer.] 

King Edward II. 
1307. Walter Reynolds, bishop of Worcester, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. 
He had been schoolmaster to the king. 
[Under him John de Sandale was chan- 
cellor of the exchequer.] 

1311. John de Sandale. 

1312. Sir Walter de Norwich. 

1313. John de Sandale, bishop of Winchester; 

second time. 
1315. Sir Walter de Norwich ; second time. 

— John de Drokenesford, bishop of Bath and 

Wells. 

[Hervey de Stanton, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer]. 

1317. John Hotham, bishop of Ely. 

1318. William Walwaine. 

— John de Stratford, bishop of Winchester. 

1319. Walter Stapleton, bishop of Exeter. 

1321. Sir Walter de Norwich; third time. 

1322, Roger de Northburgh, bishop of Lichfield 

and Coventry. 
1324. Walter Stapleton, bishop of Exeter ; second 



time. He was beheaded in the year 
1326, by order of the queen regent, 
Isabella. 

1324. William de Melton, archbishop of York. 

King Edward HI. 

1326. John de Stratford, bishop of Winchester ; 

second time. 

— Adam de Orleton, bishop of Hereford. 

1327. Henry de Burghersh, bishop of Lincoln. 

1329. Thomas Charleton, or Charlton, bishop of 

Hereford. 

1330. Robert Woodhouse. 

1331. William Melton, archbishop of York ; se- 

cond time. 

1332. William Ayremin, bishop of Norwich. 

1333. Robert le Ailstone. 

1336. Henry de Burghersh, bishop of Lincoln; 
second time. 

13^. Richard de Bury, bishop of Durham. 

1338. William de la Zouch, or le Zouch, arch- 
bishop of York. 

1340. Sir Richard Sodington, knt. 

— Roger de Northburgh, bishop of Lichfield 

and Coventry ; second time. 

1342. Roger de Northburgh, bishop of Lichfield 

and Coventry ; third time. 

1343. William de Cusans. 

1345. William de Edington, bishop of Winches- 
ter. 

1358. John de Shepey, bishop of Rochester. 

1361. Simon Langham, bishop of Ely, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury, lord chancel- 
lor, and a cardinal. 

1863. John Barnet, bishop of Worcester. 

[Under him, William Ashby, archdeacon 
of Northampton, was chancellor of the 
exchequer. ] 

1371. Sir Richard Scrope, lord Scrope, of Bolton. 

1376. Sir Richard Ashton, knight, lord warden 

of the Cinque Ports. 

1377. Henry Wakefield, bishop of Worcester. 

King Richard II. 

1377. Henry Wakefield, bishop of Worcester, 

continued. 

1378. Thomas Brentingham, bishop of Exeter. 

1379. Richard Fitzalan, earl of Arundel and 

Surrey. 

1380. Thomas Brentingham, bishop of Exeter; 

second time. 

1389. John Gilbert, now bishop of St. David's; 

second time. 

1390. John Waltham, bishop of Salisbury. 
1395. Roger Walden,, secretary to the king, and 

treasurer of Calais. He was elected 
archbishop of Canterbury, but rejected 
by pope Innocent VII., who afterwards 
confirmed him bishop of London. 

1398. Guy de Mona, bishop of St. David's. 

— Sir William le Scrope, earl of Wiltshire : be- 

headed at Bristol in 1399, 1st Henry IV. 

King Henry IV. 

1399. Sir John Northbury, Knt. 

1403. Henry Bowet, bishop of Bath and Wells. 

1404. William, lord Roos or Ros. 

1405. Thomas, lord Furnival. 

1408. Nicholas Bubbewith, bishop of London. 

— Richard, lord Scrope, of Bolton ; second time. 

1409. John, lord Tiptoft. 

1410. Henry, lord Scrope, of Masham : beheaded 

at Southamptony 3rd Henry V. 1415. 



108 



STATESMEJSr AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



King Henry V. 
1413. Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey. 

1416. Sir Philip Lech, knt. 

1417. Henry, lord Fitz-Hugh. 

King Henry VI. 
1422. John Stafford, dean of Wells, made bishop 

of Bath and Wells, afterwards archbishop 

of Canterbury. 
1425. Walter, lord Hungerford. 
1431. John, lord Scrope, of Upsal. 
1434. Ralph, lord Cromwell. 
1444. Ralph de Sudley, lord Sudle3^ 

1447. Marmaduke Lumley, bishop of Carlisle. 

1448. James, lord Say and Sele : beheaded by the 

Kentish rebels under Jack Cade. 
1450. John, lord Beauchamp of Powyk. 
1452. John, lord Tiptoft, now earl of Worcester; 

second time. 

1455. James, earl of Wiltshire and Ormond. 

— Thomas Thorpe, chancellor of the exchequer. 

— Henry, viscount Bourchier. 

1456. John, earl of Shrewsbury : killed at the battle 

of Northampton^ 1460. 
1458. James, earl of Wiltshire and Ormond {se- 
cond time) : beheaded at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 1461. 

1460. Henry, viscount Bourchier, afterwards earl 
of Essex ; second time. 

King Edward IV. 
1460. Thomas Bourchier. 

1462. John, earl of Worcester (third time): be- 
headed in 1471. 

1464. Edmund, lord Grey of Ruthyn, created 

earl of Kent. 

1465. Sir Walter Blount, afterwards lord Montjoy. 

1466. Richard, earl Rivers : beheaded at North- 

ampton, 1469. 
1469. John Longstrother, prior of St. John's of 
Jerusalem, in England. 

— William Grey, bishop of Ely. 

1471. Henry, viscount Bourchier, now earl of 
Essex ; third time. 

King Edward V. 
1483. Henry, earl of Essex, continued. 

King Richard III. 

1483. Henrv, earl of Essex, continued. 

1484. Sir Richard Wood, knt. 

King Henry VII. 

1485. Sir Reginald Bray. 

— Sir William Stanley, knt., chancellor of the 

exchequer. 

1486. John, lord Dynham. 

1501. Thomas, earl of Surrey, afterwards duke of 
Norfolk. 

King Henry VIII. 

1509. The same, continued. 

* * Thomas Cromwell, afterwards earl of Essex ; 
and chancellor of the exchequer: be- 
headed 1540. 

1522. Thomas, earl of Surrey, son to the last 
lord treasurer ; beheaded 1547. 

King Edward VI. 

1547. Edward, earl of Hertford, afterwards duke 
of Somerset : beheaded 1551. 

1551. William, earl of Wiltshire, afterwards mar- 
quess of Winchester. 



Queen Mary. 
1553. William, marquess of Winchester, con- 
tinued. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
William, marquess of Winchester, con- 
tinued. 

Richard Sackville, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Sir William Mildmay, knt., chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Sir William Cecil, lord Burleigh : held 

this high office 27 years. 
Sir John Fortescue, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst, after- 
wards earl of Dorset : died April 19,1609. 



1558. 

1566, 
1572. 
1589. 
1599. 

1603. 



King James I. 
George, lord Hume, of Berwick, chancellor 
of the exchequer. 

— Sir Fulke Greville, knt., chancellor of the 

exchequer. 

1609. Robert, earl of Salisbury : died May 24,1612. 
1612. Henry, earl of Northampton, and others 

(first commissioners) by patent. June 16. 
1614. Thomas Egerton, lord Ellesmere, lord 

chancellor, and others, commissioners. 

Jan. 24. 

1614. Thomas, lord Howard de Walden and earl 
of Suffolk: resigned. 

1618. George Abbott, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and others, commissioners, by suc- 
cessive patents, dated July 21, 1618, and 
Jan. 25, 1619. 

1620. Sir Richard Weston, bart., afterwards earl 

of Portland, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

— Sir Henry Montagu, knt., lord chief jus- 

tice of the king's bench. Created baron 
Kimbolton, and viscount Mandeville; 
afterwards earl of Manchester. 

1621. Lionel, lord Cranfield, afterwards earl of 

Middlesex : sent to the Tower, and de- 
prived. May 14, 1624. 

1622. [Commission enabling the lord treasurer 

to act as chancellor of the exchequer. 
April 22.] 

1624. Sir Richard Weston, afterwards lord Wes- 
ton, chancellor and under treasurer of 
the exchequer; commissioner during 
the vacancy, by patent. May 25. 

1624. Sir James Ley, knt. and bart., lord chief 

justice of the king's bench. Created 
lord Ley, afterwards earl of Ivlarl- 
borough. 

King Charles I. 

1625. The same, continued. 

1628. Richard lord Weston, chancellor of the 
exchequer. Created in 1633 earl of 
Portland. 

— Francis Cottington, afterwards lord Cot- 
tington, chancellor of the exchequer. 
William Laud, archbishop of Canter- 
bury; 

Henry, earl of Manchester, lord privy 
seal ; 

1635. <{ Francis, lord Cottington, late chancellor 
of the exchequer ; 
Sir John Coke, knt., and 
Sir Francis Windebank, knt., principal 
secretaries of state ; commissioners. 



LORD HIGH TREASURERS. 



109 



1641. 



1643. 



1654. 



1636. William Juxon, bishop of London. 

Edward, lord Newburgh, in Fifeshire, 

chancellor of the exchequer. 
■■ Sir Edward Littleton, knt., lord keeper 

of the great seal ; 
Henry, earl of Manchester, lord privy 
seal ; 

Sir John Bankes, knt., lord chief justice 

of the common pleas ; 
Edward, lord Newburgh, chancellor of 

the exchequer ; and 
, Sir Henry Vane, knt., commissioners,' 
1642. Sir John Colepeper, knt., chancellor of the 
exchequer. 

— Sir Edward Hyde, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Francis, lord Cottington, by patent, dated 
Oct. 3.1 

Commonwealth. 
-Bulstrode Whitelocke, 
Sir Thomas Widdrington, and 
John Lisle, lords commissioners of the 

great seal. 
Henry Rolle, and 

Oliver St. John, lords chief justices of 

the upper and common bench ; 
Edward Montagu, 
William Sydenham, and 
William Matham ; commissioners of the 
- treasury, by patent, dated Aug. 3. 
[When Richard Cromwell became pro- 
tector, another commission issued.] 
Bulstrode, lord Whitelocke, constable of 

the castle of Windsor, 
Edward, lord Montagu, one of the 

generals at sea, 
William, lord Sydenham, governor of 

the Isle of Wight, and 
Sir Thomas Widdrington, chief baron of 
the exchequer, commissioners of the 
treasury, by patent, dated Sept. 18. 
[After Richard ceased to be protector, 
another commission issued under the 
" Keepers of the Liberty of England."] 
'John Disbrowe, 
William Sydenham, 
Richard Salwey, 
Cornelius Holland, 
John Clerke, and 

John Blackwell; commissioners of the 
treasury. 

King Charles II. 

Commissioners for executing the office of Lord 
High Treasurer of England* 
June 19, 1660. 

Sir Edward Hyde, knt. (lord chancellor) ; af- 
terwards earl of Clarendon. 

George Monk, general of the king's forces. 

Thomas, earl of Southampton. 

John, lord Robartes. 

Thomas, lord Colepeper. 

General Edward Montagu. 

Sir Edward Nicholas, knt., and sir William 
Morrice, knt., principal secretaries of state. 

Sept. 8, 1660. 
Thomas, earl of Southampton. 
Sir Robert Long, chancellor of the exchequer. 



May 24, 1667. , 

George, duke of Albemarle. 
Anthony, lord Ashley, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Sir Thomas Clifford, knt., comptroller of the 

household. 
Sir William Coventry, knt. 
Sir John Duncombe, knt. 

April 8, 1669. 
George, auke of Albemarle. 
Anthony, lord Ashley, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Sir Thomas Clifford, knt., comptroller of the 

household. 
Sir John Duncombe, knt. 

Nov. 28, 1672. 
Thomas, lord Clifford. 

Sir John Duncombe, knt., chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

June 24, 1673. 
Sir Thomas Osborne, baron Osborne, and 
viscount Latimer and Dunblain. Created 
earl of Danby, afterwards marquess of Car- 
marthen and duke of Leeds. 

March 26, 1679. 
Arthur, earl of Essex. 

Hon. Laurence Hyde, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir John Ernley,"knt. 
Sir Edward Deering, bart. 
Sidney Godolphin. 

Nov. 21, 1679. 
Hon. Laurence, afterwards lord, Hyde. 
Sir John Ernley, knt. chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir Edward Deering, bart. 
Sidney Godolphin. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 

July 9, 1684. 
Laurence, viscount Hyde, now earl of Ro- 
chester. 

Sir John Ernley, knt. chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 

July 26, 1684. 
Laurence, earl of Rochester. 
Sir John Ernley, knt. chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir Dudley North, knt. 
Henry Frederick Thynne. 

Sept. 9, 1684. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin. 

Sir John Ernley, knt. chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
Sir Dudley North, knt. 
Henry Frederick Thynne. 

King James II. 
Feb. 16, 1685. 
Laurence, earl of Rochester, lord treasurer. 

Jan. 4, 1687. 
John, lord Belasyse. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin. 
Henry, lord Dover. 

Sir John Ernley, knt. chancellor of the ex chequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 

1 Tne exchequer was removed to Oxford m 1643. Under the commonwealth the exchequer was managed 
by committees until Cromwell became protector, when, in 1654, he re-established the exchequer.— Mr. r/fo/wai'* 
Notes uf the Rolls Office. 



1658. <j 



1659. 



110 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



William and Mary. 
April 9, 1689. 
Charles, viscount Mordaunt. 
Henry, lord Delamere, chancellor of the exche- 
quer. 

Sidney, lord Godolphin. 
Sir Henry Capel, K.B., and 
Rt. hon. Richard Hampden. 

March 18, 1690. 
Sir John Lowther, bart. 

Rt. hon. Richard Hampden, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt., and 
Thomas Pelham. 

Nov. 15, 1690. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin. 
Sir John Lowther, bart. 

Rt. hon. Richard Hampden, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Thomas Pelham, and 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 

March 21, 1691. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin. 
Rt. hon. Richard Hampden, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
Charles Montagu, afterwards lord Hahfax. 
Sir Edward Seymour, bart. 

May 3, 1694. 

Sidney, lord Godolphin, and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
Charles Montagu. 
Sir William Trumbull, knt., and 
John Smith. 

King William III. 
Nov. 1, 1695. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin. 
Rt. hon. Charles Montagu, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt., and 
John Smith. 

May 2, 1696. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin. 

Rt. hon. Charles Montagu, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
John Smith, and 
Sir Thomas Littelton, bart. 

May 1, 1698. 
Rt. hon. Charles Montagu, and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
John Smith. 

Sir Thomas Littelton, bart., and 
Thomas Pelham. 

June 1, 1699. 
Rt. hon. Charles Montagu, and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Ford, earl of Tankerville. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
John Smith, and 

Hon. Henry Boyle, afterwards lord Carleton. 



Nov. 15, 1699. 
Ford, earl of Tankerville. 
Rt. hon. John Smith, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
Hon. Henry Boyle, and 
Richard Hill. 

Dec. 9, 1700. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin. 
John Smith, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
Hon. Henry Boyle, and 
Richard Hill. 

March 29, 1701. 

Sidney, lord Godolphin. 

Hon. Henry Boyle, chancellor of the exchequer. 

Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 

Richard Hill, and 

Thomas Pelham. 

Dec. 30, 1701. 
Charles, earl of Carlisle. 
Hon. Henry Boyle, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
Richard Hill, and 
Thomas Pelham. 

Queen Anne. 
May 8, 1702. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin, afterwards viscount 
Rial ton, and earl of Godolphin, lord treasurer : 
resigned 1710, 
Hon. Henry Boyle, chancellor of the exchequer. 

Union with Scotland. 
Lord High Treasurers of Great Britain, 
Aug. 10, 1710. 
John, earl Poulett. 

Rt. hon. Robert Harley, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
Hon. Henry Paget. 
Sir Thomas Mansell, bart., and 
Robert Benson. 

May 30, 1711. 
Robert, earl of Oxford and earl Mortimer, 

lord treasurer. 
Rt. hon. Robert Benson, afterwards lord Bingley, 

chancellor of the exchequer. 

July 30, 1714. 
Charles, duke of Shrewsbury. He was at the 
same time lord chamberlain of the household, 
and lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 



King George I. 

From the accession of George I. to the present time, 
the office of lord treasurer has been executed by 
commissioners ; the duke of Shrewsbury being 
the last personage who executed the office as an 
individual. 

Oct. 13, 1714. . 
Charles, earl of Halifax. 
Sir Richard Onslow, bart. chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
Sir William St. Quintin, bart. 
Edward Wortley Montagu, and 
Paul Methuen. 



LORD HIGH TREASURERS. 



Ill 



May 23, 1715. 

Charles, earl of Carlisle, in the room of the 
earl of Halifax, deceased. 

Sir Richard Onslow, bart., chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Sir William St. Quintin, bart. 

Edward Wortley Montagu, and 

Paul Methuen. 

Oct. 11, 1715. 
Rt. hon. Robert WALroLEj and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Daniel, lord Finch. 
Sir William St. Quintin, bart. 
Rt. hon. Paul Methuen, and 
Hon. Thomas Newport. 

June 25, 1716. 
Rt. hon. Robert Walpole ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Sir William St. Quintin, bart. 
Rt. hon. Paul Methuen. 

Hon. Thomas Newport, afterwards lord Tor- 

rington. 
Richard Edgcumbe. 

April 15, 1717. 
Rt. hon. James Stanhope; and chancellor of 

the exchequer ; afterwards earl Stanhope. 
Thomas, lord Torrington. 
John Wallop. 
George Baillie, and 

Thomas Micklethwaite ; afterwards viscount 
Micklethwaite, in Ireland. 

March 20, 1718. 
Charles, earl of Sunderland. 
Rt. hon. John Aislabie, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

John Wallop; afterwards viscount Lymington 

and earl of Portsmouth. 
George Baillie, and 
William Clayton. 

June 11, 1720. 
Charles, earl of Sunderland. 
Rt. hon. John Aislabie, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
George Baillie. 

Sir Charles Turner, bart., and 
Richard Edgcumbe. 

April 3, 1721. 
Rt. hon. Robert Walpole, bart. ; and chancellor 

of the exchequer. 
George Baillie. 
Sir Charles Turner, bart. 

Richard Edgcumbe ; afterwards lord Edgcumbe. 
Hon. Henry Pelham. 

March 23, 1724. 
Rt. hon. Robert Walpole ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Baillie, 
Sir Charles Turner, bart. 
Hon. Henry Pelham, and 
William Yonge. 

April 2, 1724. 
Rt. hon. Robert Walpole ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Baillie. 
Sir Charles Turner, bart. 
William Yonge, and 

George Dodington, afterwrjrds lord Melcombe. 



May 27, 1725. 
Sir Robert Walpole; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Sir Charles Turner, bart. 
Sir William Yonge, K. B. 
George Dodington, and 
Sir William Strickland, bart. 

King George II. 
July 28, 1727. 
Sir Robert Walpole; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Sir Charles Turner, bart. 
George Dodington. 
Sir George Oxenden, bart., and 
William Clayton. 

May 11, 1730. 

Sir Robert Walpole; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Dodington. 
Sir George Oxenden, bart. 

William Clayton, afterwards lord Sundon, of 

Ireland. 
Sir William Yonge, K. B. 

May 1735. 

Sir Robert Walpole; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Dodington. 
Sir George Oxenden, bart. 
William, lord Sundon ; and 
George, viscount Malpas. 

May 1736. 

Sir Robert Walpole; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Dodington. 
Sir George Oxenden, bart. 
William, lord Sundon, and 
Thomas Winnington. 

June 1737. 

Sir Robert W^alpole; and chancellor of the 
exchequer. 

George Dodington, afterwards lord Melcombe. 
William, lord Sundon. 
Thomas Winnington, and 
Giles Earle. 

1741. 

Sir Robert Walpole, and chancellor of the 

exchequer ; afterwards earl of Orford. 
Thomas Winnington. 
Giles Earle. 
George Treby, and 
Thomas Clutterbuck. 

Feb. 16, 1742. 
Spencer, earl of Wilmington, K. G. 
Rt. hon. Samuel Sandys, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
Hon. George Compton. 
Sir John Rushout, bart., and 
Philip Gibbons. 

Aug. 25, 1743. 
Rt. hon. Henry Pelham ; and chancellor of the 
exchequer. 

Hon. George Compton, afterwards earl of North- 
ampton, and 
Philip Gibbons. 



112 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Charles, earl of Middlesex, afterwards duke of 

Dorset, and 
Henry Fox, afterwards lord Holland. 

Dec. 25, 1744. 
Rt. hon. Henry Pelham ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Charles, earl of Middlesex. 
Henry Fox. 

Hon. Richard Arundel, and 
George Lyttelton. 

June 1746. 

Rt. hon. Henry Pelham, and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Charles, earl of Middlesex. 
George Lyttelton. 
Hon. Henry Bilson Legge ; and 
John Campbell. 

June 1747. 

Rt. hon. Henry Pelham, and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Lyttelton. 
Hon. Henry Bilson Legge. 
John Campbell, and 
Hon. George Grenville. 

May 1749. 

Rt. hon. Henry Pelham, and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Lyttelton. 
John Campbell. 
Hon. George Grenville, and 
Hon. Henry Vane ; afterwards earl of Darlington. 

March 18, 1754. 
Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle, 
lirst commissioner. 

April 6, 1754. 
Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle. 
Henry, earl of Darlington. 
Hon. H. B. Legge, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Thomas, viscount Dupplin, and 
Robert Nugent. 

Nov. 22, 1755. 
Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle. 
Henry, earl of Darlington. 
Sir George Lyttelton, bart., chancellor of the 
exchequer. 

Thomas, viscount Dupplin, afterAvards earl of 

Kinnoul, and 
Robert Nugent. 

Dec. 20, 1755. 

Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle. 
Sir George Lyttelton, bart. ; afterwards lord 

Lyttelton, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Robert Nugent. 

Percy Wyndham O'Bryen, and 
Henry Furnese. 

Nov. 16, 1756. 
William, duke of Devonshire. 
Hon. H. B. Legge, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Robert Nugent. 

William viscount Duncannon, and 
Hon. James Grenville. 

July 2, 1757. 
Tho.mas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle. 



Hon. H. B. Legge, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Robert Nugent. 

William, viscount Duncannon ; afterwards earl of 

Besborough, and 
Hon. James Grenville. 

June 2, 1759. 
Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle. 
Hon. H. B. Legge, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Robert Nugent, afterwards earl Nugent. 
Hon. James Grenville. 
Frederick North, lord North. 

Dec. 22, 1759. 
Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle. 
Hon. H. B. Legge, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Hon, James Grenville. 
Frederick, lord North, and 
James Oswald. 

King George III. 
March 12, 1761. 
Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle. 
William, viscount Barrington, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Frederick, lord North. 
James Oswald, and 
Gilbert Elliot. 

May 28, 1762. 
John, earl of Bute. 

Sir Francis Dashwood, bart., chancellor of the 

exchequer, afterwards lord le Despencer. 
Frederick, lord North. 
James Oswald, and 
Sir J ohn Turner, bart. 

April 15, 1763. 
Rt. Hon. George Grenville, and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Frederick, lord North. 
Sir John Turner, bart. 
Thomas Orby Hunter, and 
James Harris. 

July 10, 1765. ' 
Charles, marquess of Rockingham. 
William Dowdeswell, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Lord John Cavendish. 
Thomas Townshend, and 

George Onslow; afterwards lord Cranley, and 
lord Onslow. 

Aug. 2, 1766. 

Augustus-Henry, duke of Grafton. 
Hon. Charles Townshend, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Thomas Townshend, afterwards lord Sydney. 
George Onslow, and 
Pryse Campbell. 

Dec. 1, 1767. 
Augustus-Henry, duke of Grafton. 
Frederick, lord North; chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
George Onslow. 
Pryse Campbell, and 
Charles Jenkinson. 

Dec. 31, 1768. 
Augustus-Henry, duke of Grafton. 
Frederick, lord North, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 



LORD HIGH TREASURERS. 



113 



George Onslow. 
Charles Jenkinson, and 
Jeremiah Dyson. 

Feb. 6, 1770. 
Frederick, lord North ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Onslow. 

Charles Jenkinson, afterwards lord Hawkesbury. 
Jeremiah Dyson, and 
Charles Townshend. 

Jan. 9. 1773. 
Frederick, lord North ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Onslow. 
Jeremiah Dyson. 
Charles Townshend, and 
Hon. Charles-James Fox. 

March 12, 1774. 
Frederick, lord North ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George Onslow. 
Charles Townshend. 

Francis- Seymour Conway, lord viscount Beau- 
champ, and 
Charles Wolfran Comewall. 

June 5, 1777. 
Frederick, lord North ; and chancellor of the 
exchequer. 

George Onslow, now lord Onslow and Cranley. 
Francis, viscount Beauchamp. 
Charles Wolfran Cornewall, and 
William-Henry, lord Westcote. 

Dec. 14, 1777. 
Frederick, lord North ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Francis, viscount Beauchamp. 
Charles Wolfran Cornewall. 
William-Henry, lord Westcote, and 
Henry, viscount Palmerston. 

Sept. 6, 1780. 
Frederick, lord North ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
William-Henry, lord Westcote. 
Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Sir Richard Sutton, bart., and 
John Buller. 

March 27, 1782. 
Charles, marquess of Rockingham. 
Lord John Cavendish, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
George- John, viscount Althorpe. 
James Grenville, and 
Frederick Montagu. 

July 13, 1782. 
William, earl of Shelburne. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
James Grenville. 
Richard Jackson, and 
Edward James FJliot. 

April 4, 1783. 
William -Henry, duke of Portland. 
Lord John Cavendish, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 



Charles, earl of Surrey. 
Frederick Montagu, and 
Sir Grey Cooper, bart. 

Dec. 27, 1783. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
James marquess of Graham. 
John Buller. 

Edward James Elliot, and 
John Aubrey. 

Sept. 19, 1786. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
James, marquess of Graham. 
Hon. Edward James Elliot. 
Sir John Aubrey, bart., and 
Richard, earl of Mornington. 

April 8, 1789. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Hon. Edward James Elliot. 
Richard, earl of Mornington. 
John Jeffreys, viscount Bayham, and 
Henry, lord Apsley. 

June 20, 1791. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Hon. Edward George Elliot. 
Richard, earl of Mornington. 
John Jeffreys, viscount Bayham, and 
Richard Hopkins. 

June 22, 1793. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Richard, earl of Mornington. 
J ohn Jeffreys, viscount Bayham. 
Richard Hopkins, and 
Hon. John Thomas Townshend. 

May 7, 1794. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Richard, earl of Mornington. 
Richard Hopkins. 

Hon. John Thomas Townshend, and 
John Smyth. 

Feb. 3, 1797. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Richard, earl of Mornington. 
Hon. John Thomas Townshend. 
John Smyth, and 
Rt. hon. Sylvester Douglas. 

Aug. 3, 1797. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Hon. John Thomas Townshend. 
John Smyth. 

Rt. hon. Sylvester Douglas, and 
Charles Small Pybus. 

July 28, 1800. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
John Smyth. 

Rt. hon. S. Douglas (lord Glenbervie). 



114 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Charles Small Pybus, and 
Lord Granville Leveson Gower. 

Dec. 9, 1800. 
Et. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
John Smyth. 
Charles Small Pybus. 
Lord Granville Leveson Gower, and 
John Hiley Addington. 

March 21, 1801. 
Rt. hon. Henry Addington ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
John Smyth. 
Charles Small Pybus. 
Lord George Thynne, and 
Nathaniel Bond. 

July 5, 1802. 
Rt. hon. Henry Addington ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Charles Small Pybus. 
Lord George Thynne. 
Nathaniel Bond, and 
Hiley Addington. 

Nov. 13, 1803. 
Rt. hon. Henry Addington ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Charles Small Pybus. 
Lord George Thynne. 
Nathaniel Bond, and 
Hon. William Brodrick. 

Nov. 19, 1803. 
Rt. hon. Henry Addington ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Lord George Thynne. 
Nathaniel Bond. 
Hon. William Brodrick, and 
Edward Golding. 

May 16, 1804. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George, lord Lovaine. 
James Edward, viscount Fitzharris. 
Hon. Henry Wellesley, and 
Rt. hon. Charles Long. 

Aug. 6, 1804. 
Rt. hon. Willl4m Pitt ; and chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
George, lord Lovaine. 
James Edward, viscount Fitzharris. 
Rt. hon. Charles Long, and 
George, marquess of Blandford. 

Feb. 10, 1806. 
William, lord Grenville. 
Lord Henry Petty, chancellor of the exchequer. 
John-Charles, viscount Althorpe. 
William Wickham, and 
John Courtenay. 

March 31, 1807. 
William Henry, duke of Portland. 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

William-Henry, marquess of Titchfield. 



Hon. William Eliot, and 
William Sturges Bourne. 

Sept. 16, 1807. 
William- Henry, duke of Portland. 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Rt. hon. John Foster. 
Hon. William Eliot. 
William Sturges Bourne, and 
Hon. Richard Ryder. 

Dec. 2, 1807. 
William-Henry, duke of Portland. 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Rt. hon. John Foster. 
Hon. William Brodrick. 
Hon. William Eliot, and 
William Sturges Bourne. 

Dec. (2) 6, 1809. 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Rt. hon. John Foster. 
Hon. William Brodrick. 
Hon. William Eliot. 
John Otway, earl of Desart, and 
Snowden Bame. 

June (23) 26, 1810. 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Rt. hon. John Foster. 
Hon. William Brodrick. 
Hon. William Eliot. 
Snowden Barne, and 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 

Jan. 6, 1812.1 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval ; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Hon. William-Wellesley Pole. 
Hon. William Brodrick. 
Snowden Barne. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget, and 
Richard Wellesley. 

June 16, 1812. 
Robert, earl of Liverpool. 
Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Snowden Barne, and 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 

Oct. 5, 1812. 
Robert, earl of Liverpool. 
Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Rt. hon. William Vesey Fitzgerald. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 
Rt. hon. Frederick John Robinson, and 
James Brogden. 

Nov. 25, 1813. 
Robert, earl of Liverpool. 
Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Rt. hon. William Vesey Fitzgerald. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 
James Brogden, and 
William, viscount Lowther. 



1 This date is that of the patent, as are the dates in most cases. The date of the Gazette appointment is Dec. 
31, 1811 . Where we have not seen the patent, we adopt the date of the Gazette. 



LOED HIGH TREASUKERS. 



115 



Dec. 20, 1813. 

Robert, earl of Liverpool. 

Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Rt. hon. Willian Vesey Fitzgerald. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 
* William, viscount Lowther, and 
Charles Grant, jun. 

[Peculiar form, pursuant to the statute, 
66 George III., consolidating the revenue of 
Great Britain and Ireland. — Rolls' Records.'] 

Jan. 7, 1817. 
Robert, earl of Liverpool. 
Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 
William, viscount Lowther. 
Charles Grant, jun. 
Rt. hon. John Maxwell Barry, and 
William O'Dell. The two last from the Irish 

Treasury. 

March 25, 1819. 
Robert, earl of Liverpool. 
Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, chancellor of the 

exchequer, afterwards lord Bexley. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 
William, viscount Lowther. 
Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 
Rt. hon. John-Maxwell Barry, and 
Edmund Alexander Mac Naughten. 

Feb. 10, 1823. 
Robert, earl of Liverpool, K. G. 
Rt. hon. Frederick John Robinson, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 
William, viscount Lowther. 
Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 
Rt. hon. John Maxwell Barry, and 
Edmund- Alexander Mac Naughten. 

May 3, 1823. 
Robert, earl of Liverpool, K. G. 
Rt. hon. Frederick-John Robinson, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Hon. Berkeley Paget. 
William, viscount Lowther. 
Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset, and 
Edmund- Alex:ander Mac Naughten. 

June 13, 1826. 

Robert, earl of Liverpool, K. G. 

Rt. hon. Frederick John Robinson, chancellor of 
the exchequer. 

William, viscount Lowther. 

Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 

Francis-Nathaniel Conyngham, earl of Mount- 
Charles, and 

Edmund-Alexander Mac Naughten. 

April 30, 1827. 
Rt. hon. George Canning; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Francis-Nathaniel, earl of Mount-Charles. 
Lord Francis -Leveson Gower. 
Edward Granville, lord Eliot, and 
Edmund-Alexander Mac Naughten. 



July 31, 1827. 

Rt. hon. George Canning; and chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Francis-Nathaniel, earl of Moimt-Charles. 
Lord Francis Leveson Gower. 
Edward Granville, lord Eliot. 
Rt. hon. Maurice Fitzgerald, and 
Edmund- Alexander Mac Naughten. 

Sept. 8. 1827. 
Rt. hon. Frederick John Robinson, created 

viscount GODERICH. 

Rt. hon. John-Charles Herries, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Francis-Nathaniel, earl of Mount-Charles. 
Edward Granville, lord Eliot. 
Rt. hon. Maurice Fitzgerald, and 
Edmund-Alexander Mae Naughten. 

Jan. 26, 1828. 
Arthur, duke of Wellington, K. G. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulbum, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 
Francis-Nathaniel, earl of Mount-Charles. 
Edward Granville, lord Eliot, and 
Edmund-Alexander Mac Naughten. 

April 24, 1830. 
Arthur, duke of Wellington, K. G. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulbum, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 
Edward Granville, lord Eliot. 
George Bankes, and 
Edmund- Alexander Mac Naughten. 

July (24)1 1830. 
Arthur, duke of Wellington, K. G. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulbum, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 
Edward Granville, lord Eliot. 
George Bankes, and 
William Yates Peel. 

Nov. 24, 1830. 
Charles, earl Grey, K. G. 
John-Charles, viscount Althorpe, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
George, lord Nugent. 
Robert Vernon Smith. 
Francis Thornhill Baring, and 
Hon. George Ponsonby. 

Nov. 22 (26), 1882. 
Charles, earl Grey, K. G. 
John-Charles, viscount Althorpe, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Robert Vernon Smith. 
Francis Thornhill Baring. 
Hon. George Ponsonby, and 
Thomas-Francis Kennedy. 

April 9 (14), 1834. 
Charles, earl Grey, K. G. 
John-Charles, viscount Althorpe, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Robert Vernon Smith. 
Francis Thornhill Baring. 



1 Date of Gazette appointment, and date of patent. 
l2 



116 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Hon. George Ponsonby, and 
Robert Graham. 

June 20 (23), 1834. 
Charles, earl Grey, K. G. 
John-Charles, viscount Althorpe, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Robert Vernon Smith. 
Hon. George Ponsonby. 
Robert Graham, and 
Captain George Stevens Byng. 

July 18, 1834. 
William, viscount Melbourne. 
John-Charles, viscount Althorpe, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Robert Vernon Smith. 
Hon. George Ponsonby. 
Robert Graham, and 
Captain George Stevens Byng. 

Nov. 21 (22), 1834. 
Arthur, duke of Wellington, K. G. 
James, earl of Rosslyn, G.C.B. 
Edward, lord EUenborough. 
William, lord Maryborough. 
Rt. hon. Sir John Becket, bart., and 
Joseph Planta. 

[The duke of Wellington held the helm of 

state provisionally, waiting the return of 

sir Robert Peel from Italy. ] 

Dec. 26 (31), 1834. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart. ; and chancellor 

of the exchequer. 
Rt. hon. William Yates Peel. 
Henry Pel ham Clinton, earl of Lincoln. 
William -David Murray, viscount Stormont. 
Charles Ross, and 
William Ewart Gladstone. 

March 14 (19), 1835. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart., and chancellor 

of the exchequer. 
Rt. hon. William Yates Peel. 
Henry Pelham Clinton, earl of Lincoln. 
William-David, viscount Stormont. 
Charles Ross, and 
John MchoU. 

April 18 (20), 1835. 
William, viscount Melbourne. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Spring Rice, chancellor of the 
exchequer. 

Edward- Adolphus Seymour, lord Seymour. 
William-Henry Ord, and 
Robert Steuart. 

May 16, 1835. 
William, viscount Melbourne. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Spring Rice, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Edward-Adolphus, lord Seymour. 
William-Henry Ord. 
Robert Steuart, and 
Richard More O'Ferral. 

July 18, 1837. 
William, viscount Melbourne. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Spring Rice, chancellor of the 

exchequer ; afterwards lord Monteagle. 
Edward-Adolphus, lord Seymour. 
Robert Steuart. 



Richard More O'Ferral, and 
John Parker. 

Aug. 28 (30), 1839. 
William, viscount Melbourne. 
Rt. hon. Francis Thornhill Baring, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Edward-Adolphus, lord Seymour. 
Robert Steuart. 
John Parker, and 
Thomas Wyse, jun. 

Nov. 2, 1839. 

William, viscount Melbourne. 

Rt. hon. Francis Thornhill Baring, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Robert Steuart. 
John Parker. 
Thomas Wyse, jun., and 
Henry Tuffnell. 

May 26 (31), 1840. 
William, viscount Melbourne. 
Rt. hon. Francis Thornhill Baring, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
John Parker. 
Thomas Wyse, jun. 
Henry Tuffnell, and 
Edward Horsman. 

June 23 (25), 1841. 
William, viscount Melbourne. 
Rt. hon. Francis ThornhiU Baring, chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Thomas Wyse, jun. 
Henry Tuffiiell. 
Edward Horsman, and 
William-Francis Cowper. 

Sept. 6, 1841. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
James Milnes Gaskell. 
Henry Bingham Baring. 
Alexander Perceval, and 
Alexander Pringle. 

Sept. 16, 1841. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
James Milnes Gaskell. 
Henry Bingham Baring. 
Alexander Pringle, and 
John Young. 

May 21, 1844. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
James Milnes Gaskell. 
Henry Bingham Baring. 
Alexander Pringle, and 
Lord Arthur Lenox. 

April 26, 1845. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
James Milnes Gaskell. 
Henry Bingham Baring. 
Lord Arthur Lenox, and 
William Forbes Mackenzie. 



LORD HIGH TREASURERS. 



117 



Aug. 8, 1845. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
James Milnes Gaskell. 
Henry Bingham Baring. 
William Forbes Mackenzie, and 
"William Cripps. 

March 11, 1846. 
Rt. hon. sir Robert Peel, bart. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 
Henry Bingham Baring. 
William Cripps. 

Hon. Swynfen Thomas Carnegie, and 
Ralph Neville. 

July 6, 1846. 
Rt. hon. lord John Russell. 
Rt. hon. Charles Wood, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 
Hugh, viscount Ebrington, and 
The O'Conor Don. 



William Gibson Craig, and 
Henry Rich. 

Aug. 6, 1847. 
Rt. hon. lord John Russell. 
Rt. hon. sir Charles Wood, bart., chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
Hugh, viscount Ebrington. 
William Gibson Craig. 
Henry Rich, and 
Richard Montesquieu Bellew. 

Dec. 24, 1847. 
Rt. hon. lord John Russell. 
Rt. hon. sir Charles Wood, bart., chancellor of 

the exchequer. 
William Gibson Craig. 
Henry Rich. 

Richard Montesquieu Bellew, and 
Henry, earl of Shelburne : retired Aug. following. 
[On the retirement of lord Shelburne, the office 
of one of the junior lordships of the trea- 
sury was abolished.] 
The present (1850) Commissioners. 



Secretaries to the Treasury.^ 

(From the Accession of George HI.) 



} 



James West, and ) 
Samuel Martin j" 

1762. Samuel Martin, and \ 
Jeremiah Dyson. May 29. j 

1763. Jeremiah Dyson, and ) 
Charles Jenkinson. April 16. j 

1764. Charles Jenkinson, afterwards lord 

Hawkesbury. 
Thomas Whateley. April 5. 

1765. William Mellish. July 12. ) 
Charles Lowndes. j 

1765. Charles Lowndes, and \ 
Grey Cooper. July 30. j 

1766. Grey Cooper, and ) 
Thomas Bradshaw. Aug. 2. j" 

1770. Sir Grey Cooper, bart., and") 

John Robinson. Feb. 6. j 
1782. Henry Strachey, and 

Edward Chamberlain. March 29. 
1782. Henry Strachey, and \ 

Richard Burke. April, j 

1782. Thomas Orde, and 1 
George Rose. July 15. j" 

1783. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and) 
Richard Burke. April 5. j 

1783. George Rose, and 

Thomas Steele. Dec. 27. 
1791. George Rose, and ) 

Charles Long. j 

1801. John Hiley Addington, March 24; and") 
Nicholas Vansittart. April 9. j 

1802. Nicholas Vansittart, and \ 
John Sargent. j" 



4 



1804. William Huskisson, and ) 
William Sturges Bourne. May 21.) 

1806. Nicholas Vansittart, and ■) 
John King. Feb. 10. j 

1806. Nicholas Vansittart, and \ 
William Henry Fremantle. j 

1808. William Huskisson, and \ 
Hon. Henry Wellesley. j 

1809. Richard Wharton, and \ 
Charles Arbuthnot. j 

1814. Charles Arbuthnot, and } 
Stephen Rumbold Lushington. j 

1823. Stephen Rumbold Lushington, and \ 
John-Charles Herries. Feb. 7. j 

1827. Joseph Planta vice Lushington, ->| 

April 19, and 
Thomas Frankland Lewis, vice 
Herries. Sept. 4. 

1828. George-Robert Dawson, mce Lewis. Jan. 28. 
1830. Thomas Spring Rice, and 

Edward EUice, vice George-Robert f 
Dawson and Joseph Planta. ( 
Nov. 26. J 
1832. Charles Wood, vice Ellice. Aug. 10. 
1834. Francis Thornhill Baring, vice Spring 
Rice. June 6. 

1834. Sir George Clerk, bart. Dec. 19. 
Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle, 

bart. Dec. 20. 

1835. Francis Thornhill Baring, and ") 
Edward J. Stanley. April 21. j 

1839. Edward J. Stanley, and ) 
Robert Gordon. Sept. 6. j" 



] 



1 The time of the first appointment of a secretary to the Treasury Board is uncertain ; but it is presumed there 
must always have been a secretary or some officer acting in that capacity to the lord treasurer, or the board. It 
is probable that lord Burleigh was the first treasurer who used a secretary to notify his directions to the officers 
of the Receipt side of the Exchequer. Sir George DowHing was secretary in May 1667. In the reign of James II., 
when the earl of Rochester was treasurer, he had two secretaries, Henry Guy and Francis Gwyn, as is stated in 
a subsequent Treasury Minute Book (year 1711). In the Treasury Minute Book, 1695, No. 6, page 12, is the 
following memorandum : 

" This evening the king was graciously pleased to bestow on me the place of Secretary to the Treasury." 

" William Lowndes." 

From this it would appear that there was only one secretary in 1695, as Mr. Lowndes distinctly states the place of 
Secretary to have been bestowed upon him. It is quite certain there were two secretaries in 1714. — Thomas's 
Notes from the Rolls. 

I 3 



118 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



4 



1841. Richard More O'Ferral. June 9. 

Sir Denis Le Marchant. June 19. 

1844. Sir George Clerk, bart., and ) 
John Young. May 21. j 

1845. John Young, and | 
Edward Card well. Feb. 4. j 

1846. Henry Tufnell, and | 
John Parker. July 7. j 

1849. Rt. hon. William Good--| r^^^ present 

enough Hayter, vice I ^^gg^x g^cre- 
Parker. May 22. > taries of the 

1850. George-Cornewall Lewis, Tra^cnrv 

vice Tufnell. July 9. J ^^^^s^^^' 



Assistant Secretaries. 
(^From the institution of the Office.^ 

1805. George Harrison; afterwards sir George. 

Aug. 19. 
1826. William Hill. Feb. 24. 
1828. Hon. James Keith Stewart. July 4. 
1836. Alexander Young Spearman, afterwards 

sir Alexander, bart. Jan. 22. 
1840. Charles -Edward Trevelyan, now sir Charles 

Edward Trevelyan, K. C. B. Jan. 21. 

The PRESENT (1850) Under-Secretary 

of the Treasury. 



THE LORD PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL. 



The Lord President of the Council is the fourth great officer of State, and presides 
at the Privy Council. He is appointed to his high office by a declaration in council, 
and holds it durante bene placito. He manages the debates in council, proposes matters 
from the queen at the council board, and reports to her majesty the resolutions taken 
thereupon. The Lord President is ex officio president of all committees of the Privy 
Council, with the exception of the board of trade, which has a president of its own. 

The number of the Council was anciently about twelve, when it discharged the 
functions of state, now confined to the members of the cabinet ; but it had become of 
unwieldy amount before 1679, in which year it was remodelled upon Sir William 
Temple's plan, and reduced to thirty members : the number is now unlimited. The 
members are selected by her majesty, and ought to be distinguished by high office, 
wisdom, and political experience. The Council includes all the responsible ministers 
of the crown, some of the judges, many eminent diplomatists, and peers and com- 
moners whose services to the state and whose position in it, whether past or present, 
render them eligible to advise upon public affiiirs. A privy councillor, even though a 
commoner only, is styled " Right Honourable," and has precedence of all knights, 
baronets, and the younger sons of barons and viscounts. He is admitted a member 
upon taking the oath prescribed by law, and forthwith takes his seat at the board, 
according to his rank. The king, or, as now, the queen, in Council, has great powers : 
her majesty thus dissolves the parliament, or prorogues it, or calls a new one ; she 
has power to publish proclamations, to issue orders in council, and to carry into effect 
the provisions of various acts of parliament. It is the business of the Council to 
inquire into all treasons against the state, and commit the delinquents for trial. By 
law (9th Anne, cap. 16.) it is felony to strike a privy councillor in the execution of 
his office.^ 

Lord Presidents of the Council. 
{Since the Council was remodelled in 1679.) 



King Charles II. 
1679. Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury, April 21. 

Struck off the council Oct. 15, same year. 
1679. John, earl of Radnor. Oct. 24. 
1684. Laurence, earl of Rochester. Aug. 24. 



King James II. 
1685. George, marquess of Halifax. 
1685. Robert, earl of Sunderland, 



Feb. 18. 
Dec. 4. 



quess of Carmarthen and duke of Leeds. 
Feb. 14. 

1699. Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgo- 
mery. May 18. 

1701. Charles, duke of Somerset. June 28. 

Queen Anne. 

1702. Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgo- 
mery. July 14. 

1708. John, lord Somers. Nov. 25. 

1710. Laurence, earl of Rochester. Sept. 21. 

1711. John, duke of Normanby and Buckingham- 
shire. June 14. 

1 This act originated in the following remarkable occurrence : The marquis Guiscard, formerly a general in 
the French service, being under examination (March 8, 1711) before a committee of the council at the Cockpit, 
on a charge of corresponding with France, stabbed Mr. Harley, one of the council, and then chancellor of the 
exchequer, with a penknife. The blow was of such violence, that the knife, lighting upon a rib, snapped in two. 
The committee drew their swords, and wounded Guiscard in several parts of his body ; and he being forthwith 
sent to Newgate, died there on the 17th. Both houses of parliament addressed her majesty, expressing their 
deep concern for the attempt on Mr, Harley's life by a French Papist, and praying her majesty to cause all 
Papists to be removed from the cities of London and Westminster. On March 15, a proclamation to this effect 
was issued accordingly ; and immediately afterwards an act passed, making a like offence capital, without benefit 
of clergy — Memoirs of Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford. 



King William III. 
1689. Thomas, earl of Danby; afterwards mar- 



LORD PRESIDENTS. — PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



119 



King George I. 

1714. Daniel, earl of Nottingham. Sept. 22. 

1715. Lionel, earl of Dorset. Jan. 3. 

1716. William, duke of Devonshire. July 5. 

1717. Charles, earl of Sunderland. March 16. 

1719. Evelyn, duke of Kingston. Feb. 6. 

1720. Charles, viscount Townshend. June 11. 

1721. Henry, Lord Carleton. June 25. 

1725. William, duke of Devonshire. March 27. 

King George II. 
1727. Duke of Devonshire, continued. 
1730. Thomas, lord Trevor. May 8. 

— Spencer, earl of Wilmington. Dec. 31. 
1742. William, earl of Harrington. Feb. 13. 
1745. Lionel Cranfield, duke of Dorset. Jan. 3. 
1751. John, earl Granville. June 17. 

King George III. 
1760. Earl Granville, continued. 
1763. John, duke of Bedford. Sept. 9. 

1765. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham. 

July 12. 

1766. Robert, earl of Northington. July 30. 

1767. Granville Leveson, earl Gower. Dec. 22. 
1779. Henry, earl Bathurst. Nov. 24. 

1782. Charles, lord Camden. March 27. 

1783. David, viscount Stormont. April 2. 

— Granville Leveson, earl Gower. Dec. 19 : 

afterwards marquess of Stafford. 

1784. Charles, lord Camden, Dec. 1 : afterwards 

earl Camden. 
1794. William Wentworth, earl Fitzwilliam. 
July 11. 



1794. David, earl of Mansfield. Dec. 17. 

1796. John, earl of Chatham, Dec. 21. 

1801. William-Henry, duke of Portland. July 30. 

1805. Henry, viscount Sidmouth. Jan. 14. 

— John Jeffries, earl Camden. July 10. 

1806. William Wentworth, earl Fitzwilliam 

Feb. 19. 

— Henry, viscount Sidmouth, second time. 

Oct. 8. 

1807. John, earl Camden, afterwards marquess 

Camden, second time. March 26. 
1812. Henry, viscount Sidmouth, third time. 
April 8. 

— Dudley Ryder, earl of Harrowby. June 11. 

King George IV. 
1820. Earl of Harrowby, continued. 

1827. William-Henry, duke of Portland. Aug. 17. 

1828. Henry, earl Bathurst. Jan. 28. 

King William IV. 
1830. Earl Bathurst, continued. 

— Henry, marquess of Lansdowne. Nov. 22. 

1834. James, earl of Rosslyn. Dec. 15. 

1835. Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, second 

time. April 18. 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. Marquess of Lansdowne, continued. 
1841. James, lord Wharncliffe. Sept. 3. 
1846. Walter-Francis,dukeofBuccleuch. Jan. 21. 

— Henry, marquess of Lansdowne, third time. 

July 6. The now (1850) Lord President 
of the Council. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS OF ENGLAND. 

The names first on this Roll are those of the personages who formed the Privy 
Council of Charles II. at the period of the Commonwealth. They were sworn at 
Councils held at the Hague, at Breda, and elsewhere, and were not re-sworn at the 
Restoration. 



1649. 

Sir Richard Lane, lord keeper: sworn 

at the Hague, May 13. 
Francis, lord Cottington, lord treasurer ; 

same time and place. 
John, lord Culpeper (Colepeper), master 

of the rolls. 
Ralph, lord Hopton; same time and 

place. 

Sir Edward Hyde, knt., chancellor of 
the exchequer ; same time and place : 
afterwards lord chancellor, and earl 
of Clarendon. 

Robert Long, secretary to his majesty. 
May 14. 

Patrick, earl of Brentford (county of 
Middlesex) and Forth (in Scotland) : 
sworn at Peronne, July 12. 

Sir Edward Nicholas, knt., secretary of 
state to his late majesty: sworn at 
Jersey, Oct. 4. 

[He became secretary of state to Charles 
II., and was again sworn of the coun- 
cil in 1660.] 



1650. 

George, duke of Buckingham ; sworn at 

Breda, April 6. 
William, marquess of Newcastle ; same 

time and place. 
William, duke of Hamilton; sworn at 

Breda, April 7. 



The following privy councillors are named in 
the records ; but there is no mention of the 
times when they were sworn. 
H. R. H. James, duke of York. 
H. R. H. Henry, duke of Gloucester : 

died Sept. 13, 1660. 
James, marquess of Ormond. 
George, earl of Bristol. 
Murrough, earl of Inchiquin. 
Thomas, lord Wentworth. 
Henry, lord Jermyn, afterwards earl of 
St. Albans. 

The king first sat at a council held at Canter- 
bury, May 27, 1660, when were sworn: 

Sir George Monki, general of all the 

Cromwell had distrusted Monk at times, and once wrote him a letter, adding this significant postscript : 
" There be that tell me that there is a certain cunning fellow in Scotland, called George Monk, who is said to lie 
in wait there, to introduce Charles Stuart. I pray you use your diligence to apprehend him, and send him up to 
me." Charles said of him, " that the duke of Albemarle demeaned (deported) himself in such a manner to the 
prince he had obliged, as never to seem to overlook the services of general Monk. — r. C. Banks. 

I 4 



120 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEES. 



forces in the three kingdoms, and 
master of the horse: made duke of 
Albemarle, July 7, 1660. 

Thomas, earl of Southampton : lord high 
treasurer, Sept. following. 

Sir William Morrice, one of the prin- 
cipal secretaries of state: resigned 
Sept. 1668. 

Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, bart. Cre- 
ated lord Ashley, April, 1661 ; and 
baron Cooper and earl of Shaftesbury, 
April, 1772: lord high chancellor, 
Nov. same year. Struck from the list 
of privy councillors, May 19, 1674.^ 

The Restoration. 
1660. 

May 31. William, marquess of Hertford; sworn 
in London. 

— Algernon, earl of Northumberland. 

— Robert, earl of Leicester. 

— Thomas, earl of Berkshire. 

— Francis, lord Seymour. 

— Arthur Aimesley, afterwards baron An- 

nesley, in Ireland, and earl of Angle- 
sej^ in Wales. Sworn of the council, 
and obtained these honours in reward 
of his services for the king's restora- 
tion. 

[Suspended from the office of treasurer 
of the Navy, Nov. 1668. Made lord 
privy seal, April, 1673.] 
June 1. Montagu, earl of Lindsey^, lord great 
chamberlain of England. 

— Edward, earl of Manchester, lord cham- 

berlain. 

— George, earl of Norwich. 

— Henry, earl of St. Albans ^ (late lord J er- 

myn) : sat as a privy councillor be- 
fore being re-sworn, May 31, this 
year. Ambassador to France. 

— William, viscount Say and Sele 

— John, lord Robartes, of Truro; after- 

wards viscount Bodmin and earl of 
Radnor. Lord privy seal, May, 1661. 

— Denzill Holies. Created baron Holies, 

of Ifield, Sussex, April, 1661. Struck 
from the list, Jan. 7, 1675. 
June 2. Colonel Charles Howard. 



June 14. General Edward, lord Montagu, K. G. 

Created baron Montagu, of St. Neot's, 
viscount Hinchinbroke, and earl of 
Sandwich, July following. 
[Killed in the great sea-fight with the 
Dutch fleet off Southwold bay. May 
28, 1672.] 

July 6. Sir Frederick Cornwallis, knt. and bart., 
treasurer of the household. Created 
lord Cornwallis, April, 1661. 

— Sir Charles Berkeley, comptroller of the 

household. Created viscount Fitz- 

hardinge, 1665. 
July 11. Sir George Carteret, knt. and bart. 

vice chamberlain. 
Aug. 27. Henry, marquess of Dorchester 

1661. 

Jan. 2. John, earl of Lauderdale, secretary of 
state for Scotland; afterwards duke 
of Lauderdale. 

June 28. William, earl of Glencairn, lord chan- 
cellor of Scotland. 

Sept. 13. Richard, lord Vaughan and earl of Car 
berry, lord president of Wales. 

1662. 

Jan. 29. Christopher, lord Hatton, made governor 
of Jersey. 

— Sir Hugh Pollard, comptroller of the 

household. 

April 3. Jerome, earl of Portland : died shortly 
after. 

— Sir William Compton, knt. 

April 28. His highness prince Rupert : admitted 
of the council without being sworn, 
as a near relative of the king's. 

— George, duke of Buckingham.'* 

— John, earl of Middleton, H. M. commis- 

sioner for Scotland. 
Oct. 15. Sir Henry Bennet, knt., secretary of 
state. Created lord Arlington, March, 
1663 ; and earl of Arlington ^, April, 
1672. 

1663. 

April 3. Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, lord bishop of Lon- 
don. Translated to Canterbury, Aug. 
1663. 



1 Lord Shaftesbury violently opposed the Test bill brought into the House of Lords by the earl of Danby, on 
which account the parliament was prorogued, and did not sit again for fifteen months ; and in the next session he 
contended that the parliament ought to be considered as dissolved. For this he was sent to the Tower, with some 
other lords, and continued in confinement upwards of a year. The king once said to him, " I believe, Shaftes- 
bury, thou art the wickedest fellow in my dominions;" when he gravely observed, " May it please your majesty, 
of a subject, I verily believe I am." He was a man of great talents, elegant manners, and strong parts, but 
somewhat licentious : at this retort upon the king, his majesty laughed heartily. He was resworn of the council, 
April 21, 1679 ; but was again struck out, Oct. 15, same year, and a second time committed to the Tower. 

2 The valiant Lindsey was in the fatal battle of Edgehill, in which he commanded the king's royal regiment of 
guards ; and being near his father, and seeing him wounded and taken prisoner, his filial piety induced him to 
surrender himself voluntarily to a commander of horse on the rebel's side, so that he might attend him. Being 
afterwards exchanged, he adhered to the king's service, and aided, ultimately, in the Restoration. It was not 
merely as an hereditary officer, but because of his loyalty and worth, that Charles swore him of his council. — 
/. C. Banks. 

3 He was a man of no great genius, who had raised himself a considerable fortune from nothing ; and by losing 
largely at play, and keeping a great table, he made it appear more than it really was. He is considered to have 
been privately married to the dowager queen Henrietta- Maria, widow of king Charles I Grammont. 

^ This nobleman (son of the celebrated George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, who was murdered by Felton in 
1628) held several employments about the person of the king, but lost them all in 1666, being detected in a 
conspiracy against the government, and a proclamation was issued for his apprehension. He was, however, 
afterwards restored to favour, and was re-admitted to the council-table, from which he had been debarred. 

One of the five ministers of Charles, denominated from their initials the " Cabal.'' " A proud man, whose 
parts were solid though not quick, and who had the art of governing the king's temper, and of managing it above 
all the men of the time." — Burnet. " He supplied the place of extensive talents by an artful display of such 
as he possessed ; and the deficiency of his integrity was forgiven in the decency of his dishonesty. 'i"oo weak 
not to be superstitious, he yet had too much sense to acknowledge his leaning to the Church of Rome." — 
Macpherson. 



PRIVY COUNCILLOES. 



121 



April 6. Dr. William Juxon, lord archbishop of 
Canterbury : died June, 1663. 

June 17. John, lord Berkeley, of Stratton. Lord 
lieutenant of Ireland in 1670. 

July 26. John, earl of Bath, groom of the stole. 

Oct. 2. Sir Richard Fanshawe, knt. and bart., 
one of the masters of requests. 

Nov. 4. John, earl of Rothes, H. M. high com- 
missioner for Scotland. 

Dec. 9. Dr. Humphrey Henchman, lord bishop 
of London. 

1664. 

Aug. 17. Sir Thomas Ingram, knt., chancellor of 
the duchy of Lancaster. 

1665. 

May 26. Roger, earl of Orrery, late lord justice 
in Ireland. 

1666. 

April 11. William, earl of Craven. 

June 13. Thomas, earl of Ossory. 

Dec. 5. Sir Thomas Clifford, knt., comptroller of 
the household. Created lord Clifford, 
April 1672 ; and made lord high trea- 
surer, 28th same month. 

Dec. 12. Robert, earl of Lindsey, lord great 
chamberlain of England. 

1667. 

Feb. 13. John, earl of Bridgewater. 

May 22. Sir John Duncombe, knt., a commis- 
sioner of the treasury, and chancellor 
of the exchequer. 

Sept. 4. Sir Orlando Bridgeman : sworn a privy 
councillor and lord keeper, at the same 
time. 

1668. 

July 1. Francis, lord Newport, comptroller of 
the household. Created viscount 
NcAvport March 1675 ; and earl of 
Bradford, May 1694. 

Sept. 29. Sir John Trevor, knt., secretary of state. 

1670. 

June 10. Sir Thomas Chicheley, knt., master- 
general of the ordnance. 

June 15. Henry, earl of Ogle. Became duke of 
Newcastle, succeeding his father, in 
1676. 

1671. 

Jan. 5. Aubrey de Vere, earl of Oxford. 
April 29. James, duke of Monmouth. 

[Natural son to the king. See year 
1679.] 

1672. 

Jan. 2. Ralph Montagu, master of the great 
wardrobe. 

Feb. 14. Sir Robert Carr, knt. and bart., chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

Apr. 17. Henry, marquess of Worcester, lord pre- 
sident of Wales. 



April 17. Arthm-, earl of Essex, appointed lord 
lieutenant of Ireland. See year 1679. 

— Thomas, viscount Fauconberg. 

— George, viscount Halifax. Struck from 

the list, Jan. 7, 1675. 

May 3. Sir Thomas Osborne, treasurer of the 
navy. Created viscount Latimer, 
Aug. 1673 ; earl of Danby, June, 1674 ; 
made lord high treasurer of England. 
Created marquess of Carmarthen, 
April, 1689; and duke of Leeds, May 
1694. ^ 

July 3. Henry Coventry, one of the principal 
secretaries of state. 

— Sir Robert Long, bart. 

Nov. 29. William, lord Maynard, comptroller of 
the household. 

1673. 

March 7. James, earl of Northampton. 

April 9. Edward Seymour (afterwards sir Ed- 
ward, bart.), speaker of the house of 
commons. 

Nov. 12. Sir Heneage Finch, bart., lord keeper of 
the great seal. Created lord Finch, 
of Daventry, Jan. 1673-4 ; and earl of 
Nottingham, May 1681. 
[Made lord high chancellor of England, 
Dec. 1675.] 

1674. 

May 27. Robert, earl of Sunderland. Sworn a 
principal secretary of state in 1679. 

June 3. Alexander, earl of Kincardine. Struck 
from the list of privy councillors^ Aug, 
1676. 

July 10. Henry, earl of Peterborough. 
Sept. 11. Sir Joseph Williamson, knt., secretary 
of state. 

Dec. 4. William, earl of Strafford. 

1675. 

June 23. Giles Strangways. 

July 21. Dr. George Morley, lord bishop of Win- 
chester. 

Oct. 15. Christopher, duke of Albemarle. 
1676. 

Jan. 21. Dr. Henry Compton, lord bishop of 
London. 

April 26. Dr. Nathaniel, lord Crew, bishop of 
Durham. 

May 10. Sir John Ernie (Ernley), chancellor of 
the exchequer. 

1678 

Feb. 6. Dr. William Sancroft, lord archbishop 

of Canterbury. 
July 17. George, lord Berkeley. 
Oct. 10. Robert, earl of Ailesbury. 

1679. 

Jan. 3. James, earl of Salisbury. 
Jan. 8. Henry, earl of Clarendon. Lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland in 1685. 



On the 21st day of April, 1679, His Majesty was pleased to dissolve the whole of 
the Privy Council, and in their room to choose Thirty Privy Councillors, principally 
selected out of the old List. This number was not, in future, to be exceeded, with 
the exception only of such personages as were to be privy councillors ex officio, as tho 
Lord President, the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Princes of the Blood, &c.. 



122 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



These and such officers and persons were not to be 
ably with this order the following were sworn at 
mentioned day : — 

1679. 



reckoned in the Thirty. Conform- 
the Council Board on the above- 



His Highness Prince Rupert. 
April 21. Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury, as lord 
president. His name again struck out 
of the list Oct. 15 following. 

— Heneage, lord Finch, lord chancellor of 

England. 

— Arthur, earl of Anglesey, lord privy 

seal. 

— Christopher, duke of Albemarle, captain 

of the Life Guards. 

— James, duke of Monmouth, master of 

the horse. 

[Beheaded on Tower-hill for rebellion 
against king James, in 1685.] 

— Charles, marquess of Winchester. 

— Henry, earl of Arlington, lord chamber- 

lain of the household. 

— James, earl of Salisbury. Struck from 

the list, Jan. 18, 1681. 

— John, earl of Bridgewater. 

— Robert, earl of Sunderland, secretary of 

state. Struck out Jan. 24, 1681. Re- 
admitted Sept. 20, 1682 ; and became 
lord president, Dec. 4, 1685. 

— Arthur, earl of Essex, first lord of the 

treasury. Struck from the list, Jan. 
24, 1681.1 

— John, earl of Bath, groom of the stole. 

— George, viscount Halifax. Created earl 

of Halifax, July, 1679 ; and marquess 
of Halifax, Aug. 1682. Declared lord 
president in the next reign. Struck 
from the list, Oct. 21, 1685. 

— Dr. Henry Compton, lord bishop of 

London. Struck out, Dec. 23, 1685. 

— John, lord Robartes. Created viscount 

Bodmin and earl of Radnor, July fol- 
lowing. Declared lord president, Oct. 
24, 1679.2 

— William, lord Russell. 

[This nobleman was unjustly committed 
to the Tower on a charge of conspiracy 
against the king and government: 
he was tried and condemned, and was 
beheaded in Lincoln's-Inn fields, July 
21, 1683.3] 

— William, lord Cavendish.2 

— Henry Coventry, one of the secretaries 

of state. 

— Sir Francis North, knt., lord chief justice 

of the common pleas. Made lord 
keeper, Dec. 1682. 

— Sir Henry Capel, K. B.2, first commis- 

sioner of the admiralty. 



April 21. Sir John Ernie (Ernley), knt., chancellor 
of the exchequer. 

— Sir Thomas Chicheley, knt., master of 

the ordnance. Struck from the list, 
March 2, 1687. 

— Sir William Temple, bart. Struck from 

the list, Jan. 24, 1681. 

— Sir Edward Seymour, bart. 

— Henry Powle^: afterwards master of 

the rolls. 



April 27. 
June 24. 
Nov. 19. 



1679. 

April 22. Dr. William Sancroft, lord archbishop 
of Canterbury.4 

— John, duke of Lauderdale, secretary of 

state for Scotland. 

— Henry, marquess of Worcester. Created 

duke of Beaufort, Nov. 1682. 

— Thomas, viscount Fauconberg. Created 
earl of Fauconberg, April 1689. 

Henry, duke of Newcastle. 
Denzill, lord Holies. 

Laurence Hyde, first commissioner of 
the treasury. Created earl of Ro- 
chester, Nov. 1682. Declared lord 
president, Aug. 24, 1684. Lord high 
treasurer in the next reign. 

1680. 

Feb. 4. Daniel Finch, first commissioner of the 
admiralty. Succeeded as earl of Not- 
tingham; and afterwards as earl of 
Winchilsea. Struck from the council, 
March 12, 1695, William's reign. 

— Sidney Godolphin, a commissioner of the 

treasury. Created lord Godolphin, 
Sept. 1684, and made first lord of the 
treasur}^ 

Feb. 11. Sir Leoline Jenkins, knt., judge of the 
high court of admiralty, made secre- 
tary of state. 
Thomas, earl of Ossory, late lord justice 

in Ireland ; admiral. 
Henry, earl of Clarendon. Appointed 
lord lieutenant of Ireland in 1685. 
Oct. 15. Sir Robert Carr, knt. and bart., chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

1681. 

Jan. 26. Aubrey, earl of Oxford. 

— Philip, earl of Chesterfield, lord warden 

and chief justice in eyre on this side 
Trent. 

— Robert, earl of Ailesbury. Afterwards 

lord chamberlain to king James II. 



April 16. 
May 26. 



1 The earl of Essex was accused, with many others, of being concerned in the Fanatic plot, and was committed 
to the Tower, where (July 13, 1683) he was found with his throat cut ; not without great suspicion of his having 
been murdered. The king and the duke of York were strongly suspected, as they were at the Tower that 
morning. — Charles Home. 

2 Sir Henry Capel, with lords Cavendish, Russell, and Mr. Powle, prayed his majesty ( Jan 31, 1680) to remove 
them from the council; to this request the king assented, and they were removed accordingly. —jBre^. Chron. 
There is no note of the circumstance in the Council books. — Editor. 

3 The attainder of this illustrious and ill-fated lord was reversed, 1 William III. and Mary II. 1689, and his 
death was then deemed a murder. The patent conferring the dukedom of Bedford upon Lord Russell's father 
states, ' the desire of their majesties to record their sense of the consummate virtue of the son, an ornament of 
the age, whose name can never be forgotten, so long as men preserve esteem for greatness of mind, and a love of 
country, constant even unto death." 

4 Dr. Sancroft was deprived (Feb. 1, 1691) as were Dr. Thomas Kenn, bishop of Bath and Wells, Dr. Francis 
r^i^^u x^r2- ^1^.' I^obert Frampton, bishop of Gloucester, Dr. William Lloyd, bishop of Norwich, and 
queen Sy ^ Peterborough, all on the same day, for not taking the oaths to king William and 



PKIVY COUNCILLORS. 



123 



Feb. 2. Edward, earl of Conway, secretary of 
state. 

Mar. 9. William, earl of Craven. 

1682. 

Mar. 3. George Legge, admiral. Created lord 
Dartmouth, Nov. 2, following. 

May 23. James, duke of Ormond, lord steward. 
Lord lieutenant of Ireland. 

June 29. Robert, earl of Lindsey, lord great cham- 
berlain of England. 

Dec. 22. Sir Francis Pemberton, knt., lord chief 
justice of England. Struck from the 
list, Oct. 24, 1683. 

1683. 

Feb. 28. Theophilus, earl of Huntingdon. 

— Henry, earl of Peterborough. 

Oct. 4. Sir George Jeffreys, knt., lord chief jus- 
tice of the king's bench. Created lord 
Jeffreys, and made lord high chan- 
cellor, Oct. 1685. 

1684. 

July 11. Alexander, earl of Moray, lord privy 
seal of Scotland. 

— Charles, earl of Middleton, made secre- 

tary of state. 

1685. 

Jan. 7. John Drummond. 

King James II.i 
1685. 

Feb. 9. George, prince of Denmark : intro- 
duced to the council ; not sworn. 
[Consort of the princess Anne. Created 
lord Wokingham (county of Berks.), 
earl of Kendal (Westmorland), and 
duke of Cumberland, April 9, 1689.] 

Mar. 27. William, duke of Queensberry, lord high 
commissioner for Scotland. 

— James, earl of Perth, lord chancellor of 

Scotland. 

May 15. Henry, duke of Newcastle. 

July 24. John, earl of Mulgrave, lord chamber- 
lain, Oct. this year. 

July 31. George, earl Berkeley. 

Oct. 16. Sir Edward Herbert, knt., lord chief 
justice of the king's bench. 

Oct. 21. Richard, viscount Preston. 

Oct. 30. Thomas, earl of Plymouth. 

1686. 

Jan. 8. Dr. Nathaniel, lord Crewe, bishop of 
Durham: re-sworn. 

July 17. William, earl of Powis. Created mar- 
quess of Powis the next year. 
[He was created marquess of Mont- 
gomery and duke of Powis by the 
king after his abdication, but these 
titles were never allowed in England. 
— Nicolas.'] 



July 17. Henry, lord Arundel, of Wardour: sworn 
lord privy seal, March, 1687. 

— John, lord Belasyse. 

— Henry, lord Dover. 

Oct. 8. Richard, earl of Tyrconnell, lord lieute- 
nant of Ireland. 

— Roger, earl of Castlemaine, ambassador 

to the pope. 
Oct. 14. William, duke of Hamilton. 

— Sir Nicholas Butler, knt. 
Nov. 11. Edward Petre. 

[Many of the lords and gentlemen sworn 
of the council in this reign were Ro- 
man Catholics. 

William and Mary. 

Upon the accession of their majesties, the following 
lords and others were sworn of the Privy Council. 

1689. 

Feb. 14. Henry, duke of Norfolk, earl marshal 
and hereditary marshal of England. 

— Charles, marquess of Winchester. Cre- 

ated duke of Bolton, April, this year. 

— George, marquess of Halifax, made lord 

privy seal on Feb. 19. Struck from 
the list, June 23, 1692. 
— ' Robert, earl of Lindsey, lord great 
chamberlain of England. 

— William, earl of Devonshire, lord stew- 

ard. Created marquess of Hartington 
and duke of Devonshire, May, 1694. 

— Charles, earl of Dorset, lord chamberlain. 

— Aubrey, earl of Oxford. 

— Charles, earl of Shewsbury, secretary of 

state. Struck out of the list, June 23, 
1692. 

— William, earl of Bedford. Created mar- 

quess of Tavistock and duke of Bed- 
ford, May 12, 1694. 

— Charles, earl of Macclesfield. 

— Thomas, viscount Fauconberg. 

— Charles, viscount Mordaunt, first com- 

missioner of the treasury, April fol- 
lowing. Created earl of Monmouth, 
same time. Struck from the list, Jan. 
21, 1696. 

— Francis, viscount Newport, treasurer of 

the household. Created earl of Brad- 
ford, May, 1694. 

— Richard, lord Lumley (viscount Lumley, 

in Ireland), gentleman of the bed- 
chamber. Created viscount Lumley, 
of England, April following ; and earl 
of Scarborough, April 1690. 

— Dr. Henry Compton, lord bishop of 

London, dean of the chapel. 

— Ralph, lord Montagu, master of the great 

wardrobe. Created viscount Mon- 
thermer and earl of Montagu, April, 
this year. Duke of Montagu, April, 
1705. 

— Henry, lord de la Mere, chancellor of 

the exchequer. Created earl of War- 
rington, April, 1690. 



1 That excellent body of men, the Society of Friends, justly prided themselves on their address to James, at 
the commencement of his reign. It conveyed a warning and admonition suggested by the character of the Stuart 
family. On the 6th of March, 1685, coming in considerable number to the king, to congratulate his majesty on 
his accession to the throne, they said, firmly and pointedly: " Sire, we are come to testify our sorrow for the 
death of our good friend Charles, and our joy at thy being made our governor. We are told thou art not of the 
persuasion of the Church of England, any more than we; and therefore we hope that thou wilt grant unto us the 
same liberty which thou allowest thyself.'' When James's intolerance hurled him from the throne, this address 
recurred to the minds of the kingdom at large. 



124 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Feb. 14. John, lord Churchill, general. Created 
earl of Marlborough, April, 1689. 
Struck from the council, June 23, 1692.1 
[Afterwards created marquess of Bland- 
ford and duke of Marlborough. The 
illustrious captain-general of queen 
Anne's wars.] See year 1698. 

— William Bentinck, groom of the stole. 

Created lord Cirencester, viscount 
Woodstock, and earl of Portland, 
April, 1689. 

— Henry Sydney, gentleman of the bed- 

chamber. Created lord and viscount 
Sydney, April, 1689. Lord lieutenant 
of Ireland in 1692. Earl of Romney, 
May, 1694. 

— Sir Robert Howard, knt. 

— Sir Henry Capel, commissioner of the 

treasury. Created lord Capel, April, 
1692. Afterwards lord deputy in Ire- 
land. 

— Henry Powle, speaker of the house of 

commons. 

— Edward Russell, admiral. First lord of 

the admiralty, May, 1694. Created 
lord Shingay, viscount Barfleur, and 
earl of Orford, May, 1697. 

— Richard Hampden, a commissioner of 

the treasury. 

— Hugh Boscawen. Created lord Boscawen 

and viscount Falmouth, June, 1720. 



Feb. 19. Thomas Wharton, afterward lord Whar- 
ton, comptroller of the household. 
Created viscount Winchendon and earl 
of Wharton, Dec. 1706 ; and viscount 
Malmesbury and marquess of Whar- 
ton, Jan. 1715. Privy seal in 1714. 



Feb. 19. [In 1709, he was appointed lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, of which kingdom 
he became baron of Trim, earl of Rath- 
farnham, and marquess of Catherlogh, 
same time with his English honours.] 
— Sir John Lowther, of Lowther, bart., 
vice chamberlain. Created baron Low- 
ther and viscount Lonsdale, May, 
1696. Lord privy seal, May, 1699. 

Feb. 26. Arthur Herbert, first commissioner of 
the admiralty. Created lord Torbay 
and earl of Torrington 2, May follow- 
ing. Struck from the list, June 23, 
1692. 

Mar. 8. William Harbord. Ambassador to Tur- 
key in 1692. 

April 25. Frederick, duke of Schomberg, field- 
marshal, master-general of the ord- 
nance. 

Sept. 26. Sir John Holt, bart., lord chief justice 
of the king's bench. 

Oct. 14. Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery. First commissioner of the 
admiralty, Jan. 1690 ; lord privy seal, 
March, 1692 ; lord president, May 18, 
1699; and again lord president, July 
9, 1702. 

1690. 

Feb. 13. Sir Henry Goodricke, bart., lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance. 

June 3. Charles, marquess of Winchester. Created 
duke of Bolton, Feb. 1698. 

Nov. 20. Sidney, lord Godolphin, first commis- 
sioner of the treasury. Lord treasurer 
in 1702. Created viscount Rialton 
and earl of Godolphin 3, Dec. 1706. 



1 The earl was deprived of all his offices and employments at the same time ; yet the cause of this injustice has 
never been satisfactorily explained. It was accounted for, at the period, by his supposed revelation of some of the 
king's private determinations, which had reached the ears of his enemies, and he was suspected, also, of plotting 
to restore the exiled monarch. The countess of Marlborough, too, was forbidden the court, and the princess of 
Denmark was commanded to dismiss her from her family. This the princess refused to do, and a serious quarrel 
ensued between her and the queen, in consequence of which the former retired to Sion House. 

2 This nobleman lost the king's favour after the battle off Beachy Head, in which he commanded the combined 
English and Dutch fleets, defeated by the French. He was removed from his posts, confined in the Tower, and 
afterwards tried on board the Kenf, ship of the line, for cowardice and treachery, and, though acquitted, his 
majesty took his commission from him the next day. 

3 The correspondence between his sovereign, Queen Anne, and this distinguished statesman when (afterwards) 
first minister, is so very curious and interesting, we are induced to transcribe a portion of it here: — 

" St. James's, April 13, 1710. 

" I am sorry to find by your Letter you are so much in the Spleen, as to think you cannot for the future contri- 
bute anything towards my Quiet but your Wishes ; however, I will still hope you will use your Endeavours. 
Never was there more Occasion than now ; for by ail one hears and sees every Day, as things are at present, one 
can expect nothing but Confusion. I am sure, for my part, I shall be ready to join with all my Friends in every- 
thing that is reasonable to allay the Heat and Ferment of this poor Nation. Since you went to Newmarket I 
have received several Assurances from the Duke of Shrewsbury of his readiness to serve me upon all Occasions, 
and his Willingness to come into my Service, which Offer I was very glad to Accept, having a very good Opinion 
of him, and believing he may be of great Use, in these troublesome Times. For these Reasons I have resolved 
to part with the Duke of Kent, who I hope will be easy in these matters by being made a Duke ; and I hope this 
Change may meet with your Approbation, which I wish I may ever have in all my Actions I have not yet de- 
clared my Intentions of giving the Staff and the Key to the Duke of Shrewsbury, because I would be the first that 
should Acquaint you with it. 

" To the Earl of Godolphin." ANNE." 

The following is the Earl's answer to the Queen : 

" Newmarket, April 15, 1710. 

" May it please your Majesty, 

"I have the honour of your Majesty's Letter of the Thirteenth, by which I have the Grief to find you are pleased 
to call that spleen in my former Letter, which was only a true Impulse and Conviction of Mind that Your Majesty 
is suffering your self to be guided to your own Ruin and Destruction as fast as it is possible for those to compass 
it, to whom you seem so much to hearken. 

" 1 am not therefore so much surprised as concerned at the Resolution which Your Majesty says you have taken, 
of bringing in the Duke of Shrewsbury ; for when people begin to be sensible, it would be difficult to persuade 
Your Majesty to dissolve a Parliament,' which for Two Winters had given you above 6 Millions a Year for the 
Support of the War upon which your Crown depends, and even while that War is still subsisting they have had 
the Cunning to contrive this Proposal to Your Majesty, which in its consequence will certainly put you under a 
Necessity of breaking the Parliament, though contrary, I yet believe, to your own inclination. 

" I beg Your Majesty to be persuaded I do not say this out of the least Prejudice to the Duke of Shrewsbury. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



125 



1691. 

Jan. 1. Sir John Trevor, knt., speaker of the 
house of commons. Previously and 
subsequently master of the rolls. 

May 7. John, earl of Bridgewater. 

June 4. Dr. John Tillotson, lord archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

1692. 

Mar. 1. Laurence, earl of Rochester. Lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, in 1701. 

Richard, earl of Ranelagh, paymaster 

of the forces. 

Charles, lord Cornwallis, first commis- 
sioner of the admiralty. 

— Sir Edward Seymour, bart., a commis- 

sioner of the treasury. 
Mar. 17. Anthony, viscount Falkland, a commis- 
sioner of the admiralty. 

— Robert, lord Lexinton. 

1693. 

Mar. 23. Sir John Somers, knt., lord keeper. 

Created lord Somers and made lord 
chancellor, Dec. 1697. 

— Sir John Trenchard, knt., secretary of 

state. 

April 13. Thomas, lord Coningsby, of Ireland, 
late lord justice in that kingdom. 
Afterwards lord Coningsby, of Lin- 
coln, and earl of Coningsby. Struck 
from the list, Nov. 7, 1724, George /.'s 
reign, 

1694. 

Mar. 4. Charles, earl of Shrewsbury, one of the 
principal secretaries of state. Created 
marquess of Alton and duke of Shrews- 
bury, April following. 

May 3. John, marquess of Normanby. Struck 
from the list, March 12, 1695. 

— Charles, viscount Dursley. Succeeded 

as earl Berkeley. 
May 10. Thomas, earl of Stamford. 

— Charles Montagu, chancellor of the ex- 

chequer. First lord of the treasury. 
May, 1697. Created lord Halifax, 
Dec. 1700. 



King William, alone. 
1695. 

Jan. 31. Dr. Thomas Tennyson, lord archbishop 

of Canterbury. 
May 3. Sir William Trumbull, knt., secretary of 

state. 

May 5. Meinhardt, duke of Schomberg, com- 
mander-in-chief. 

— Ford, earl of Tankerville. Afterwards 

first commissioner of the treasury and 
lord privy seal. 

— Peregrine Bertie, vice chamberlain. 
May 23. John Smith, a commissioner of the trea- 
sury. Afterwards chancellor of the 
exchequer, and speaker of the house 
of commons. 

1696. 

April 9. James, duke of Ormond, afterwards 
commander-in-chief. 

Nov. 19. Sir Joseph Williamson, knt., appointed 
(with the earl of Pembroke and vis- 
count Villiers) a plenipotentiary to 
treat for peace with France. 

1697. 

Nov. 25. Edward, earl of Jersey, appointed lord 
justice of Ireland. Afterwards lord 
chamberlain to the king. Secretary 
of state in 1700. 

Dec. 5. James Vernon, one of the principal se- 
cretaries of state. 

1698. 

May 18. Robert, lord Ferrers. Created viscount 

Tamworth and earl Ferrers, July, 1711. 
June 9. Charles, earl of Manchester. Created 

duke of Manchester, April, 1719. 
June 19. John, earl of Marlborough. Created 

marquess of Blandford and duke of 

Marlborough, Dec. 1702. 
[His name had been removed from the 

list of privy councillors, June 23, 1 692 ; 

but it was now restored, and he re- 

sworn.i] See 7/ear lQ8d. 

1700. 

May 21. Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper. 



There is no man of whose Capacity I have a better Impression, nor with whom I have lived more easily for above 
Twenty Years, 

" Your Majesty may please to remember that at your first coming to the Crown I was desirous he should have 
had one of the chief Posts in your Service ; and it would have been happy for Your Majesty and the Kingdom if 
he had accepted that Offer ; but he thought fit to decline it, and the Reasons generally given, at that time, for his 
so doing, do not much recommend him to Your Majesty's Service ; but I must endeavour to let Your Majesty see 
Things as they really are. And to bring him into your Service and into your Business at this time, just after his 
being in a public open Conjunction in every Vote with the whole body of the Tories, and in private constant 
Communication and Caballing with Mr. Harley in every thing, what Consequence can this have but to make 
every Man that is now in your Cabinet uneasy, and to run from it as they would do from the Plague ? I leave it 
to Your Majesty to judge what effect this entire change in your Ministers will have among your Allies abroad, 
and how this war will be like to be carried on in their Opinion by those who have all along opposed and ob- 
structed it, and who will like any Peace the better, the more it leaves France at liberty to take their Time of 
imposing the Pretender upon this Country. 

" These Considerations must certainly make Holland run immediately into a separate Peace with France, and 
make Your Majesty lose all the Honour and Reputation your Arms had acquired by the War, and make the 
Kingdom lose the Fruit of that vast Expense which they have been at in this War. And can any Body imagine 
that after so great a Disappointment to the Kingdom there will not be an Enquiry into the Causes of it, and who 
have been the Occasion of so great a Change in Your Majesty's Measures and Councils, which have been so long 
successful and gotten you so great a Name in the World ? If I did not think all these Consequences inevitable I 
would never give Your Majesty the Trouble and Uneasiness of laying this before you. * * * GODOLPHIN." 

1 After achieving his many glorious victories, he returned to England, and soon after through party intrigues, 
again lost favour at court, and was dismissed a second time from all his employments. Stung at this ingratitude, 
he went into the Low Countries, accompanied by his duchess, and remained abroad till 1714, when he landed at 
Dover, amidst the acclamations of the people. Queen Anne was just dead, and her successor restored the duke 
to his military appointments and his place in the councils of his country. 



126 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Nov. 5. Sir Charles Hedges, knt. Sworn, a se- 
cond time, secretary of state, May 2, 
1702. 

1701. 

Mar. 27. Henry Boyle, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. Secretary of state, Feb. 
1708. 

June 19. Robert, earl of Lindsey, lord great cham- 
berlain of England. Created mar- 
quess of Lindsey, Dec. 1706; and 
duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, July 
1715. 

— Charles, earl of Carlisle, earl marshal 

during the minority of Thomas, duke 
of Norfolk, the hereditary earl mar- 
shal of England. 
June 28. Charles, duke of Somerset, lord pre- 
sident of the council. 

1702. 

Jan. 1. Charles Bodville, earl of Radnor. 
Jan. 8. Charles, earl of Burlington. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. 

Apr. 21. John, marquess of Normanby, lord privy 
seal. Created duke of the county of 
Buckingham and duke of Normanby, 
March, 1703. 

— Montagu, earl of Abingdon, constable 

of the Tower. 

— Sir John Leveson Gower, chancellor 

of the duchy of Lancaster. Created 
baron Gower, of Sittenham, March, 
1703. 

— John How: afterwards joint paymaster- 

general of the forces. 
May 2. Daniel, earl of Nottingham, secretary 
of state. 

May 21. George, earl of Northampton. 
June 18. Thomas, viscount Weymouth. 

— William, lord Dartmouth. Created 

viscount Lewisham and earl of Dart- 
mouth, Sept. 1711. 

— Hon. John Granville lord warden of 

the stanneries. Cieated lord Gran- 
ville, March, 1702-3. 

— Sir Thomas Trevor, knt., chief justice 

of the common pleas. Created lord 
Trevor, of Bromham, Dec. 1711. 
Nov. 19. Sir George Rooke, vice admiral of Eng- 
land. 

Dec. 10. John, lord Poulett. Created viscount 
Hinton and earl Poulett, Dec. 1706. 

1703. 

Mar. 20. Dr. John Sharp, lord archbishop of 
York. 

— Thomas, earl of Thanet. 

— Heneage, lord Guernsey. Created earl 

of Aylesford, Oct. 1714, and made 
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

1704. 

Apr. 27. Henry, earl of Kent, lord chamberlain. 

Created viscount Goderick, earl of 
Harold, and marquess of Kent. Dec. 
1706. 

— Robert Harley, speaker of the house of 

commons. Secretary of state, May 



following. Created earl of Oxford 
and earl Mortimer, May, 1711. 
Apr. 27» Thomas Mansell, comptroller of the 
household. Created lord Mansell, 
Dec. 1711. 

1705. 

Mar. 29. John, duke of Newcastle, lord privy 
seal. 

— Charles, earl of Peterborough, general. 

— Hugh, viscount Cholmondeley, in Ire- 

land. Created viscount Malpas and 
earl of Cholmondeley (county of 
Chester), Dec. 1706. Afterwards 
treasurer of the household. 
May 3. Thomas Erie, lieutenant-general of the 
ordnance. 

Oct. 11. William Cowper, lord keeper. Created 
baron Cowper, of Wingham, and earl 
Cowper. Lord Chancellor, May, 1711. 

1706. 

June 10. Thomas, earl of Derby, chancellor of 
the duchy of Lancaster. 

Dec. 3. Charles, earl of Sunderland, secretary 
of state. Appointed lord lieutenant 
of Ireland in 1714; but neve?' went 
over. First lord of the treasury, 
March, 1718. 

Dec. 5. Thomas Coke, vice chamberlain. After- 
wards lord Lovel, viscount Coke, and 
earl of Leicester. 

1707. 

Sept. 8. William, duke of Devonshire, lord 
steward of the household. 

1708. 

June 26. Evelyn, marquess of Dorchester. Created 
duke of Kingston, July, 1715. 

— Henry, earl of Bindon, deputy earl- 

marshal of England. First lord of 
trade, 1715. 

Aug. 18. John, earl of Mar, secretary of state for 
Scotland. 

— Charles, viscount Townshend. After- 

wards secretary of state. 
Oct. 6. James, duke of Queensberry, now secre- 
tary of state for Scotland. 

— James, earl of Seafield, late lord high 

treasurer of Scotland. Succeeded as 
earl of Findlater. Last lord chan- 
cellor of Scotland. 
Nov, 25. James, duke of Montrose, late lord high 
admiral of Scotland. 

— Richard, earl Rivers ; general. 

— Algernon, earl of Essex. 

— Hugh, earl of Loudoun, one of the com- 

missioners for the union with Scot- 
land. Lord keeper in that kingdom. 

1709. 

Feb. 3. John, duke of Argyle (Argyll) ; ge- 
neral. 

[He greatly distinguished himself 
through the whole of queen Anne's 
wars, and was created baron of Chat- 
ham and earl of Greenwich, Nov. 1705, 
and duke of Greenwich, April, 1719.] 

Mar. 3. John, duke of Roxburgh. 

June 2. Sir John Holland, comptroller of the 
household. 

Nov. 8. Edward, earl of Orford. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



127 



1710. 

Feb. 18. Richard, earl of Bradford. 

Mar. 30. Sir Thomas Parker, lord chief justice ot 
the queen's bench. Created lord 
Parker, March, 1716 ; and made lord 
chancellor, May, 1718. Viscount 
Parker and earl of Macclesfield, Nov. 
1721. Struck from the list, May ^l, 
1725. 

[He had previously (Jan. 4, 1725) sur- 
rendered the seal.] 

June 15. Sir Richard Onslow, bart., speaker of 
the house of commons. Chancellor 
of the exchequer, Oct. 1714. 

July 10. John, earl of Anglesey, vice treasurer in 
Ireland : died Sept. following. 

Sept. 21. Henry St. John, late secretary-at-war, 
now sworn secretary of state. After- 
wards baron St. John, of Battersea, 
Surrey, and viscount St. John and 
viscount Bolingbroke. 

Oct. 19. Sir Simon Harcourt, lord keeper. 

Created lord Harcourt, of Stanton- 
Harcourt. Lord chancellor in 1713 : 
viscount Sept. 1721. 

— Henry, lord Hyde, joint vice treasurer 

of Ireland. Succeeded as earl of Cla- 
rendon and Rochester, in 1723. 

— Arthur, earl of Anglesey, brother of the 

late John, made joint vice treasurer of 
Ireland, in his room. 

1711. 

Charles, earl of Orrery, appointed envoy 
extraordinary to the States-General, 
and to the council of state in the Low 
Countries. 
George, earl of Orkney ; general. 
William, marquess of Annandale, lord 
high commissioner to the kirk of 
Scotland. Lord keeper of the privy 
seal in that kingdom in 1715. 
Charles, earl of Winchilsea: died the 

next year. 
Robert Benson, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. Created Lord Bingley, July 
1713. Sent ambassador to the court 
of Spain. 

Henry Paget, captain of the yeomen of 
the guard. Created lord Burton, vita 
patris, Dec. following. Succeeded his 
father as lord Paget, 1713. Created 
earl of Uxbridge, 1714. 
Thomas, lord Raby, ambassador to the 
States General. Created viscount 
Wentworth and earl of Strafford, Sept. 
following. First lord of the admi- 
ralty, Sept. 1712. 
William Bromley, speaker of the house 
of commons. Afterwards secretary of 
state. 

Dr. John Robinson, lord bishop of Bris- 
tol, lord privy seal. Translated to 
London. A plenipotentiary at Utrecht. 
Edward, earl of Clarendon. 

— Archibald, earl of Islay, lord justice 

general of Scotland. Succeeded his 
brother as duke of Argyle (Argyll) 
Oct. 1743. 

— William, lord North and Grey, made 

governor of Portsmouth. 

1712. 

April. 17. John, duke of Atholl, extraordinary lord 



Feb. 9. 



March 1. 
April 19. 



June 14. 



June 23. 



Sept. 3. 
Dec. 13. 



of session ; commander-in-chief of all 
the land forces in Scotland. 

Aug. 18. George, lord Lansdowne of Bideford, 
treasurer of the household. 

Oct. 20. David, earl of Portmore ; general, go- 
vernor of Gibraltar. 

— J ohn Hill, brigadier ; lieutenant-general 

of the ordnance. 
Dec. 11. Francis, lord Guilford. 

1713. 

April 7. George, duke of Northumberland. 

— Sir John Stonehouse, bart., comptroller 

of the household. 
Nov. 1. Sir William Wyndham, bart., chancel- 
lor of the exchequer. 

King George I. 
1714. 

Sept. 22. George, prince of Wales (afterwards 
George 11.) : introduced ; not sworn. 

— Dr. William Dawes (sir William Dawes, 

bart.), lord archbishop of York. 

Sept. 27. James Stanhope, secretary of state. 

First lord of the treasury, &c., April, 
1717. Created baron and viscount 
Stanhope, July, 1717 ; and earl Stan- 
hope, April, 1718. 

Oct. 1. Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert, 
paymaster of the forces. Created 
baron Houghton, viscount Walpole, 
and earl of Orford, Feb. 1742. 
[Filled various offices in the state, and 
was upwards of twenty- one years 
prime minister.] 

Oct. 29. John, earl of Stair, appointed to the 
court of France. 

— Paul Methuen, commissioner of the 

treasury, ambassador to Spain. Se- 
cretary of state, July, 1716. 
Nov. 16. Lionel, earl of Dorset, lord warden of 
the Cinque Ports, and governor of 
Dover castle. Declared lord presi- 
dent, Jan. 1715. Duke of Dorset, 
June, 1720. 

— Henry, earl of Uxbridge, captain of the 

yeomen of the guard. 
Nov. 22. Henry, lord Carleton. Declared lord 
president, June 25, 1721. 

1715. 

Mar. 29. Sir Peter King, lord chief justice of the 
common pleas. Created lord King, 
and made lord chancellor, June 1, 
1725. 

Aug. 31. Charles, duke of Grafton, appointed a 

lord justice of Ireland. 
Sept. 23. Henry, earl of Galway, appointed (with 

the preceding) lord justice in Ireland. 
Oct. 26. James, earl of Derby, captain of the 

yeomen of the guard, vice Uxbridge. 

— Henry, earl of Lincoln, paymaster of 

the forces. 

1716, 

Jan. 20. Dr. William Wake, lord archbishop of 

Canterbury. 
July 6. Charles, earl of Tankerville. 

— Richard, lord Cobham, constable of 

Windsor Castle, and keeper of the 
parks, forests, and warrens there. 
Created viscount Cobham, May, 
1718. 



128 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEKS. 



July 6. Spencer Compton, speaker of the house 
of commons. Created lord Wilming- 
ton, Jan. 1728; and viscount Pe- 
yensey and earl of Wilmington, May, 
1730. Declared lord president, Dec. 
31, same year. 
[First minister of the crown, Feb. 1742.] 

— William Pulteney, secretary-at-war. 

Struck from the list, July 1, 1731.^ 
See year 1742. 
July 12. John Aislabie, treasurer of the navy. 

Chancellor of the exchequer, March, 
1718. 

[Mr. Aislabie's name was struck from 
the list some time between Sept. 13, 
1720, and May 21, 1722.3] 

1717. 

Mar. 2. John Smith, one of the tellers of the 
exchequer. 

Mar. 30. Thomas, lord Torrington, a commis- 
sioner of the treasury. 

— William, lord Cadogan, general of all 

H. M.'s foot forces. Created earl of 
Cadogan, May, 1718. 
April 16. Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of New- 
castle, lord chamberlain. Filled va- 
rious high offices in the state; first 
minister of the crown, March 18, 
1754. 

— Thomas, earl of Westmoreland, chief 

justice in eyre of H. M.'s forests south 
of the Trent. First commissioner of 
trade and plantations. May, 1719. 

— James, earl of Berkeley, first lord of the 

admiralty. 

— Joseph Addison, one of the principal 

secretaries of state. 
July 31. Sir Joseph Jekyll, master of the rolls. 
Nov. 27. George, earl of Halifax. 

1718. 

Feb. 13. Robert, earl of Holdernesse, first com- 
missioner of trade and plantations. 

Mar. 16. James Craggs, jun., one of the principal 
secretaries of state. 

Mar. 31. Richard Hampden, treasurer of the 
navy. 

July 1. Nicholas Lechmere (sir Nicholas), 
attorney-general, made chancellor of 
the duchy of Lancaster. Created 
lord Lechmere, Aug. 1721. 

Oct. 9. Sir John Pratt, lord chief justice of the 
king's bench. 

1719. 

May 9. Charles Wills, lieutenant-general of the 
ordnance. 



1720. 

Mar. 22. William, earl of Coventry. 

1721. 

Jan. 3. John, earl of Sutherland. 

— Sir George Byng, admiral. Created 

lord Byng, of Southill, and viscount 
Torrington, Sept. following. 

Mar. 5. John, lord Carteret, one of the prin- 
cipal secretaries of state. Appointed 
lord lieutenant of Ireland, 1724. 
Succeeded as earl Granville, Oct. 
1744. Lord president, June 17, 1751. 

Nov. 11. James, duke of Chandos. 

— David, earl of Portmore. 

— Charles, lord Cornwallis, late joint 

postmaster-general : died the next 
year, 

1722. 

May 9. Sir Robert Sutton, knt., ambassador 
successively to Constantinople, to 
Holland, and to France. 

1723. 

May 26. Francis, earl of Godolphin, groom of 
the stole. 

— Doctor Edmund Gibson, lord bishop of 

London. 

May 29. James, earl of Findlater. 

1724. 

Jan. 23. Peregrine, duke of Ancaster and Ke- 
steven, lord great chamberlain of 
England. 

Dec. 10. Dr. Lancelot Blackburn, lord archbishop 
of York. 

1725. 

April 12. Sir Robert Raymond, lord chief justice 
of the King's Bench. Created lord 
Raymond, Jan. 1731. 

June 1. Charles, duke of Bolton, constable of the 
Tower of London. 

— Daniel, lord Finch, comptroller of the 

household. Succeeded as earl of Win- 
chilsea and Nottingham on his father's 
decease in 1730. Lord president, July 
12, 1765. 

— Sir Robert Eyre, lord chief justice of 

the common pleas. 

— Henry Pelham, secretary-at-war. Pay- 

master-general in 1730. First min- 
ister of the crown, Aug. 1743. 
[Mr. Pelham was the head of the cele- 
brated " Broad-Bottom administra- 
tion."] 



1 This was done in consequence of his invectives against the minister (Sir Rob*^rt Walpole) by George II. 
The king called for the council book, and struck out the name with his own hand. So harsh a proceeding in- 
flamed Pulteney's resentment and increased his popularity, and occasioned him to say, in his memorable speech, 
that "the minister might be likened to an empyric, and the constitution of England to his patient." His elo- 
quence and sarcasm at length drove Walpole from the helm, and he was again sworn of the council, Feb. 20. 1742, 
and was created earl of Bath, July 14, same year. He was afterwards (Feb. 1746) head of the famous " Short- 
lived ministry," which expired within two days See Administrations. 

2 A ground for the erasure of Mr. Aislabie's name from the books of the council may be inferred from the 
following resolution of the commons : — The commons, taking into their consideration that part of the report of 
the secret committee (on the South Sea Company) that relates to John Aislabie, esq., a member of the house, 
and Mr. Aislabie's defence, is of opinion, that it has been plainly proved, that he caused a book of accounts be- 
tween him and Mr. Hawes (a director) to be burnt, and had given him a discharge for the balance, amounting to 
£842,000. And it is resolved, nemine contradicente, that the said John Aislabie had encouraged and promoted 
the dangerous and destructive execution of the South Sea scheme with a view to his own exorbitant profit, and 
had combined with the late directors of the South Sea Company in their pernicious practices, to the detriment of 
great numbers of his majesty's subjects, and the ruin of the public credit, and the trade of this kingdom. It is 
further resolved, that he be expelled the house, and committed to the Tower ; and that a bill be brought in for 
restraining him from going out of the kingdom, and from alienating his estate. March 8, 1721 . 



PKIVY COUNCILLORS. 



129 



1726. 

Marclill. Thomas, lord Trevor, lord privy seal. 
May 31. Charles, duke of Queensberry and Dover, 

vice-admiral of Scotland. 

Alexander, earl of Marchmont. 

Nov. 4. Henry, viscount Lonsdale, constable of 

the Tower. 

1727. 

May 31. William Stanhope, vice chamberlain. 

Created lord Harrington, Dec. 1729. 
Lord president Feb. 13, 1742. 

King George II. 
1727. 

June 15. Richard, earl of Scarborough, master of 
the horse. 

July 5. Henry, earl of Grantham, lord chamber- 
lain to the queen. 

July 17. John, duke of Rutland, chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster. 

Aug. 5. Talbot,'^earl of Sussex, deputy earl mar- 
shal. 

1728. 

Feb. 26. Philip, earl of Chesterfield, appointed 
ambassador to the court of France. 
Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1745. 

June 25. Arthur Onslow, speaker of the house of 
commons. 

Dec. 18. H. R. H. Frederick, prince of Wales : 
introduced ; not sworn. 

1729. 

May 15. Richard, earl of Burlington : afterwards 
captain of the band of pensioners. 

1730. 

May 8. John, lord Hervey, vice chamberlain. 

Created, vita patris, baron Hervey, of 

Ickworth, June 1733. 
June 11. Robert, lord Bingley, treasurer of the 

household. 

— Sir Conyers D'Arcy, knt., comptroller of 

the household. 

— Sir William Strickland, bart., secretary- 

at-war. 

Sept. 12. Horatio Walpole, cofferer of the house- 
hold. Created baron Walpole, of 
Woolterton, June 1756. 

1731. 

June 12. William, duke of Devonshire, lord privy 
seal. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in 
1737. 

— John, lord De la Warr, treasurer of the 

household. 

Nov. 29. John, earl of Leicester, constable of the 
Tower of London. 

1732. 

May 4. Hon. Pattee Byng, treasurer of the navy, 
sworn of the council. Succeeded his 
father as viscount Torrington, Jan. 
1733. 

1733. 

J an. 25. Sir Charles Wager, knt., admiral. First 
lord of the admiralty. 

Nov. 1. Charles, earl of Selkirk, lord clerk re- 
gister of Scotland. 

— Sir Philip Yorke, knt., lord chief justice 



of the Idng's bench. Created lord 
Hardwicke, Nov. 23, following, and 
earl of Hardwicke, April, 1754. 
[Lord chancellor, Feb. 21, 1737. He 
continued, it is said, chief justice until 
June 7, though he had kissed hands 
for the great seal.] 
Nov. 29. Charles Talbot, lord high chancellor. 

Created lord Talbot, Dec. 5, following. 

1734. 

Jan. 31. James, duke of Atholl, lord keeper of 
the great seal of Scotland. 

1735. 

Jan. 9. Charles, duke of Richmond, master of 
the horse. 

— Henry, earl of Pembroke, groom of the 

stole. 

Feb. 12. William, earl of Essex: afterwards 
captain of the yeomen of the guard. 

— James, earl of Waldegrave, vice admi- 

ral of Essex. 

— Stephen Poyntz, receiver-general of the 

revenue of excise. He resigned this 
office to his brother, William Poyntz. 

— Benjamin, earl Fitzwalter, first commis- 

sioner of trade and plantations. 
Nov. 6. Sir William Yonge, bart., secretary-at- 
war. 

1736. 

Jan. 22. John, duke of Montagu, captain of the 
band of gentlemen-at-arms. 

Feb. 19. Sir Thomas Reeve, chief justice of the 
common pleas: died Jan. the next 
year. 

May 21. George, earl of Cholmondeley, chancel- 
lor of the duchy of Lancaster, vice 
John, duke of Rutland. 

1737. 

Mar. 17. Dr. John Potter, lord archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

— Sir John Willes, knt., chief justice of 

the common pleas. 
July 21. John, lord Monson, first commissioner 
of trade and plantations, vice lord 
Fitzwaiter. 

— Sir William Lee, knt., lord chief justice 

of the king's bench. 

1738. 

J uly 20. J ames, earl of Abercorn, one of the lords 

of the bed-chamber. 
Oct. 12. Hon. John Yerney, master of the rolls : 

died Aug. 1741. 

1739. 

Sept. 6. Sir John Norris, knt, vice-admiral of 
England. 

1740. 

May 1. Lord Sidney Beauclerk, vice-chamber- 
lain of the household. 

May 12. Charles, lora Cornwallis, constable of 
the Tower of London. Created earl 
Cornwallis, June 1753. 

1741. 

Apr. 27. Thomas Winnington, a commissioner 
of the treasury. Created a baronet ; 
made paymaster of the forces. 

Nov. 19. William Fortescue, master of the rolls. 



130 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1742. 

Feb. 16. John, marquess of Tweeddale, secre- 
tary of state for Scotland. 

— Samuel Sandys, chancellor of the ex- 

chequer. Created lord Sandys, Dec. 
1743. Cofferer of the household, 
1747; chief justice in eyre, 1759; 
first lord of trade and plantations, 
March 1761. 
Feb. 20. Peregrine, duke of Ancaster and Keste- 
ven (son of Peregrine, privy coun- 
cillor Jan. 1724), lord great cham- 
berlain of England. 

— William Pulteney, whose name had 

been struck from the council July 
1731, now restored. Created earl of 
Bath, July 1742. See year 1716. 
[First minister as head of the " Short- 
lived administration," which endured 
but two days.] 

May 17. His R. H. William, duke of Cumber- 
land : introduced ; not sworn. 

June 24. George Wade, lieutenant-general of the 
ordnance. Afterwards field-marshal 
and commander-in-chief. 

— Thomas Clutterbuck, treasurer of the 

navy. 

July 13. John, lord Gower, lord privy seal. 
Created earl Gower, July 1746. 

— Allen, lord Bathurst, captain of the 

band of gentlemen pensioners. Cre- 
ated earl Bathurst, Aug. 1772. 

— Hon. William Finch, vice-chamberlain 

of the household. 

1743. 

Apr. 25. l)r. Thomas Herring, lord archbishop 
of York. Translated to Canterbury. 

1744. 

Jan. 5. Richard, lord Edgcumbe, chancellor of 

the duchy of Lancaster. 
Jan. 19. Sir John Rushout, bart., treasurer of 

the navy. 

Dec. 17. John, duke of Bedford, first lord of the 
admiralty. Lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land, Sept. 1757 ; privy seal, Nov. 
1761. Lord president, Sept. 9, 1763. 

1745. 

Jan. 3. John, lord Hobart, captain of the band 
of pensioners. Created earl of Buck- 
inghamshire, Aug. 1746. 

— George Dodington, treasurer of the 

navy. Again, Jan. 1756. Created 
baron Melcombe, April 1761. 

1746. 

— William Pitt, paymaster-general of the 

forces. Secretary of state, Dec. 1756 ; 
again secretary of state i, June, 1757. 
Created earl of Chatham, and made 
privy seal, July 1766. [He held these 
offices as minister.] 
July 23. Henry Fox, secretary-at-war. Secre- 
tary of state, Nov. 1755 ; paymaster 



of the forces, 1757. Created lord 
Holland, April 1763. 

1747. 

Jan. 15. William, earl of Jersey. 

1748. 

Feb. 10. Dr. Matthew Hutton, lord archbishop 
of York. Translated to Canterbury. 

1749. 

Jan. 11. George Dunk, earl of Halifax, first 
commissioner of trade and planta- 
tions. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
1761. First lord of the admiralty, 
June 1762; secretary of state, Nov. 
1763 ; privy seal, Feb. 1770 ; again 
secretary of state, Jan. 1771. 

— Dr. Thomas Sherlock, lord bishop of 

London. 

Feb. 1. John, earl of Sandwich, late minister 
plenipotentiary to the congress at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, first lord of the ad- 
miralty. Secretary of state, 1763 ; 
again first lord of the admiralty, 
Jan. 1771. 

— Sir John Ligonier, knt., lieutenant- 

general of the ordnance. Created 
viscount Ligonier, in Ireland, Dec. 
1757. Lord Ligonier, of Ripley 
(Surrey), April 1763; and earl Li- 
gonier, Sept. 1766. Field-marshal 
and commander-in-chief, 1757. 

June 12. Charles, duke of Marlborough, lord 
steward of the household. 

June 28. Hon. Henry Bilson Legge, treasurer 
of the navy. Chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, April 1754 ; again, Nov. 1756. 

1750. 

Jan. 17. Sir John Strange, knt., master of the 
rolls. 

Mar. 29. John, earl of Hyndford, late minister 
to the empress of Russia. 

— George, lord Anson, vice-admiral of 

England. First lord of the admi- 
ralty, June, 1751 ; again, July 1757. 

— Sir Thomas Robinson, deputy-master 

of the great wardrobe. Secretary of 
state, April 1754. Created lord 
Grantham, April 1761. 

1751. 

Apr. 30. Simon, earl Harcourt. Afterwards en- 
voy to Mecklenburg, the court of 
France, &c. Lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land, Nov. 1772. 

June 21. Robert, earl of Holdernesse, secretary 
of state. 

July 12. William, marquess of Hartington, master 
of the horse. Called to the house of 
peers, vita patris, as baron Cavendish, 
same time. Lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land, 1755. Succeeded as duke of 
Devonshire on his father's decease, 
Dec. 1755. Minister in 1757. Struck 
from the list, Nov. 3, 1762.2 



1 The ministry of which the duke of Newcastle was first lord of the treasury, and Mr. Pitt was secretary of 
state for the Northern department, has been usually called the -'Duke of Newcastle's and Mr. Fitt's adminis- 
tration," the latter leading the house of commons at the time. 

2 Of this ilhistrious personage it was said by Dr. Johnson, that he was remarkable for fidelity to his promises : 
" If he had promised you an acorn, and none had grown that year in his woods, he would not have contented him- 
self with such an excuse ; he would have sent to Denmark for it : so unconditional was he in his word ; so high 
as to the point of honour." A liberal testimony from Johnson to this virtue in a great whig nobleman. — Boswcll. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



131 



July 12. William- Anne, earl of Albemarle, groom 
of the stole. 

1752. 

Feb. 13. John, lord Berkeley, of Stratton, late 
captain of the yeomen of the guard. 
Treasurer of the household, 1755. 

— Sir George Lee, knt., judge of the pre- 

rogative court. 
Dec. 20. James, earl of Waldegrave, governor to 
the prince of Wales. 

1754. 

June 21. Wills, earl of Hillsborough, comptroller 
of the household. First lord of trade, 
Sept. 1763 ; again Aug. 1766 ; joint 
postmaster-general Dec. 1766 ; and 
again lord of trade, Jan. 1768. Created 
earl of Hillsborough, in England, Aug. 
1772 ; and marquess of Downshire, in 
Ireland, Aug. 1789. 

— Hon. George Grenville, treasurer of the 

navy. Again treasurer of the navy, 
Nov. 1756 ; first lord of the admiralty, 
Jan. 1763. First minister of the crown, 
April, following. 
Sir Dudley Ryder, knt., lord chief jus- 
tice of the king's bench. 

— Sir Thomas Clarke, knt., master of the 

rolls. 

— Sir George Lyttelton, bart., cofferer of 

the hous-ehold. Chancellor of the 
exchequer, Nov. 1755. Created lord 
Lyttelton, Nov. 1756. 

1755. 

Jan. 9. Harry, duke of Bolton. 

— John, earl of Egmont. Joint postmaster- 

general, Aug. 1762 ; first lord of the 
admiralty, Sept. 1763. 
Mar. 11. William-Henry, earl of Rochford, groom 
of the stole. 

— William, viscount Barrington, master of 

the great wardrobe. Sccretary-at- 
war, Nov. same year; chancellor of 
the exchequer, March 1761 ; treasurer 
of the navy, J une 1762 ; again secre- 
tary-at-war, July 1765. 
Dec. 22. Granville, earl GoAver, lord privy seal. 

Lord president, Dec. 22, 1767 ; again, 
Dec. 19, 1783. Created marquess of 
Stafford, Feb. 1786. 

1756. 

Jan. 27. John, lord Hobart, comptroller of the 
household. Succeeded as earl of Buck- 
inghamshire on his father's decease, 
Sept. following. Ambassador to St. 
Petersburgh, July, 1762. Lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, Jan. 1777. 

July 7. Robert, lord Raymond. 

Nov. 19. Richard, earl Temple, first lord of the 
admiralty. Lord privy seal, June fol- 
lowing. 

— John, viscount Bateman, treasurer of 

the household. 

— William, lord Mansfield, lord chief jus- 

tice of the king's bench. 



Nov. 19. Hon. Richard Edgcumbe, comptroller of 
the household. Succeeded as lord 
Edgcumbe on the death of his father 
in 1758. 

Dec. 15. Hugh, viscount Falmouth, captain of 
the yeomen of the guard. 

1757. 

Mar. 26. Thomas, duke of Leeds, cofferer of the 
household. 

April 1. Hon. Charles Townshend, treasurer of 
the chamber and a lord of trade and 
plantations. Paymaster -general of 
the forces, March 1761 ; and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, Aug. 1766. 

June 30. Dr. John Gilbert, lord archbishop of 
York. 

— Sir Robert Henley, knt., lord keeper. 

Created lord Henley, March 1760. 
Made lord chancellor, Jan. 1761 ; and 
earl of Nortliington, May following. 
Lord president, July 30, 1766. 
July 8. Percy Wyndham, earf of Thomond, trea- 
surer of the household. 

1758. 

Jan. 27. Lord George Sackville (Germaine). 

Struck from the list, April 25, 1760.1 
See Dec. 1665. 

— Thomas, viscount Dupplin, chancellor 

of the duchy of Lancaster. Succeeded 
as earl of Kinnoul on his father's 
decease, June following. 
May 8. Dr. Thomas Seeker, lord archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

Dec. 22. Charles Paulett, marquess of Win- 
chester. Succeeded as duke of Bol- 
ton, on his father's decease, Oct. 1759. 

1759. 

Feb. 2. Hon. Edward Boscawen, admiral, a lord 
of the admiralty, and general of ma- 
rines. 

Dec. 15. Robert Nugent, a lord of the treasury. 

Created baron Nugent and viscount 
Clare, of Ireland, Dec. 1766 ; and earl 
Nugent, 1776. 

1760. 

Feb. 9. Basil, earl of Denbigh : afterwards a 
lord of the bedchamber. 

Mar. 20. Welbore Ellis, joint vice-treasurer in 
Ireland. Secretary- at- war, Dec. 1762 ; 
and afterwards filled various offices, 
that of secretary of state, Feb. 1782. 
Created lord Mendip, Aug. 1794. 

May 2. John, marquess of Granby, lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance; afterwards 
master-general ; commander-in-chief, 
Aug. 1766. 

King George III. 
1760. 

Oct. 27. H. R. H. Edward, Duke of York : 
introduced ; not sworn. 

— John, earl of Bute, groom of the stole. 



^ Lord George Sackville fell into disgrace for his conduct at the battle of Minden (Aug. 1, 1759), where he com- 
manded under prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, whose orders to advance with his troops during the engagement he 
disobeyed. His behaviour being, at home, attributed to cowardice, he was tried by a court-martial and sentenced 
to be dismissed the service Under the administration of lord Bute, however, he was restored to favour. 

K 2 



132 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Secretary of state, March, 1761. First 
minister of the crown, May 1762. 
Dec. 2. Francis, earl of Huntingdon, master of 
the horse. 

— Hon. George Townshend ; general. 

Lieutenant-general of the ordnance, 
1763. Succeeded as viscount Towns- 
hend, March, 1764. Lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, Oct. 1767. Master-general 
of the ordnance 1772. Marquess of 
Townshend, Oct. 1787. 
Dec. 17. Philip, viscount Royston. Succeeded 
as earl of Hardwicke, March 1764. 

1761. 

Jan. 28. George, earl of Albemarle, governor of 
Jersey. 

Mar. 17. Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury. 

Mar. 20. Sir Francis Dashwood, bart., treasurer 
of the chamber. Chancellor of the 
exchequer, May 1762 ; joint postmas- 
ter-general, Dec. 1766. He had suc- 
ceeded to the title of lord Le de 
Spencer, 1763. 

Mar. 25. William, earl Talbot, lord steward of 
the household. 

Apr. 3. Hon. James Grenville, cofferer of the 
household : afterwards joint vice trea- 
surer of Ireland. 

June 25. Henry-Arthur, earl of Powis, comptroller 
of the household. 

July 8. Charles, earl of Egremont. Secretary 
of state, Oct. following. 

Sept. 4. Hon. James Stuart Mackenzie, minister 
to the king of Sardinia. Lord privy 
seal of Scotland, 1763. 

Nov. 7. Dr. Robert Drummond, lord archbishop 
of York. 

— Dr. Thomas Hayter, lord bishop of 

London : died in 1762. 

1762. 

Jan 2. John, duke of Argyll. 
Feb. 15. Lord George Cavendish, comptroller of 
the household, vice earl of Powis. 

— Sir Charles Pratt, knt., chief justice 

of the common pleas. Created lord 
Camden, July, 1765. Lord chancellor 
July 1766 ; lord president, March 27, 
1782 ; earl Camden, May, 1786. 

Mar. 13. Dr. Richard Osbaldeston, lord bishop of 
London : died 1764. 

July 14. George Henry, earl of Lichfield ; captain 
of the band of gentlemen pensioners. 

— Sir John Cust, bart., speaker of the 

house of commons. 

— Gilbert Elliot, late a lord of the trea- 

sury ; treasurer of the chamber. Suc- 
ceeded as baronet on his father's 
decease. Treasurer of the navy, 
March 1770. 
Nov. 17. James, lord Tyrawley, general, late 
governor of Gibraltar. Field- marshal, 
1763. 

Nov. 22. George, duke of Marlborough, lord 
chamberlain of the household. 

— Hugh, earl of Marchmont. Keeper of 

the great seal of Scotland, 1764. 

— Hugh, earl of Northumberland, her 

majesty's lord chamberlain. Lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, 1763. 

Nov. 26. Hans Stanley, a lord of the admiralty. 

Dec. 15, James, lord Strange, chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancastei. 



1763. 

Jan. 10. Humphry Morrice, comptroller of the 
household. 

— Sir John Phillips, bart. 

Apr. 20. William, earl of Shelburne, first com- 
missioner of trade and plantations. 
Secretary of state, Aug. 1766. First 
minister of the crown, July 1782. 
Created marquess of Lansdowne, 
Nov. 1784. 

— Lord Charles Spencer, comptroller of 

the household. 

— James Oswald, joint vice treasurer in 

Ireland. 

Apr. 22. Stephen, earl of Ilchester, called to the 
council board honoris causa, 

June 1. Francis, earl of Hertford. Created earl 
of Yarmouth and marquess of Hert- 
ford, July 1793. 

July 20. David, viscount Stormont, ambassador 
extraordinary to the emperor and 
empress of Germany. Secretary of 
state, Oct. 1779. Lord president, 
April 2, 1783. Succeeded as earl of 
Mansfield, March 1793. Again lord 
president, Dec. 1794. 

Sept. 9. Thomas, lord Hyde, joint postmaster- 
general. Chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, June 1771. Created earl 
of Clarendon, June 1776. 

1764. 

Jul}^ 11. Dr Richard Terrick, lord bishop of 
London. 

Dec. 12. Sir Thomas Sewell, knt, master of the 
rolls. 

Dec. 19. H. R. H. William Henry, duke of 
Gloucester : introduced ; not sworn. 

1765. 

May 29. Thomas, viscount Weymouth, appointed 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland; but did 
not go over. Secretary of state in 
1768 ; again in 1775. Created mar- 
quess of Bath, Aug. 1789. 

— Lord Frederick Campbell, keeper of the 

privy seal of Scotland. 
July 10. William-Henry, duke of Portland, lord 
chamberlain. Lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land, 1782. First lord of the treasury, 
April, 1783 ; lord president, July 30, 
1801 ; again first lord of the treasury, 
March, 1807. 

— Augustus- Henry, duke of Grafton, se- 

cretary of state. First lord of the 
treasury, Aug. 1766. First minister 
of the crown, Dec. 1767. Privy seal, 
1771. 

— Charles, marquess of Rockingham, first 

lord of the treasury. Again, March, 
1782, and first minister of the crown 
a second time. 

— Hon. Henry Seymour Conway, secretary 

of state. Commander-in-chief, 1782. 

— William Dowdeswell, chancellor of the 

exchequer. 

July 12. Richard, earl of Scarborough, cofferer 
of the household. Appointed deputy 
earl marshal of England shortly af- 
terwards. 

— John, earl of Ashburnham, keeper of 

the great wardrobe. 

— William, earl of Besborough, joint post- 

master-general. 



PliIVY COUNCILLORS. 



183 



July 12. George Bussy, viscount Yilliers, vice- 
chamberlain. Succeeded as earl of 
Jersey, on his father's decease, Aug. 
1769. 

July 26. William, earl of Dartmouth, first com- 
missioner of trade and plantations. 
Secretary of state, Aug. 1772. 

— Richard, viscount Howe, treasurer of 

the navy. First lord of the admiralty, 
Jan. 1783. Created earl Howe, July 
1788. 

— George, lord Edgcumbe, treasurer of the 

household. Created viscount Mount- 
Edgcumbe and Valletort, March 
1781 ; and earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, 
August 1789. 

Sept. 6. Thomas Pelham, comptroller of the 
household. Lord Pelham on the 
decease of his cousin, the duke of 
Newcastle, Nov. 1768. Created earl 
of Chichester, June 1801. 

Oct. 23. Charles, duke of Richmond ; afterwards 
secretary of state. 

Nov. 22. Ralph, earl Verney, of the kingdom of 
Ireland. 

Dec. 20. Lord George Sackville (his name, struck 
out in 17G0, now restored) appointed 
a vice-treasurer of Ireland. Secretary 
of state, Jan. 1776. Took the name 
of Germaine on succeeding to the 
estates of lady Germaine. Created 
viscount Sackville, Feb. 1782. See 
Jan. 1758. 

1766. 

Feb. 10. Charles, duke of Dorset, lord -lieutenant 

of the county of Kent. 
May 12. John, earl of Breadalbane, keeper of the 

privy seal of Scotland. 
Sept. 10. Sir John Eardley Wilmot, knt., chief 

justice of the common pleas. 

— Sir Charles Saunders, knt., first lord of 

the admiralty. 

— Isaac Barre, a vice-treasurer in Ireland. 

Treasurer of the navy, April 1782 ; 
paymaster of the forces, July, same 
year. 

Sept. 26. George-William, earl of Bristol, ap- 
pointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland ; 
but did not go over. Lord privy 
seal, Nov. 1768. 

Dec. 3. H. R. H. He^^ry Frederick, duke of 
Cumberland : introduced ; not 
sworn. 

— John Shelley, afterwards sir John, trea- 

surer of the household. 
Dec. 10. Harry, duke of Bolton, governor of the 
Isle of Wight and of Carisbrook 
Castle. 

— Frederick, lord North, joint paymaster 

of the forces. Chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, Dec. 1767 ; and first lord of 
the treasury, Feb. 1770. Succeeded 
his father as earl of Guilford, Aug. 
1790. 

[First minister of the cro^vn during 
the whole of the American war. ] 

— Sir Edward Hawke, knt., first lord of 

the admiralty. Created lord Hawke, 
May, 1776. 

1767. 

Dec. 23. Thomas Townshend, jun., joint pay- 
master of the forces. Secretary- at- 

K 



war, March 1782 ; secretary of state, 
July, same year. Created lord Syd- 
ney, March, 1783; and viscount 
June, 1789. 

Dec. 23. George Onslow, a lord of the treasury. 

Created lord Cranley, May, 1776; 
and viscount Cranley and earl of 
Onslow, June, 1801. 

1768. 

May 27. Hon. Thomas Harley, lord mayor of 
London. 

June 29. Charles, lord Cathcart, ambassador to 
the empress of Russia. 
— Sir Joseph Yorke, knt., ambassador to 
the States General at the Hague. 
Created lord Dover, Sept. 1788. 

Oct. 7. Dr. the hon. Frederick Cornwallis, lord 
archbishop of Canterbuiy. 

Dec. 16. Henry, duke of Newcastle, lord-lieu- 
tenant of the county of Nottingham 
and keeper of Sherwood Forest. 

1769. 

Mar. 22. Sir Fletcher Norton, knt., chief justice 
in eyre. Speaker of the house of 
commons, Jan. 1770. Created lord 
Grantley, March 1782. 

Nov. 1. Sir James Gray, bart., ambassador ex- 
traordinary to Spain. 

1770. 

Jan. 17. Hon. Charles Yorke, appointed lord 
chancellor and created lord Morden ; 
but died before the seals were put to 
his patent. 
[He died on Jan. 20, having held the 
great seal but three days.] 

Jan. 19. Edward, duke of Somerset. 

Feb. 26. Hon. Thomas Robinson, vice-cham- 
berlain to the queen. Succeeded as 
lord Grantham, Sept. following. Am- 
bassador to Spain, Feb. 1771. Secre- 
tary of state, July 1782. 

May 4. George Rice, treasurer of the chamber 
to the king ; late a lord of trade. 

Nov. 21. Charles, earl Cornw^allis, constable of 
the Tower of London. Created mar- 
quess Cornwallis, Aug. 1792. 
[Governor-general of Bengal thrice, 
between Feb. 1786 and Oct 1805; 
commanding in chief in India at the 
same time.] 

Dec. 19, Hon. Henry- Frederick Thymic (Car- 
teret), j oint postmaster-general . Cre- 
ated lord Carteret, Jan. 1784. 

1771. 

Jan. 22. Henry, earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, 
lord privy seal. Secretary of state 
for the Northern department, June 
following. 

Jan. 23. Henry, lord Apsley, lord chancellor. 

Succeeded his father as earl Ba- 
thurst, Sept. 1775. Declared lord 
president, Nov. 1779. 
[Lord high steward of Great Britain 
for the trial of Elizabeth, duchess of 
Kingston, on an indictment for 
bigamy, Feb. 1776.] 

Feb. 6. John Montagu, viscount Hinchinbrook, 
vice-chamberlain. Succeeded his 
father as earl of Sandwich, April, 
1792. 



134 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEES. 



Feb. 6. Sir William de Grey, lord chief justice 
of the common pleas. Created lord 
Walsingham, Sept. 1780. 

Mar. 1. George, earl of Pomfret, ranger of 
Windsor Little Park. 

Oct. 9. Sir Lawrence Dundas, bart., vice-ad- 
miral of Shetland and Orkney. 

1772. 

Kov. 6. Sir Jeffrey Amherst, knt., lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance. Created 
baron Amherst, May 1776. Com- 
mander-in-chief, March, 1778. 

Nov. 20. Sir Thomas Parker, knt., late lord 
chief baron of the exchequer. 

1773. 

Feb. 8. Charles Jenkinson, joint vice- treasurer 
of Ireland. Clerk of the pells in 
Ireland, Aug. 1775 ; master of the 
mint, Sept. 1776 ; secretary-at-war, 
Dec. 1778. Created lord Hawkes- 
bury, July 1786. Chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster, and president of 
the board of trade, same year. Cre- 
ated earl of Liverpool, May, 1796. 
[He filled these and various other 
offices in the state from 1763 until 
1804.] 

Aug. 4. Sir William Lynch, knt., minister to 
Sardinia. 

Sept. 1. Sir John Goodricke, oart., late envoy 
extraordinary to Sweden. 

1774. 

Mar. 9. Sir William Meredith, comptroller of 
the household. 

— Jeremiah Dyson, cofferer of the house- 

hold. Filled various offices in the 
state. 

1775. 

May 12. James, duke of Chandos. 
Nov. 17. Thomas, lord Lyttelton, warden, and 
chief justice in eyre beyond Trent. 

1776. 

May 31. Thomas Bruce, lord Bruce. Created 
earl of Ailesbury, June 8, following. 

June 5. George Montagu, duke of Montagu, 
governor to H. R. H. the prince of 
Wales. Master of the horse, Dec. 
1780. 

Sept. 20. Henry Flood, a joint vice-treasurer in 
Ireland. Struck from the list of the 
council by his majesty''s own hand. 

1777. 

Jan. 31. Dr. William Markham, lord archbishop 
of York. 

June 13. Frederick, earl of Carlisle, treasurer of 
the household. President of the 
board of trade, Nov. 1779. Lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, 1780. 

— Dr. Robert Louth, lord bishop of Lon- 

don. 

June 20. Charles Townshend, a joint vice-trea 
surer in Ireland. Created lord Bayn 
ing, Oct. 1797. 



Dec. 3. Sir Sidney Stafford Smythe, knt., lord 
chief baron of the exchequer : re- 
signed his seat on the bench. 
Dec. 24. Francis, marquess of Carmarthen, cham- 
berlain of her majesty's household. 
Succeeded as duke of Leeds on his 
father's decease, March, 1789. 

1778. 

June 3. Edward, lord Thurlow, lord high chan- 
cellor of England. 

1779. 

Feb. 12. Robert, duke of Ancaster and Kes- 
teven, lord-lieutenant of the county 
of Lincoln : died July 8, following. 
[He was hereditary lord great cham- 
berlain of England, and on his death 
the office fell into abeyance, and 
remained in dispute for more than a 
year.] 

Aug. 4. John, viscount Mountstuart, envoy ex- 
traordinary to the court of Turin. 
Succeeded his father as earl of Bute, 
March, 1792. Created viscount 
Mountjoy, earl of Windsor, and mar- 
quess of Bute, Feb. 1796. 

1780. 

Feb. 2. Francis, viscount Beauchamp, a lord 
of the treasury. 

Feb. 9. Sir Richard Worsley, bart., governor 
of the Isle of Wight. 

June 9. Alexander Wedderburne, chief jus- 
tice of the common pleas. Created 
lord Loughborough. Lord chancellor 
of England, Jan. 1793. Created earl 
of Rosslyn, April, 1801. 

Sept. 27. James, earl of Salisbury, treasurer of 
the household ; lord chamberlain, 
Dec. 1783. Created marquess of 
Salisbury, Aug. 1789. 

Nov. 8. Charles Wolfran Cornewall, speaker of 
the house of commons. 

1782. 

Jan. 9. Richard, earl of Shannon, joint vice- 
treasurer in Ireland. 

Feb. 11. John, duke of Dorset. 

Mar. 27. Lord John Cavendish, chancellor of the 
exchequer. 

Mar. 30. John Dunning, formerly solicitor-gene- 
ral. Created lord Ashburton. Chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

— Charles James Fox, secretary of state. 

Struck from the list May 9, 1798. * 
Restored. See year 1806. 

— Hon. Augustus Keppel, first lord of the 

admiralty. Created viscount Keppel, 
April 27 following. 

— Edmund Burke, paymaster of the 

forces. 

Apr. 10, George, duke of Manchester, lord cham- 
berlain. 

— Thomas, earl of Effingham, treasurer of 

the household. Master of the mint, 
Jan. 1784. 

— Peter, earl Ludlow, comptroller of the 

household. 



) At the council board, held this day at St. James's, Mr. Falkener, as clerk of the council, laid the book con- 
taining the list of privy councillors before his inajest3% in obedience to his majesty's command, when the king 
drew his pen across the name of the Right Honourable Charles James Fox, and returned the book to Mr. Falke- 
ner. — Ann. Reg. Mr. Fox was afterwards re-admitted of the council. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



135 



Apr. 10. Sir George Yonge, bart., joint vice- 
treasurer of Ireland. Secretary-at- 
war, July following. 

Ap. 24. George, lord de Ferrars, captain of the 
band of gentlemen-at-arms. Became 
marquess of Townshend, 1807. 

May 3. George, viscount Chewton, vice-cham- 
berlain of the household. Succeeded 
on the death of his father as earl of 
Waldegrave, Oct. 1784. 

June 5. Lord Kobert Spencer, a commissioner 
of trade and plantations. 

June 21. Hon. sir William Howe, knt., lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance. Succeeded 
as viscount Howe, Aug. 1799. 

July 10. Hon. William Pitt, chancellor of the 
exchequer. 
[First minister of the crown, Dec. 27, 
1783 ; again, May 12, 1804, until his 
death, which event occurred on Jan. 
23, 1806.1] 

July 31. George, earl Temple, appointed lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland. Secretary of 
state, Dec. 1783. Created marquess 
of Buckingham, Nov. 1784. Again 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1787. 

— Henry Dundas, treasurer of the navy. 

Again, Jan. 1784. Home secretary, 
June, 1791; colonial secretary, July, 
1794; president of the board of con- 
troul from July, 1793, to May, 1801. 
Created baron Dunira and viscount 
Melville, Dec. 1802. Struck from 
the list of the council, May 9, 1805.^ 
See April, 1807. 
Oct. 2. Charles, earl of Tankerville, joint post- 
master-general. 

1783. 

Feb. 17. Charles, duke of Rutland, lord steward 
of the household. 

April 7. William Eden, late a lord of trade ; 

a joint vice - treasurer in Ireland. 
Ambassador to the court of Versailles 
in 1785; afterwards to the court of 
Spain, ^d to Holland. Created lord 
Auckland, Sept. 1789. Joint post- 
master-general, March, 1798. 

Apr. 9. Charles Greville, treasurer of the house- 
hold. 

Apr. 14. George-James, earl of Cholmondeley, 
captain of the yeomen of the guard. 

— Colonel, the hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, 

secretary- at- war. Lieutenant-gen. of 
the ordnance, 1804. Again seeretarv- 
at-war, Feb. 1806. 

— Frederick Montagu, a lord of the trea- 

sury. 

Apr. 30. Dr. John Moore, lord archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

— Robert, earl of Northington, appointed 

lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 
Aug. 29. Edward, earl of Derby, chancellQr of - 
the duchy of l^ancaster. 



Aug, 29. H. R. H. George Augustus Frede- 
rick, prince of Wales : introduced • 
not sworn. Afterwards George IV. * 

Dec. 26. J ames Grenville. A lord of trade, Aug. 

1786. Created lord Glastonburv, Oct! 
1797. ^ 

Dec. 31. Heneage, earl of Aylesford, captain of 
the yeomen of the guard. 

— Thomas, lord Walsingham, late a lord 

of trade ; joint vice - treasurer in 
Ireland. Joint postmaster-general, 
July, 1787. For twenty years chair- 
man of the committees of the house 
of lords. 

— William Wyndham Grenville, joint 

paymaster-general. Vice-president 
of the board of trade, Aug. 1786. 
Speaker of the house of commons, 
Jan. 1789 ; home secretary, June, 
same year; and president of the 
India board, March, 1790. Created 
lord Grenville, Nov. 1790. Foreign 
secretary, June, 1791. First minister 
of the crown, Feb. 1806. 

1784. 

Jan. 7. Philip, earl of Chesterfield, ambassador 
extraordinary to Spain. Joint post- 
master-general, March, 1790. Master 
of the horse, Feb. 1798. 

Feb. 9. Lord George Lenox, constable of the 
Towner of London. 

Apr. 2. Lloyd Kenyon, master of the rolls. 

Created a baronet, this year. Chief 
justice ot the king's bench, June, 
1788, and created lord Kenyon. 

Apr. 16. Robert, viscount Gal way, comptroller of 
the household. 

Apr. 23. Constantine-John, lord Mulgrave, joint 
paymaster-general. A lord of trade 
and commissioner for the affairs of 
India. 

Aug. 20. James, earl of Courtown, treasurer of 
the household. 

Sept. 3. Sir James Harris, knt., envoy extra- 
ordinary to the States General. 
Created lord Malmesbury, Sept. 1788, 
and viscount Fitz-Harris and earl of 
Malmesbury, Dec. 1800. Minister to 
several courts of Europe. 

Nov. 17. George, lord Herbert, vice- chamberlain 
of the household. Succeeded his 
father as earl of Pembroke, Feb. 
1794. 

1785. 

Nov. 23. Thomas Orde (Powlett), secretary in 
Ireland. A lord of trade, Aug. 1786. 
Assumed the name of Powlett on the 
decease of the last duke of Bolton, 
1794. Created lord Bolton, Oct. 
1797. 

1786. 

Sept. 6. John Foster, speaker of the house of 



1 With the short interval of Mr. Addir.gton's administration, Mr. Pitt was at the head of his majesty's councils 
for twenty-two years: he died universally lamented, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, at the public charge. 
Having directed the comicils of his country so long, and at a period of great financial embarrassment, difficulty, 
and danger, the friends of his principles and policy (particularly of the Pitt Club) usually honoured his memory 
as " the Pilot that weathered the storm." 

2 The " irregularities " of lord Melville in his office of treasurer of the navy led to this expunction of his name, 
a step that anticipated a resolution of the house of commons (proposed by Mr. Whitbread), and an address to the 
king, praying his majesty, " that the name of lord Melville be erased from the council, and that he be dismissed 
from his presence for ever." His lordship was afterwards resworn of the council, having been acquitted, on an 
impeachment by the commons, of the malversations alleged against him. 

K 4 



136- 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



commons of Ireland. Created lord 

Oriel, July, 1821. 
Sept. 6. John Beresford, first commissioner of 

revenue in Ireland. 
Oct. 27. Sir John Parnell, bart., chancellor of 

the exchequer in Ireland. 

1787. 

Jan. 5. John-Hely Hutchinson, secretary of 
state in Ireland. Held a plurality of 
appointments. 

Feb. 19. John-Charles Villiers, comptroller of 
the household. 

Mar. 23. Sir John Skynner, knt., chief baron of 
the exchequer. 

Aug. 8. H. R. H. Frederick, duke of York : 
introduced ; not sworn. 

Nov. 30. Alleyne Fitz-Herbert, chief secretary to 
the lord-lieutenant of Ireland. En- 
voy extraordinary to the Hague, 
May, 1789. Created lord St. Helen's 
of Ireland, 1791 ; and of England, 
July, 1801. 

Dec. 7. Dr. Beilby Porteus, lord bishop of 
London. 

1788. 

June 18. Sir Richard Pepper Arden, master of 
the rolls. Lord chief justice of the 
common pleas, 1801. Created lord 
Alvanley, May, same year. 

1789. 

April 3. John, earl of Chatham, first lord of the 
admiralty. Declared lord president, 
Dec. 21, 1796. Master-general of the 
ordnance, June, 1801 ; again, April, 
1807. 

29. Sir Robert Murray Keith, K. B., late 
minister to Vienna. 
May 15. Sir William Wynne, judge of the pre- 
rogative court, &c. A lord of trade in 
1790. 

June 23. H. R. H. William-Henry, duke of 
Clarence : introduced ; not sworn. 

— Henry Addington, speaker of the house 

of commons. First minister of the 
crown, March, 1801. Created vis- 
count Sidmouth, Jan. 1805. Lord 
president, Jan. same year. Privy 
seal, Feb., and again lord president, 
Oct. 1806 ; a third time lord presi- 
dent, April, 1812. Secretary of state 
for the home department from June, 
1812, to Jan. 1822. 

Aug. 8. James, marquess of Graham, vice pre- 
sident of the board of trade, and, in 
Sept. following, joint paymaster- 
general. Succeeded as duke of 
Montrose, Sept. 1790. Master of the 
horse, Dec. same year. 

Oct. 14. John, earl of Westmoreland, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. Lord privy seal, 
Feb. 1798 ; and again privy seal, 
March, 1807. 

1790. 

Mar. 3. George-Evelyn, viscount Falmouth, 
captain of the band of gentlemen 
pensioners. 

— Hon. Dudley Ryder, comptroller of the 

household. A commissioner for the 
affairs of India. Vice president of the 



board of trade, Oct. 1790 ; treasurer of 
the navy, June, 1800. Succeeded as 
lord Harrowby, June, 1803. Chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster, July, 
1805. Created viscount Sandon and 
earl of Harrowby, July, 1809. Presi^- 
dent of the board of controul, July, 
same year. Declared lord president, 
June, 1812. 

May 28. George Granville-Leveson, earl Gower. 

Succeeded his father as marquess of 
Staff*ord, Oct. 1803. 

Oct. 1. John, lord Fitzgibbon, lord chancellor 
of Ireland. Created viscount Fitz- 
gibbon, of Limerick, Dec. 1793 ; earl 
of Clare, June, 1795 ; and lord Fitz- 
gibbon, of Siclbury, in the English 
peerage, Sept. 1799. 

1791. 

Mar. 9. Thomas Steele, joint paymaster-gene- 
ral : previously secretary to the trea- 
sury, &c. 

Apr. 21. George, viscount Parker, comptroller of 
the household. Succeeded his father 
as earl of Macclesfield, Feb. 1795. 

June 8. Sir William Hamilton, K. B., ambas- 
sador at the court of Naples. 

1792. 

May 2. George, lord Macartney, ambassador to 
China. Earl Macartney in Ireland, 
1794. 

June 15. Sir James Eyre, lord chief baron of the 
exchequer. Afterwards chief justice 
of the common pleas. 

1793. 

Feb. 15. Sir Archibald Macdonald, chief baron 
of the exchequer. 

May 1. Hon. Robert Hobart, secretary in Ire- 
land. Colonial secretary, March, 
1801. Summoned to parliament in 
his father's barony, vita patris, as 
lord Hobart, 1798. " Succeeded as earl 
of Buckinghamshire, Nov. 1804. 
Joint postmaster-general, Feb. 1806. 
President of the India board, April, 
1812. 

June 21. Richard, earl of Mornington. Go- 
vernor-general of Bengal, Oct. 1797. 
Created marquess Wellesley, Dec. 
1799. Secretary of state for foreign 
affairs, Dec. 1809. Lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, Dec. 1821. Lord steward, 
Nov. 1830. Again lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, Sept. 1833. Lord chamber- 
lain, April, 1835. 

— Henry, lord Apsley. Succeeded his 

father as earl Bathurst, Aug. 1794. 
Master of the mint, July, 1804 ; pre- 
sident of the board of trade, IMarch, 
1807. Foreign secretary, Oct. 1809 ; 
and colonial secretary from June, 
1812, until April, 1827. 

— John Jeffreys, viscount Bajiiam, a 

commissioner of trade. Succeeded 
as earl Camden, April, 1794. Lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, March, 1795. 
Lord president, July 10, 1805 ; again, 
March 26, 1807. Created earl of 
Brecknock and marquess Camden, 
Sept. 1812. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



137 



[This nobleman held the office of one 
of the tellers of the exchequer for 
sixty years. ^ ] 
Sept. 25. Sir Gilbert Elliott, bart. Viceroy of 
the kingdom of Corsica, June, 1795. 
Created lord Minto, of Roxburgh, 
Oct. 1797. Envoy extraordinary to 
Vienna, June, 1799. President of 
the board of controul, Feb. 1806; 
governor-general of Bengal, July, 
same year. Created viscount Mel- 
gund and earl of Minto, Feb. 1813. 

1794. 

May 4. Sylvester Douglas, secretary in Ireland. 

A commissioner for India, June, 1795 ; 
a lord of the treasury, Feb. 1797. 
Created lord Glenbervie, Nov. 1800. 
Joint paymaster-general, March, 
1801 ; vice-president of the board of 
trade, Nov. same year; surveyor- 
general of woods and forests, 1803 ; 
lirst commissioner of woods and 
forests, July, 1810. 
July 11. William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, earl 
Fitzwilliam, declared lord-president. 
Again, lord president, Oct. 19, 1805. 

[He was appointed lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, Dec. 1794; but was recalled 
March following, and succeeded by 
lord Camden.] 

George- John, earl Spencer, lord privy 
seal. Lord of the admiralty, Dec. 
same year. Home secretary, Feb. 
1806. 

July 16. William Windham, secretary-at-war. 

Secretary of state for war and colo- 
nies, Feb. 1806. 

Nov. 12. Sir Morton Eden, K. B., minister to 
Vienna, and previously to several 
courts of Europe. Created lord Hen- 
ley, Nov. 1799. 

Dec. 17. George Damer, viscount Milton, secre- 
tary for Ireland. Succeeded his father 
as earl of Dorchester, Feb. 1798. 

1795. 

Mar. 11. Hon. Thomas Pelham, secretary for 
Ireland. Summoned to the house of 
peers, vita patris, as lord Pelham, 
June, 1801. Home secretary, July, 
same year. Chancellor of the duchy 
of Lancaster, Nov. 1803. Succeeded 
his father as earl of Chichester, 
Jan. 1805. Postmaster-general, May, 
1807. 

July 29. Sir George Howard, K. B., field mar- 
shal, governor of Jersey. 

1796. 

Apr. 29. Robert Auriol Drummond, earl of Kin- 
noul. 

— Sir Grey Cooper, bart., some time secre- 
tary to the treasury. 
Nov. 30. John, duke of Roxburgh, groom of the 
stole. 

1797. 

Mar. 29. Sir Joseph Banks, bart., president of 



the Royal Society, appointed a com- 
missioner of the board of trade. 

Apr. 26. Lord Charles Somerset, comptroller of 
the household. Joint paymaster- 
general, July, 1804; again, April, 
1807. & » F » 

June 28. John, duke of Athol. 

Sept. 27. Hon. John Trevor, minister to Turin. 

Oct. 4. Sir Charles Grey, K.B., governor of the 
island of Jersey. Created lord Grey, 
June, 1801, and viscount Howick and 
earl Grey, April, 1806. 

1798. 

Sept. 28. William Shaw, lord Cathcart. Created 
viscount Cathcart, Nov. 1807; and 
earl Cathcart, July, 1814. 
[Commanded the land forces in the ex- 
pedition against Copenhagen, 1807.] 

Oct. 24. Charles, earl of Harrington. 

Oct. 31. Sir William Scott, knt., a commissioner 
of the board of trade. Judge of the 
high court of admiralty. Created 
lord Stowell, July, 1821. 

Dec. 5. Thomas Grenvillel Chief justice in 
eyre, July, 1800; president of the 
India board, July, 1806 ; first lord of 
the admiralty, Sept. same year. 

Dec. 19. Robert, viscount Castlereagh, secretary 
in Ireland. President of the India 
board, Sept. 1802 ; colonial secretary, 
July, 1805 ; again, March, 1807. 
Secretary of state for foreign affairs, 
from March, 1812, until his death, 
Aug. 1822. He had succeeded his 
father as marquess of Londonderry, 
in April, 1821. 

1799. 

Jan. 23. Sir William Fawcett, K. B., general. 

Mar. 13. Robert Banks Jenkinson, lord Hawkes- 
bury, master of the mint. Secretary 
of state for foreign affairs, Feb. 
1801 ; home secretary. May, 1804. 
Summoned to the house of peers, 
vita patris, in his father's barony, 
Aug. 1806. Again home secretary, 
March, 1807. Succeeded as earl 
of Liverpool, Dec. 1808. Secretary 
of state for the colonies, Dec. 1809. 
First lord of the treasury from June 
1812 until April 1827. 

June 5. H. R. H. Edward, duke of Kent: 
introduced ; not sworn. 
H. R. H. Ernest Augustus, duke of 
Cumberland : introduced ; not 
sworn. 

July 3. Thomas, earl of Elgin, ambassador to 

the Sublime Porte. 
July 18. Sir John Scott, lord chief justice of the 

common pleas: created lord Eldon. 

Lord chancellor, April 1801 ; again, 

April, 1807. Created earl of Eldon, 

July 1821. 

Sept. 25. Isaac Corry, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer in Ireland. 

Oct. 30. Ralph, lord Lavington, K. B., governor 
of the Carribean islands. 



1 During nearly half this term, marquess Camden relinquished the large income arising from the office of teller, 
amounting in the whole to upwards of a quarter of a million sterling, and placed it to the service of the state; an 
act of patriotism that throws a lustre over his name and character. His lordship died in 1840, at the age of 
eighty-two, having been one of the most respected noblemen of his time. 



138 



states:men and 



STATE OFFICERS. 



1800. 

May 28. George Canning, joint paymaster- 
general. Secretary of state for fo- 
reign affairs, Marcli 1807 ; president 
of the board of controul, June 1816 ; 
again foreign secretary, Sept. 1822. 
First minister of the crown, April 
1827. 

June 25. William Dundas, a commissioner of the 
India board. Secret ary-at-war. May, 
1804. 

Nov. 5. Charles, lord Whitworth, late ambas- 
sador to Russia. Negotiated a peace 
with Denmark, 1801. Plenipoten- 
tiary to Paris, June, 1802. Created 
viscount AVhitworth, June 1813. 
Lord -lieutenant of Ireland, Aug. 
same year. Earl, Nov. 1815. 

1801. 

Jan. 25. Dr. William Stuart, lord archbishop 
of Armagh and primate of Ireland. 

Feb. 18. Sir John Mitford, knt., speaker of the 
house of commons. Appointed lord 
chancellor of Ireland, and created 
lord Redesdale, Feb. 1802. 

Feb. 20. John, earl St. Vincent, first lord of the 
admiralty. 

— Sir Charles Yorke, secretary-at-war. 

Secretary of state for the home de- 
partment, July 1803. First lord of 
the admiralty,"' May, 1810. 
Mar. 17. Philip, earl of Hardwicke, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. 

— George, viscount Lewisham, president 

of the India board. Created, vita 
pair is, baron Dartmouth. Succeeded 
his father as earl of Dartmouth, 
Nov. 1810. 

May 21. Sir William Grant, master of the rolls. 

— Charles Abbot, chief secretary in Ire- 

land. Speaker of the house of com- 
mons, Feb. 1802. Created lord Col- 
chester, June 1817. 

— Thomas Wallace, commissioner for the 

affairs of India. Again, April 1807. 
Vice-president of the board of trade, 
Jan. 1818 ; master of the mint, Oct. 
1823. Created lord Wallace, Jan. 
1828. 

Nov. 18. Charles Bragge, afterwards Bragge 
Bathurst, treasurer of the navy. Se- 
cretary-at-war, Aug. 1803 ; president 
of the board of controul, Jan. 
1821. 

1802. 

Jan. 13. William Wickham, a commissioner of 
trade. Minister in Switzerland. 

— George Rose, a commissioner of trade. 

Vice-president of the board of trade, 
March 1804; joint paymaster-general, 
July 1804; again vice-president of 
the board of trade, March 1807 ; and 
treasurer of the navy, April, same 
year. 

— Charles Long. A lord of the treasury. 

May 1804. Secretary in Ireland, 1806. 
Pa3niiaster-general,'^ April, 1807. Cre- 
ated lord Farnborough, Aug. 1826. 
Feb. 3. H. R. 11. Adolphus Frederick, Duke 
OF Cambridge : introduced ; not 
sworn. 



April 21. Edward, lord Ellenborough, lord chief 
justice of the king's bench. 

Sept. 8. Sir John Borlase Warren, bart., admiral, 
minister to St. Petersburgh. 

Sept. 22. Sir Charles (Gould) Morgan, bart., 
judge advocate-general. 

— John Smyth, late a lord of the treasury, 

master of the mint. 

1803. 

Feb. 16. John HileyAddington, joint paymaster- 
general. A commissioner of India 
affairs, Feb. 1806. 

— George Tierne}'-, treasurer of the navy ; 

president of the board of controul, 
Oct. 1806 ; master of the mint. May, 
1827. 

Nov. 23. Hon. Thomas Maitland, afterwards sir 
Thomas, G. C. B., a commissioner for 
the affairs of India. 

— Nathaniel Bond, a lord of the treasury. 

Vice president of the board of trade, 
Feb. 1804; judge advocate-general, 
Feb. 1806. 

1804. 

Jan. 4. Hon. Arthur Paget, afterwards sir Ar- 
thur, G. C. B., minister to Vienna. 
Afterwards minister to the Sublime 
Porte. 

Jan. 20. Sir Evan Nepean, bart., secretary to the 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. Previously 
secretary to the admiralty, and sub- 
sequently a junior lord. 

May 8. Sir James Mansfield, knt., lord chief 
justice of the common pleas. 

May 14. George, earl of Winchilsea and Notting- 
ham, groom of the stole. 

— Lord George Thynne, comptroller of 

the household. 

June 6. Henry, lord Mulgrave, chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster. Secretary of 
state for foreign affairs, Jan. 1805; 
first lord of the admiralty, April 1807 ; 
master-general of the ordnance. May, 
1810. Created viscount Normanby 
and earl of Mulgrave, Sept. 1812. 

June 27. William Drummond, late ambassador 
to the Sublime Porte. 

— Charles Arbuthnot, ambassador extra- 

ordinary to Constantinople. Secre- 
tary to the treasury, 1810 ; first com- 
missioner of woods and forests, Feb. 
1823 ; chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 
caster, June 1828. 

July 11. Lord John Thynne, vice chamberlain of 
the household. Succeeded as lord 
Carteret, Feb. 1838. 

July 19. Granville Leveson, lord Gower, ambas- 
sador extraordinary to St. Peters- 
burgh and to France. Viscount 
Granville, Aug. 1815, and earl Gran- 
ville, May, 1833. 

— H. R. H. Augustus, Duke of Sussex : 

introduced ; not sworn. 

1805. 

Jan. 14. John Hookham Frere, ambassador in 
Spain. 

— Nicholas Vansittart, secretary to the 

lord-lieutenant of Ireland. Secretary 
to the treasury, 1806. Chancellor of 
the exchequer from June 1812 until 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



139 



Jan. 1823, in which latter year (IMarch 
1.) he was created lord Bexley. 
Jan. 14. Reginald Pole Carew, late under secre- 
tary of state for the home department, 
a commissioner of trade. 

— John Sullivan, late under secretary of 

state for the colonies, a commissioner 
of trade. Afterwards a commissioner 
for India affairs. 

Feb. 21. Dr. Charles Manners Sutton, lord arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. 

May 1. Charles, lord Barham, first lord of the 
admiralty. 

Xov.21. Edward, earl of Powis, appointed lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland ; but did not go 
over. 

1806. 

Feb. 1. H. K. H. William Frederick, duke 
of Gloucester ; introduced ; not 
sworn. 

Feb. 5. Francis, earl of Moira, master-general 
of the ordnance. Governor-general 
of Bengal and commander-in-chief in 
India, Nov. 1812. Created viscount 
Loudoun, earl Rawdon, and marquess 
of Hastings, Dec. 1816. 

— Richard Chandos, earl Temple, joint 

paymaster-general and vice president 
of the board of trade. Created mar- 
quess of Chandos and duke of Buck- 
ingham, Feb. 2. 

— Lord Henry Petty, chancellor of the 

exchequer. Succeeded as marquess 
of Lansdowne, Nov. 1809. Secretary 
of state for the home department, 
1827. Lord president, Nov. 22, 1830 ; 
again, April 18, 1835 ; and a third 
time, July 6, 1846. 

— Hon. Charles Grey, first lord of the 

admiralty. Secretary of state for 
foreign affairs, Sept. 1806. Succeeded 
his father as earl Grey and viscount 
Ho wick, Nov. 1807. First minister 
of the crown, Nov. 1830. 

— Charles James Foxi, secretary of state 

for foreign affairs. Died while hold- 
ing this office, Sept. 13, 1806. 
Feb. 7, George, viscount Morpeth, a commis- 
sioner for India afQxirs. Succeeded 
his father as earl of Carlisle, Sept. 
1825. Lord privy seal in 1827, and 
1834. 

— Lord John Townshend, joint paymaster- 

general. 

— Thomas, lord Erskine, lord high chan- 

cellor of England. 



Feb. 7. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, treasurer oC 
the navy. 

Feb. 12. John, duke of Bedford, lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland. 

— Henr3% earl of Carnarvon, master of 

the horse. 

— John Joshua, earl of Carysfort, joint 

postmaster-general. 

— Charles Augustus, lord Ossulston, trea- 

surer of the household. 

— St. Andrew, lord St. John, of Bletsoe, 

captain of the band of gentlemen 
pensioners. 

— William Elliot, chief secretary for Ire- 

land. 

March 5. George Ponsonby, lord high chancellor 
of Ireland. 

Mar. 12. Sir John Newport, bart., chancellor of 
the exchequer of Ireland. 

May 7. Richard, earl of Donoughmore, member 
of the board of trade. Joint post- 
master-general in Ireland. 

June 18. Alexander, marquess of Douglas and 
Clydesdale. Summoned to the house 
of peers, vita patris, as baron Dutton, 
Nov. 1806. Succeeded as duke of 
Hamilton, Feb. 1819. 

July 21. James, earl of Lauderdale, keeper of the 
great seal of Scotland. 

Aug. 27. Henry Richard, lord Holland, lord privy 
seal. 

Nov. 19. Sir John Anstruther, bart., late chief 
justice of the supreme court of judi- 
cature in Bengal. 

1807. 

Mar. 26. Hon. Spencer Perceval, chancellor of 
the exchequer. First minister of the 
crown from Dec. 6, 1809, until May 4, 
1812, when he was assassinated by a 
person named Bellingham, in the 
lobby of the house of commons.^ 

— Hon. Robert Dundas, president of the 

board of controul. Lord privy seal 
of Scotland, 1811. Succeeded his 
father as viscount Melville, May, 
same year. First lord of the admi- 
ralty, March, 1812. 
Mar. 30. Sir James Pulteney, bart., secretary-at- 
war. 

April 1. Charles, duke of Richmond and Lenox, 
appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 
Died governor - general of Canada, 
July, 1819. 

April 8. Henry, viscount Melville : a member 
of the board of trade (his name which 



1 Mr. Fox, who had been sworn of the council. March 30, 1782, but had been struck from the list, May 9, 1798, 
was now re-sworn. He had continually opposed himself to the minister and the government, and inveighed 
against the war with France ; and while revolutionary principles had been making rapid progress, he attended 
popular meetings, and uttered such language as the following: " France," said Mr. Fox, "has set an example to 
all the nations of the earth, and above all to Great Britain." Again, at a meeting of the Whig Club, held at the 
Frcemason^s Tavern, he proposed a toast, " than which," he declared, " nothing could be better — the sovereignty 
of the people of England." Even after the erasure of his name from the council, he continued to express similar 
sentiments ; and later, in 1802, at the anniversary of his election, celebrated at the Shakspeare, he said, " The 
peace (that of Amiens) is glorious to France and to the French Consul, and I rejoice at it; " and he there drank 
" To the man whose glorious victories have given peace to the world." But Mr. Fox, at the same time, affirmed, 
ahifiost as frequently as he spoke, that he "would be among the first to repel a foreign enemy, under what- 
ever government England might be ; " and however parties differed as to the soundness of his political views, 
and the propriety of his heated language on particular occasions, none doubted that he " loved his country with a 
patriot's love," and was " a sincere friend to the best interests of mankind." It will be observed, too, that the 
same sovereign who had struck out his name, now sanctioned his appointment as foreign minister. 

2 The criminal, it was supposed at the time, had been lying in wait for lord Levcson Gower, late ambassador 
to the court of St. Petersburgh, and that Mr. Perceval fell a victim to the misdirected vengeance of a man 
who conceived himself injured by the conduct of that nobleman, for whom he had mistaken him. The assassin 
was tried, found guilty, and hanged, all within one week afterwards. 



140 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



had been struck out of the list of privy 
councillorSy May 9, 1805, now restored^ 
he being re-sworn^, 
April 8. John, lord Teignmouth, a commissioner 
for the affairs of India. 
[Appointed Sept. 1792, to succeed lord 
Cornwallis as governor - general of 
Bengal, which office he had filled until 
Oct. 1793.] 

— Hon. sir Arthur Wellesley, K. B., chief 
secretary to the lord - lieutenant of 
Ireland. 

[Afterwards duke of Wellington, the 
invincible general in the war against 
the French emperor. Napoleon. Com- 
mander-in-chief of the army, Jan. 

1827 ; first minister of the crown, Jan. 

1828 ; again, first minister, Nov. 1834 ; 
and again, commander-in-chief, Aug. 
1842.] 

April 22. Thomas, lord Manners, lord chancellor 
of Ireland. 

"May 13. Richard, earl of Clancarty, member of 
the board of trade. Master of the 
mint, Oct. 1812 ; joint postmaster- 
general, Sept. 1814. Emjiloyed in 
several diplomatic missions. 

May 20. Hon. Henry Manvers Pierrepont, late 
minister to Sweden. 

Nov. 25. Hon. Richard Ryder. Secretary of 
state, Nov. 1809. 

1808. 

Jan.. 20. Dr. Edward Yenables Vernon (after- 
wards Harcourt), lord archbishop of 
York. 

Mar. 9. Richard, earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. 
Mar. 16. Percy Clinton Sidney Smythe, viscount 

Strangford, envoy extraordinary to 

Lisbon. 

1809. 

Feb. 6. Sir John NichoU, late king's advocate- 
general ; a commissioner of trade. Af- 
terwards dean of the arches court, 
judge of the high court of admiralty, 
&c. 

Sept. 27. Dr. John Randolph, lord bishop of Lon- 
don. 

Oct. 18. Hon. William Wellesley Pole, secretary 
for Ireland. Master of the mint, 
1814. Created lord Maryborough, 
July, 17, 1821 ; succeeded as earl of 
Mornington, on the death of his 
brother, the marquess Wellesley, 
Sept. 26, 1842. 

Nov. 1. Henr)'-John, viscount Palmerston, se- 
cretary- at- war from this time until 
May, 1828. Secretary of state for 
foreign afiairs, Nov. 1830 ; again, 
April, 1835 ; and a third time, July, 
1846. 

Nov. 8. Charles Manners Sutton, judge advo- 
cate-general. Speaker of the house of 
commons from June 2, 1817 to Aug. 
15, 1834. Created baron Botesford and 
viscount Canterbury, March 10, 1835. 



Dec. 20. John, lord Sheffield, a member of the 
board of trade. Created viscount Pe- 
vensey and earl of Sheffield, Jan. 22, 
1816. 

Dec. 20. Hon. Henry Wellesley, late secretary to 
the treasury, envoy extraordinary to 
Spain. Afterwards ambassador to 
France. Created lord Cowley, Jan. 
21, 1828. 

1810. 

Aug. 29. Sir John Sinclair, bart., president of the 
agricultural society : honoris causa. 

Regency of George, Prince of Wales. 

1812. 

Mar. 20. Charles Ingoldsby, marquess of Win- 
chester, groom of the stole. 

— Francis, earl of Yarmouth, vice cham- 

berlain. Succeeded as marquess of 
Hertford, June 17, 1822. 

— John McMahon, afterwards sir John, 

bart. Private secretary and keeper 
of the privy purse to H. R.H. the 
prince regent. 
Mar. 26. Robert, viscount Jocelyn, treasurer of 
the household. Afterwards vice 
chamberlain. Succeeded as earl of 
Roden, June 29, 1820. 

— Robert Liston. 

Aug. 13. Lord William Charles Cavendish Ben- 
tinck. Governor-general of India, 
May, 1833. 

— Lord George Beresford, comptroller of 

the household. 

— William Fitzgerald, chancellor of the 

exchequer in Ireland : Rt. hon. there. 

— Robert Peel, afterwards sir Robert, bart., 

secretary for Ireland. Secretary of 
state for the home department, Jan. 
1822; again, Jan. 1828. First lord 
of the treasury and chancellor of the 
exchequer, Dec. 1834 ; and again first 
minister of the crown, Sept. 1841. ^ 

1813. 

May 20. Sir Thomas Plumer, knt., vice chancel- 
lor of England. 

Oct. 5. Dr. William Howley, lord bishop of 
London. Translated to Canterbury, 
Aug. 4, 1828. 

Nov. 30. Sir Yicary Gibbs, knt., lord chief baron 
of the exchequer. 

1814. 

Mar. 19. Hugh Elliot, governor of Madras. 
April 21. Sir Alexander Thomson, lord chief 

baron of the exchequer. 
May 6. Warren Hastings, former governor* 

general of Bengal. 
July 22. Cropley, earl of Shaftesbury. 

— George, earl of Aberdeen. Chancellor 

of the duchy of Lancaster, Jan. 1828 ; 
foreign secretary, June, same year; 
colonial secretary, Dec. 1834; and 
again foreign secretary, Sept. 1841. 

— Charles William, lord Stewart. Suc- 



1 This distinguished statesman fell from his horse on Constitution-hill, near the Green Park, on the afternoon of 
Saturday, June 29, 1850, and breaking his collar-bone and fracturing his fifth rib on the left side, died on Tuesd»y, 
July 2, following. His family (conforming to his own wishes, expressed when living) declined the honours of'a 
public funeral (designed him by both houses of the legislature), and his remains were removed to Tamworth, 
Staffordshire, whence they were interred in the family vault in Drayton-Bassett church, July 9 ; a few privileged 
friends only, assisting in the mournful ceremony. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



141 



ceeded his brother as marquess of 
Londonderry, Aug. 12, 1822. 
July 29. Thomas, lord Binning. Succeevied as 
earl of Haddington. Lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, Dec. 1834. First lord of 
the admiralty, Sept. 1841. 

— WiUiam Huskisson, first commissioner 

of woods and forests. President of 
the board of trade and treasurer of 
the navy, Feb. 1823; colonial and 
war secretary, Sept. 1827. 
Aug. 10. William Sturges Bourne. A commis- 
sioner of the India board, July 1818 ; 
home secretary, April 1827 ; woods 
and forests, July, same year. 

1815. 

Mar. 17. William Adam, chief of the civil jury 
court of Scotland. 

Dec. 4. Hon. Charles Bagot, afterwards sir 
Charles Bagot, G. C. B., minister- 
plenipotentiary to the court of the 
Netherlands. Afterwards minister 
to the United States. Governor- 
general of Canada, in 1841. 

Dec. 30. William Pitt, lord Amherst, on his 
embassy to China. Created earl 
Amherst, Dec. 19, 1826. Governor- 
general of Bengal from Oct. 1822 
until March 1828. 

1816. 

June 8. Edward Thornton, afterwards sir Ed- 
ward, G. C. B. Minister plenipoten- 
tiary to Sweden in 1812 ; to Portugal 
in 1823. 

June 27. Sir Henry Russell, bart., late chief 
justice in Bengal. 

July 1. H. S. H. Leopold, prince of Saxe- 
CoBURG Saalfeld, consort of 
Charlotte -Augusta, princess of 
Wales. Afterwards king of the 
Belgians. 

1817. 

Apr. 26. Sir Richard Richards, knt., lord chief 
baron of the exchequer. 

May 31. Sir George Fitzgerald Hill, bart., vice- 
treasurer in Ireland. 

July 11. John Becket, afterwards sir John, bart., 
judge advocate-general. 

July 15. Sir Benjamin Bloomfield, private secre- 
tary and keeper of the privy purse 
to H. R. H. the prince regent. Cre- 
ated lord Bloomfield, May 11, 1825. 
Minister to the court of SAveden. 

Sept. 17. Charles Chetwynd, earl Talbot, ap- 
pointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 

Dec. 30. John Leach, afterwards sir John, vice- 
chancellor. Master of the rolls, April, 
1827. 

— Sir William A'Court, bart., minister to 

the court of the Two Sicilies, &c. 
Created lord Heytesbury, Jan. 23, 
1828. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
July, 1844. 

1818. 

Apr. 6. George-Henry Rose, minister at Berlin. 

Nov. 19. Sir Charles Abbot, lord chief justice of 
the king's bench. Created lord 
Tenterden, April 30, 1827. 

— Sir Robert Dallas, knt., lord chief jus- 

tice of the common pleas. 



1819. 

May 28. Charles Grant, chief secretary for Ire- 
land. President of the board of trade, 
Sept. 1827 ; of the board of controul, 
Dec. 1830 ; colonial secretary, April 
1835. Created lord Glenelg, May 11, 
same year. 

J uly 23. Sir Samuel Shepherd, lord chief baron 
in Scotland. 



King George IV. 
1820. 

Apr. 8. David Boyle, lord justice clerk in Scot- 
land. 

June 7. Peter, lord Gwydir, deputy great cham- 
berlain of England. 

July 20. Stratford Canning, afterwards sir Strat- 
ford Canning, G. C. B. Ambassador 
to Turkey, 1841. 

Oct. 10. Sir Gore Ouseley, bart. Previously 
ambassador extraordinary to Persia, 
and to the court of St. Petersburgh. 

— Thomas, lord Manners, lord chancellor 

of Ireland ; re -sworn. 

1821. 

Feb. 6. William Carr, lord Beresford. Lieu- 
tenant-general of the ordnance, 1823 ; 
master-general, April 1828. Created 
viscount Beresford, March 28, 1823. 

Feb. 23. James, marquess of Graham, vice- 
chamberlain of the household. Suc- 
ceeded his father as duke of Mon- 
trose, in 1836. 

June 30. Peter-Robert, lord Gwydir, son of the 
preceding lord Gwydir; hereditary 
great chamberlain of England. Lord 
Willoughby d'Eresby in 1828. 

Dec. 10. Charles, duke of Dorset, master of the 
horse. 

— Henry, marquess of Conyngham, lord 

steward of the household. 

— Henry Goulburn, secretary for Ireland. 

Chancellor of the exchequer, Jan. 
1828 ; home secretary, Dec. 1834 ; 
again, chancellor of the exchequer, 
^ Sept. 1841. 

1822. 

Jan. 17. Charles Watkin -Williams Wynn, pre- 
sident of the India board. Secretary- 
at-war, Nov. 1830 ; chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster, Dec. 1834. 

— William Henry Fremantle, a commis- 

sioner of the India board. 

Feb. 4. Sir George Warrender, bart., member 
of the board of controul. 

Mar. 28. John, lord Burghersh, minister to Tus- 
cany. Minister to Prussia, 1841. 
Succeeded his father as earl of West- 
moreland, Dec. 15, 1841. 

— Augustus-John Foster, minister to 

Denmark, and afterwards to Sar- 
dinia. 

— Hon. Frederick James Lamb, ambas- 

sador to Vienna, Spain, Portugal, 
&c. Created lord Beauvale, April 30, 
1839. Succeeded his brother as 
viscount Melbourne, Nov. 24, 1848. 
Aug. 17. Charles Hope, lord president of the 
court of session in Scotland. 



142 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



1824. 

Jan. 19. Sir Robert GifFord, knt., chief justice of 
the common pleas. Created lord 
Gifford, Jan. 31 following. 
— Sir William Alexander, knt., lord chief 
baron of the exchequer. 

Apr. 7. William Noel Hill, minister to Naples. 

May 25. Sir William Draper Best, lord chief 
justice of the common pleas. Cre- 
ated lord Wynford, June 5, 1829. 

1825. 

Mar. 23. Hugh, duke of Northumberland. Lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, March 1829. 
< — Charles Vaughan, afterwards sir 
Charles, minister to the United 
States. 

Sept. 30. Henry Watkin- Williams Wynn. 
1826. 

June 1. James, marquess of Salisbury. 

July 27. Hon. sir Robert Gordon, minister at 
Brazil. Afterwards minister to Vi- 
enna. 

Nov. 20. Sir John Singleton Copley, knt., master 
of the rolls. Created lord Lynd- 
hurst, April 25, 1827, and made 
lord chancellor of England, May 2, 
following. Lord chief baron, Jan. 
1831 ; again lord chancellor, Dec. 
1834, and again Sept. 1841. 

1827. 

Apr. 30. William-Spencer, duke of Devonshire, 
lord chamberlain. 

— William-Henry, duke of Portland, lord 

privy seal. Declared lord president, 
Aug. 17, following. 

— Henry- William, marquess of Anglesey, 

master - general of the ordnance. 
Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, March, 
1828 ; again lord -lieutenant, Dec. 
1830 ; and again master-general of 
the ordnance, July, 1846. 

— John-William, viscount Dudley and 

Ward, secretary of state for foreign 
affairs. Afterwards earl Dudley. 

— Sir Anthony Hart, knt., vice chancellor 

of England. Lord chancellor of Ire- 
land, same year. 

— Hon. William Lamb, secretary for Ire- 

land. Succeeded as viscount Mel- 
bourne, 1828. Home secretar^^, Nov. 
1830. First minister of the crown, 
July, 1834; again, April, 1835. 

— Sir George Cockburn, vice admiral; 

first naval councillor to the lord high 
admiral. 

May 10. William-ConjTigham Plunket, chief 
justice of the common pleas in Ire- 
land. Subsequently lord chancellor 
in that kingdom, and created lord 
Plunket. 

May 23. James Abercrombj^, judge advocate- 
general. Master of the mint, July, 
1834 ; speaker of the house of com- 
mons from Feb. 1835 to May, 1839. 
Created lord Dunfermline, June 7, 
following. 

J une 30. Stephen Rumbold Lushington, governor 
of Madras. 

Aug. 17. Lord William-Henry Cavendish Ben- 
tinck. 



Aug. 17. John-Charles Herries, chancellor of the 
exchequer. Master of the mint, Feb. 
1828 ; president of the board of trade, 
Feb. 1830 ; and secretary-at-war, 
Dec. 1834. 

Nov. 16. Sir Lancelot Shadwell, knt., vice chan- 
cellor of England. 

— Sir James Mackintosh, some time re- 

corder of Bombay. Board of Controul. 

— Sir William Keppel, governor of 

Guernsey. 

1828. 

Jan. 26. Edward, lord EUenborough, lord privy 
seal. President of the board of con • 
troul, Sept. this year; again, Dec. 
1834 ; and a third time, Sept. 1841. 
Appointed governor-general of India, 
Oct. 1841. Created earl of Ellen- 
borough, Oct. 1844. 

Feb. 5. Thomas Frankland Lewis, vice presi- 
dent of the board of trade. Treasurer 
of the navv, Feb. 1830. Created a 
baronet, 1846. 

Feb. 13. Rowland, lord Hill, general on the staff, 
commanding in chief. 

Mar. 6. Sir Christopher Robinson, knt., judge of 
the admiralty court. 

May 30. William, viscount Lowther, first com- 
missioner of woods and forests. Vice 
president of the board of trade, 
Dec. 1834; postmaster-general, Sept. 
1841 ; and created, vita pabns, lord 
Lowther. Succeeded as earl of Lons- 
dale, March, 1844. 

— Sir George Murray, secretary of state 

for war and colonies. Master-general 
of the ordnance, Dec. 1834; again 
master-general, Sept. 1841. 

— Sir Henry Hardinge, secretary-at-w^ar. 

Secretary in Ireland, 1834 ; again 
secretary-at-war, Sept. 1841. Ap- 
pointed governor-general of India, 
May 2, 1844. Created viscount 
Hardinge, April, 1846. 

— Thomas Peregrine Courtenay, vice pre- 

sident of the board of trade. 
June 16. John Wilson Croker, secretary to the 
admiralty. 

— John Calcraft, paymaster of the forces. 
June 28. Lord Francis Leveson Gower (after- 
wards lord Francis Egerton), chief 
secretary for Ireland. Secretary-at- 
war, July, 1830. Created earl of 
Ellesmere, June, 1846. 

— Henry Hobhouse, keeper of the state 

papers, and honoris causa. 
July 23. Robert Adair (afterwards sir Robert, 

G. C. B.) late minister to Vienna, &c. 
July 31. Dr. Charles James Blomfield, lord 

bishop of Chester. Translated to 

London Aug. following. 

1829. 

June 10. James, earl of Rosslyn, lord privy seal. 
Declared lord president, Dec. 1834. 

— Sir Nicolas Conyngham Tindal, chief 

justice of the common pleas. 
Oct. 12. Sir Brook Taylor, G. C. H., late minister 
to several courts. 

1830. 

April 7. George, duke of Gordon, keeper of the 
great seal of Scotland. 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



143 



King William IV. 
1830. 

June 28. Bernard-Edward, duke of Norfolk, 
hereditary earl marshal of England. 

July 19. James-Horatio, marquess of Cholmon- 
deley, deputy great chamberlain of 
England. 

George, earl of Jersey, lord chamber- 
lain. Again, Dec. 1834; master of 
the horse, Sept. 1841. 

George, earl of Belfast, vice chamber- 
lain. Created lord Ennishowen, Aug. 
1841 ; succeeded as marquess of 
Donegal, Oct. 1844. 

— Sir William Rae, bart., lord advocate of 

Scotland. 

July 28. Henry, viscount Hereford. 

Aug. 25. John, earl of Clare, governor of the 
presidency of Bombay. 

Nov. 22. Charles, duke of Richmond, postmaster- 
general. Postmaster-general of Great 
Britain and Ireland (by a new pa- 
tent), April, 1831. 

— William-Charles, earl of Abemarle, 

master of the horse. Again, April, 
1835. 

— John, lord Durham, lord privy seal. 

Created earl of Durham, March, 1833. 
Ambassador to Russia, 1835; go- 
vernor-general of Canada, 1838. 

— George, lord Auckland, president of 

the board of trade, to which was 
joined the mastership of the mint, 
Dec. 14, following. First lord of 
the admiralty, June 1834; again, 
April, 1835 ; governor-general of 
India, Aug., same year. Earl of 
Auckland, Dec, 1839. Again, first 
lord of the admiralty, July 1846. 

— Henry, lord Brougham, lord chancellor 

of England. 

— John -Charles Spencer, viscount Al- 

thorpe, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Succeeded his father as earl Spencer. 
Nov. 1834. 

— George-James Agar Welbore Ellis, first 

commissioner of woods and forests. 

— Lord John Russell, paymaster-general. 

Home secretary, April, 1835 ; se- 
cretary for war and colonies, Aug. 
1839. First minister of the crown, 
July 1846. 

— Hon. Edward-Geoffrey-Smith Stanley, 

chief secretary for Ireland. Colonial 
secretary, April 1833; again colonial 
secretary, Sept. 1841. Summoned to 
the house of peers, as lord Stanley, cf 
Bickerstaffe, Oct. 1844. 

— Sir James-Robert-George Graham, bart., 

first lord of the admiralty. Secretary 
of state for the home department, 
Sept. 1841. 

— George-Robert Dawson, late secretary 

to the treasury, and to the admiralty : 
honoris causa. 

— Charles Poulett Thompson, vice presi- 

dent of the board of trade. Trea- 
surer of the navy, Dec. 13, following. 
President of the board of trade, 
June 1834; afterwards governor of 
Canada. Created lord Sydenham, 
Aug. 1840. 

Nov. 24. Sir William Johnstone Hope, admiral. 



Nov. 24. William, viscount Anson, master of the 
buckhounds. 

— Robert Grant, judge advocate- g eneral : 

afterwards sir Robert, G. C. H. 
Dec. 1. Ulick, marquess of Clanricarde, am- 
bassador to Russia. Postmaster- 
general, July, 1846. 

— Hon. Robert Grosvenor, comptroller of 

the household. 
Dec. 8. Thomas, lord Foley, captain of the band 
of gentlemen at arms. 

— Sir James Kempt, master-general of the 

ordnance. Governor - general and 
commander-in-chief in Canada, Aug. 
1828. 

1831. 

Jan. 31. William-George, earl of Erroll, here- 
ditary lord high constable of Scotland ; 
master of the horse to the queen con- 
sort. Lord steward of the household, 
Nov. 1839. 

— Richard-William, earl Howe, lord cham- 

berlain to the queen. 
Feb. 23. Archibald, earl of Roseberry. 

— John, viscount Duncannon, chief com- 

missioner of woods and forests. 
Home secretary, July, 1834; privy 
seal, and woods and forests again, 
May 1835. Succeeded as earl of Bes- 
borough, Feb. 1844. 

— Michael- An gelo Taylor : honoris causa. 
Mar. 23. Edward, earl of Derby. 

— William Conyngham, lord Plunket, lord 

chancellor of Ireland. Again lord 
chancellor of Ireland, April 1835. 
June 29. Augustus-Frederick, duke of Lein- 
ster. 

— Sir Frederick Adam, lord high commis- 

sioner of the Ionian Islands. 

— Sir Edward Hyde East, bart., late chief 

justice of Bengal. 

1832. 

Feb. 6. Sir John C. Hobhouse, bart., secretary- 
at-war. Secretary for Ireland, 1834 ; 
first commissioner of woods and 
forests, July, same year; president 
of the India board, April 1835 ; 
again president of the India board, 
April, 1846. 

— Charles Tennyson, who assumed the 

name of D'Eyncourt, in 1835 : honoris 
causa. 

Feb. 22. Sir William Garrow, knt., late a baron 
of the exchequer. 

May 30. Henry Constantine Phipps, earl of 
Mulgrave. Lord privy seal, July 
1834. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
April 1835. Created marquess of 
Normanby, June 1838. Appointed 
colonial secretary, Feb. 1839 ; home 
secretary, Aug., same year. Present 
ambassador to France. 

July 11. Holt Mackenzie, a commissioner for the 
affairs of India. 

— Henry Ellis, minister to Persia. 

Aug. 15. Gilbert, earl of Minto, minister to Prus- 
sia. First lord of the admiralty, Sept. 
1835 ; privy seal, July 1846. 

Nov. 6. Sir Thomas Denman, knt., lord chief 
justice of the king's bench. Created 
lord Denman, March 1834. 



144 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



1833. 

Feb. 4. Basil Percy Fielding, earl of Denbigh, 
the queen's lord chamberlain. 

Feb. 4. George Fitzclarence, earl of Munster. 

April 3. Edward Ellice, secretary-at-war. 

June 12. Edward- John Littleton, appointed se- 
cretary for Ireland. Created lord 
Hatherton, May 1835. 

Aug. 14. Sir James Parke, knt., baron of the 
exchequer. 

Sept. 4. Sir John Bernard Bosanquet, knt., a 
justice of the common pleas. 

— Sir Alexander Johnstone, late chief 

justice in Ceylon; assessor of the 
judicial committee of the privy 
council. 

Sept. 11. George- William, duke of Argyll, lord 
steward of the household. 

1834. 

Jan. 24. Howe Peter, marquess of Sligo, go- 
vernor-general of Jamaica. 

Mar. 5. Sir John Bayley, knt., late a baron of 
the exchequer. 

Apr. 16. Sir Robert Graham, a lord of the trea- 
sury. 

June 5. Thomas Spring Rice, secretary for the 
colonial department. Chancellor of 
the exchequer, April 1835. Created 
lord Monteagle, Aug. 1839. 

— Sir John Vaughan, knt., late a baron 

of the exchequer, now a justice C. P. 

July 16. Robert Cutlar Fergusson, judge advo- 
cate-general. 

Sept. 3. Archibald, earl of Gosford, governor of 
Canada. 

Oct. 1. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, knt., 
master of the rolls. First commis- 
sioner of the great seal, April 1835 ; 
made lord chancellor and created lord 
Cottenham, Jan. 1836 ; created earl 
of Cottenham, June 1850. 

Oct. 29. Sir Herbert Jenner (Fust), vicar-gene- 
ral, dean of the arches' court, &c. 

Dec. 15. Stapleton, viscount Combermere, gene- 
ral. 

— James-Archibald, lord Wharncliffe, 

lord privy seal. Lord president, 
Sept. 3, 1841. 

— Sir Edward Knatchbull, bart., pay- 

master of the forces. Again, Sept. 
1841. 

— Sir James Scarlett, knt., lord chief 

baron of the exchequer. Created lord 
Abinger, Jan. 1835. 

— Sir Edward Sugden, knt., appointed 

lord chancellor of Ireland. Again 
lord chancellor of Ireland, Oct. 1841. 

— Alexander Baring, president of the 

board of trade, with, immediately 
afterwards, the mastership of the 
mint. Created lord Ashburton, April 
1835. 

Dec. 20. Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somer- 
set, first commissioner of woods and 
forests. Chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, Sept. 1841. 

— William Yates Peel, a lord of the trea- 

sury ; honoris causa. 

— Joseph Planta, late secretary to, and a 

lord of, the treasury ; honoris causa. 
Dec. 29. George, earl of Chesterfield. 

— Thomas-Philip, earl De Grey, first lord 



of the admiralty. Lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, Sept. 1841. 

1835. 

Feb. 18. Thomas, earl of Wilton, lord steward 
of the household. 

Feb. 23. Frederick, viscount Castlereagh, vice- 
chamberlain of the household. 

— Hon. Henry-Thomas Lowry Corry, 

comptroller of the household. 
Apr, 18. Henry, viscount Howick, secretary-at- 
war. Succeeded as earl Grey, July, 

1845. Secretary of state for war and 
colonies, July 1846. 

May 6. Henry Labouchere, vice president of 
the board of trade and master of the 
mint. President of the board of 
trade, Aug. 1839; secretary for Ire- 
land, 1846. Again president, July 
1847. 

May 20. Francis-Nathaniel, marquess of Co- 
nyngham, postmaster-general : after- 
wards lord chamberlain. 

— George, viscount Morpeth, chief secre- 

tary for Ireland. First commis- 
sioner of woods and forests, July 

1846. Succeeded as earl of Carlisle, 
Oct. 1848. Chancellor of the duchy 
of Lancaster, March 1850. 

May 27. Sir Richard Hussey Vivian, bart., gene- 
ral ; master-general of the ordnance. 
Created lord Vivian, Aug. 1841. 

— Hon. George Stevens Byng, comptroller 

of the household. Viscount Enfield 
on his father's creation as earl of 
Strafi'ord, Sept. 1847. 
June 24. Sir Harford Jones Brydges, bart., late 
sir Harford J ones, former minister to 
Persia. 

July 1. Lord Charles Fitzroy, vice-chamber- 
lain of the household. 

— Sir Charles-Edward Grey, knt., a com- 

missioner for investigating the griev- 
ances affecting Canada. 

1836. 

Jan. 16. Henry Bickersteth, master of the rolls. 

Created lord Langdale, Jan. follow- 
ing. Chief commissioner of the 
great seal, June, 1850. 

Aug. 3. John, lord Elphinstone. 

1837. 

Mar. 1. Lucius, viscount Falkland, governor 

of Nova Scotia. 
Apr. 5. J. A. Stewart Mackenzie, governor of 

Ceylon. 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. 

July 12. Henry Stephen, earl of Ilchester, cap- 
tain of the yeomen of the guard. 

July 19. Henry-Charles Howard, earl of Surrey, 
treasurer of the household. Created 
lord Maltravers, Aug. 1841. Suc- 
ceeded as duke of Norfolk, March 
1842. Master of the horse, July 1846. 

1838. 

Nov. 5. Stephen Lushington, judge of the high 
court of admiralty. 

1839. 

Mar. 1. Hugh, viscount Ebrington, appoir;tfid , 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. SumV' 



PRIVY COUNCILLORS. 



145 



moned to the house of peers, vita 
patrisj as baron Fortescue. Suc- 
ceeded as earl Fortescue, June 1841. 
Lord steward, July, 1846. 
Mar. 1. Sir George Grey, bart., judge advocate- 
general. Chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, June 1841. Secretary of 
state for the home department, July, 
1846. 

May 22. Henry, earl of Uxbridge, lord cham- 
berlain. 

June 3. Charles Shaw Lefevre, speaker of the 
house of commons. 

July 31. Sir Charles-Theophilus Metcalfe, go- 
vernor of Canada. Created lord 
Metcalfe, June 1845. 

Aug. 26. Francis Thornhill Baring, chancellor of 
the exchequer. First lord of the ad- 
miralty, Jan. 1849. 

Aug. 29. Richard "Lalor Sheil, vice-president of 
the board of trade. Judge advocate- 
general, June 1841 ; master of the 
mint, July 1846. Minister to Tuscany, 
Oct. 1850. 

Sept. 30. Thomas Babington Macaulay, secre- 
tary-at-war. Pavmaster-general, 
July 1846. 

1840. 

Jan. 3. George, earl of Clarendon, privy seal. 

Chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 
caster, Oct., same year ; president 
of the board of trade, July 1846. 
Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, May 1847. 

Jan. 15. George, lord Kinnaird, master of the 
buck-hounds. 

Sept. 11. H. R. H. prince Albert, consort to the 
queen : introduced ; not sworn. 

1841. 

Feb. 25. Sir Joseph Littledale, knt., late a justice 
of the king's (queen's) bench. 

June 22. Lord Arthur Marcus Cecil Hill, comp- 
troller of the household. Again 
comptroller, July, 1847. 

— John, lord Campbell, lord chancellor of 

Ireland. Chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, July 1846. Lord chief 
justice of England, March 1850. 
June 28. Hon. Fox Maule, vice-president of the 
board of trade. Secretary-at-war, 
July 1846. 

Aug. 11. Hon. Edward- John Stanley, paymaster- 
general. Created lord Eddisbury, 
vitdpatris, Mav 1848. Succeeded as 
Lord Stanley, of Alderley, Oct. 1850. 

Aug. 21. Robert Vernon Smith, under-secretary 
of state. 

Sept. 3. Richard Plantagenet, duke of Bucking- 
ham and Chandos, privy seal. 

— Charles Cecil, earl of Liverpool, lord 

steward of the household. 

— Edward Granville, lord Eliot, secretary 

for Ireland. Succeeded as earl of St. 
Germans, Jan. 1845. Postmaster- 
general, Jan. 1846. 

— Lord Ernest Bruce, vice-chamberlain. 

— Henry Pelham, earl of Lincoln, first 

commissioner of woods and forests. 
Chief secretary for Ireland, 1846. 

— William-Ewart Gladstone, vice-presi- 

dent of the board of trade and master 
of the mint. President of the board 



of trade, Juno, 1843; colonial se- 
cretary, Dec. 1845. 
Sept. 14. Cecil, marquess of Exeter, hereditarv 
grand almoner; groom of the stole 
in prince Albert's household. 

— John- William-Robert, marquess of Lo- 

thian, captain of the yeomen of the 
guard. 

— George-John, earl De la Warr, lord 

chamberlain. 

— James- Alexander, earl of Rosslyn, mas- 

ter of the buck-hounds. 

— John-George, lord Forrester, captain of 

the band of gentlemen-at-arms. 

— Hon. George-Lionel Dawson Darner, 

comptroller of the household. 

— Dr. John Nicholl, judge advocate-gene- 

ral. A lord of trade, Jan, 1846. 
Oct. 6. Frederick- William, earl Jermyn, trea- 
surer of the household. 

1842. 

Jan. 15. George, earl of Beverley. 

— Sir James Lewis Knight Bruce, knt,, 

vice-chancellor. 

— Sir James Wigram, knt., vice-chan- 

cellor. 

Feb. 2. Walter-Francis, duke of Buccleuch and 
Queensberry, lord privy seal. De- 
clared lord president, Jan. 21, 1846. 

1843. 

June 10. James, earl of Dalhousie, vice-president 
of the board of trade. President of 
the same board, Feb. 1845, Ap- 
pointed governor-general of India, 
August, 1847. Created marquess of 
Dalhousie. 

— Sir Edward Ryan, knt,, late chief jus- 

tice of the supreme court of Bengal. 

— Thomas Pemberton Leigh, chancellor 

and keeper of the great seal to the 
duke of Cornwall. 
Dec. 13. Richard Pakenham, envoy extraordi- 
nary to the United States. 

1844. 

Apr. 17. John Hope, lord justice cierk of Scot- 
land. 

— Sir Frederick Pollock, knt,, lord chief 

baron of the exchequer. 
May 23. Sir Thomas-Francis Fremantle, bart., 
secretary-at-war. Chief secretary 
for Ireland. 

— Sir Henry Pottinger, late plenipoten- 

tiary in China. Appointed governor 
of Madras, Aug. 1847. 

1845. 

Feb. 3. Hon. Sidney Herbert, secretary-at-war. 
Feb. 5. Sir George Clerk, bart., vice-president 

of the board of trade and master of 

the mint. 

J une 30. William Bingham Baring, paymaster- 
general. Succeeded as lord Ash- 
burton, May 1848. 

— Henry Lytton Bulwer, minister pleni- 

potentiary to Spain; subsequently'' 
minister to the United States. 

1846. 

Feb. 25. James, marquess of Abercorn, groom of 
the stole to prince Albert. 



146 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Feb. 25. James-Archibald Stuart Wortley, judge 
advocate-general. 

Mar. 18. John, viscount Canning, first commis- 
sioner of woods and forests. 

July 6. Francis Russell, duke of Bedford. 

— Charles Wood (afterwards sir Charles 

Wood, bart.), chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 

July 8. Frederick, earl Spencer, lord chamber- 
lain of the household. 

— Lord Edward-George Fitz-Alan How- 

ard, vice-chamberlain. 

— Thomas Milner Gibson, vice-president 

of the board of trade. 

Aug. 1. Granville George, earl Granville, mas- 
ter of the buck-hounds. Vice-presi- 
dent of the board of trade and pay- 
master-general. May 1848. 

Oct. 30. Sir Thomas Wilde, chief justice of the 
common pleas. Afterwards lord high 
chancellor, and created lord Truro 
in 1850. 

— Edward Strutt, chief commissioner of 

railways. 

1847. 

June 17. Sir George Arthur, bart., late governor 
of Bombay. 

July 22. Hon. William Sebright Lascelles, comp- 
troller of the household. 

— Sir William Meredyth Somerville, bart., 

chief secretary for Ireland. 
Oct. 30. James Stephen (now sir James, K. C. 

B.), late under-secretary of state for 

war and colonies. 
Nov. 22. Richard More O'Ferrall, governor of 

Malta. 



1848. 

Feb. 11. Dr. Thomas Musgrave, lord archbishop 
of York. 

— William Goodenough Hayter, judge 

advocate-general. Joint secretary to 
the treasury, May, 1849. 

Apr. 15. Dr. John Bird Sumner, lord archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

June 27. John-George, earl of Besborough, mas- 
ter of the buck-hounds. 

— Samuel March Phillips, late under- 

secretary of state for the home de- 
partment ; honoris causa. 
Sept. 4. John, marquess of Breadalbane, lord 
chamberlain. 

1849. 

Feb. 13. Thomas Wyse, minister plenipotentiary 
to Greece. 

June 29. Sir David Dundas, knt., judge advo- 
cate-general. 

July 30. Matthew Talbot Baines, chief commis- 
sioner of poor laws. 

1850. 

Mar. 22. Richard, marquess of Westminster, lord 
steward of the household. 

July 13. Henry Tufnell, late secretary to the 
treasury ; honoris causa. 

Aug. 14. Sir John Jervis, knt., chief justice of 
the common pleas. 

Nov. 13. Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe, knt., late a 
baron of the exchequer, vice chan- 
cellor of England. 



THE LORD PEIVY SEAL. 

The Lord Privy Seal is a place of great trust, honour, and antiquity. The noble- 
man holding it is usually above the degree of a baron, and ranks as the fifth great 
officer of state. He is denominated from his having the custody of the Privy Seal, 
which he must not put to any grant without good warrant under the king's, or, as 
now, the queen's signet ; and it is his especial duty to apprise the sovereign of any 
matter contained in the instruments he has to seal, that may be inconvenient, or not 
in perfect accordance with the law. This seal is affixed to all charters, warrants, 
grants, and pardons : the issuing of money out of the exchequer, cancelling a recog- 
nisance to the king, discharging a debt, and other matters that never pass the great 
seal, may be done under the authority of the Privy Seal ; but no writs can pass this 
seal which touch the common law. The Lord Privy Seal is a privy councillor by his 
office ; and ranks next after the Lord President of the Council, and before all dukes. 



Lords Privy Seal. 



King Henry VIII. 
* * Dr. Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester. 
1516. Dr. Thomas Routhall, bishop of Durham. 

Henry Marney, lord Marney. 
1523. Dr. Cuthbert Tunstal, bishop of London. 
1533. WiUiam, earl of Southampton. 

Thomas, earl of Wiltshire and Ormond. 
1536. Thomas, lord Cromwell, afterwards earl of 

Essex : beheaded in 1540. 
1543. John, lord Russell, afterwards earl of Bed- 
ford. 



King Edward VI. 
1547. Lord Russell, continued. 

Queen Mary. 

1553. Lord Russell, continued. 

1554. Edward, earl of Derby. 
1556. William, lord Paget. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
1558. Sir Nicholas Bacon. 



LORDS PHIVY SEAL. 



147 



1572. William, lord Howard of Effingham. 

— James Windebank. 

King James I. 
1608. Henry, earl of Northampton. 
1614. Edward, earl of Worcester. 

King Charles I. 
1625. Earl of Worcester, continued. 
1627. Henry, earl of Manchester. 

King Charles II. 

1660. William, viscount Say and Sele. 

1661. John, lord Robartes, afterwards earl of 

Radnor; appointed lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland. June 17, 1669. 

1669. Sir Edward Deering, bart., sir Thomas 
Strickland, knt., and Robert Milward, 
commissioners of privy seal during lord 
Robartes' absence in Ireland. Sept. 22. 

1673. Arthur, earl of Anglesey. April 24. 

1682. George, marquess of Halifax. Feb. 24. 

King James II. 

1685. Henry, earl of Clarendon. Feb. 18. 

— Robert, viscount Tiviot, Robert Phillips, 

and John Evelyn, commissioners of the 
privy seal, during the earl's absence in 
Ireland as lord-lieutenant. 

1686. Henry, lord Arundel of W ardour. March 11. 

King William III. 

1689. George, marquess of Halifax. Feb. 19. 

1690. Wilham Cheney, sir John Knatchbull, 

bart., and sir William Pulteney, knt., 
commissioners. 

1691. Thomas, earl of Pembroke. 

1697. Sir Thomas Montpesson, knt., sir Charles 
Cotterel, junior, knt., and James Tyrrell, 
commissioners of the privy seal, during 
the earl's absence in Ireland as lord- 
lieutenant. April 13. 

1699. John, viscount Lonsdale. May 16. 

1700. Ford, earl of Tankerville. 

1701. Edward Southwell, Christopher Mus- 

grave, and James Vernon, commission- 
ers. June 11. 

Queen Anne. 

1702. John, marquess of Normanby, afterwards 

duke of Normanby and Buckingham- 
shire. April 27. 

1705. John, duke of Newcastle. March 31. 

1711. John Robinson, D. D., bishop of Bristol, 
afterwards bishop of London. April 23. 

— Sir George Beaumont, bart., Robert Byerly, 

and Edward Nicholas, commissioners 
during the bishop's absence at the 
treaty of Utrecht. Dec. 22. 

1713. William, earl of Dartmouth. 

King George I. 

1714. Thomas, marquess of Wharton, Sept. 24 ; 

died April 12, 1715. 

1715. Edward Southwell, sir Christopher Mus- 

grave, bart., and Andrew Charleton, 
commissioners. April 30. 

— Charles, earl of Sunderland. Aug. 20. 

1716. Edward Southwell, J ames Vernon, and An- 

drew Charleton, commissioners during 
the earl's absence at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Aug. 28. 

— Evelyn, duke of Kingston. Dec. 19. 

L 



1718. Henry, duke of Kent. Feb. 6. 
1720. Evelyn, duke of Kingston. June 11. 

1726. Thomas, lord Trevor. March 11. 

King George II. 

1727. Lord Trevor, continued. 

1730. Spencer, earl of Wilmington. May 8. 

1731. William, duke of Devonshire. June 12. 
1733. Henry, viscount Lonsdale. May 5. 
1735. Francis, earl of Godolphin. May. 

1740. John, lord Hervey, eldest son of the earl of 
Bristol. April 7. 

1742. John, lord Gower. July 13. 

1743. George, earl of Cholmondeley. Dec. 

1744. John, lord Gower (^second time). Dec. 27. 
1755. Charles, duke of Marlborough. Jan. 8. 
1755. Granville, earl Gower. Dec. 22. 

1757. Richard Temple, earl Temple. June 30. 

King George III. 

1760. Earl Temple, continued. 

1761. John, duke of Bedford. Nov. 25. 
1763. George, duke of Marlborough, April 22. 

1765. Thomas Holies, duke of Newcastle. Aug. 25. 

1766. William, earl of Chatham. July 30. 
1768. Richard Sutton, William Blair, and William 

Eraser, commissioners for six weeks, or 
other sooner determination. Feb. 
[The seal re-delivered to the earl of Chat- 
ham. March 21.] 

— George- William, earl of Bristol. Nov. 2. 

1770. George, earl of Halifax. Feb. 26. 

1771. Henry, earl of Suffolk and Berkshire. 

Jan. 22. 

— Augustus-Henrj'-, duke of Grafton. June 12. 
1775. William, earl of Dartmouth. Nov. 4. 

1782. Augustus-Henrv, duke of Grafton. March 

27. 

1783. Frederick, earl of Carlisle. April 2. 

— Charles, duke of Rutland. Dec. 23. 

1784. William Eraser, Stephen Cotterell, and 

Evan Nepean, commissioners. March 8. 

— Granville Leveson, earl Gower, afterwards 

marquess of Stafford. Nov. 27. 
1794. George- John, earl Spencer. July 16. 

— Evan Nepean, Stephen Cotterell, and James 

Bland Burgess, during the absence of 
earl Spencer. July 26. 

— John, earl of Chatham. Dec. 17. 
1798. John, earl of Westmoreland. Feb. 14. 

1806. Henry, viscount Sidmouth. Feb. 5. 

— Henry-Richard, lord Holland. Oct. 15. 

1807. John, earl of Westmoreland. March 25. 

King George IV. 
1820. Earl of Westmoreland, continued. 

1827. William-Henry, duke of Portland. April 30. 

— George, earl of Carlisle. July 16. 

1828. Edward, lord EUenborough. Jan. 26. 

1829. James, earl of Rosslyn. June 10. 

King William IV. 

1830. Earl of Rosslyn, continued. 

— John, lord Durham. Nov. 22. Afterwards 

earl of Durham. 

1833. Frederick- John, earl of Ripon. Aprils. 

1834. George, earl of Carlise, second time. June 5. 

— Constantine-Henry, earl of Mulgrave ; now 

marquess of Normanby. July 30. 

— James- Archibald, lord Wharncliffe. Dec. 15. 

1835. John- William, viscount Duncannon, after- 

wards earl of Besborough. April 23. 



148 



STATESMEISr AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Queen Victoria. 

1840. George-William-Frederick, earl of Claren- 

don. Jan. 15. 

1841. Richard, duke of Buckingham. Sept. 3. 



1842. Walter, duke of Buccleuch. Feb. 2. 
1846. Thomas, earl of Haddington. Jan. 21. 
— Gilbert, earl of Minto. J uly 6. The pre- 
sent (1850) Lord Privy Seal. 



LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN OF ENGLAND. 

This is the sixth great officer of state. The office is hereditary, is of great 
antiquity, and was anciently of much importance. It was granted by Henry I. to the 
family of De Yere, earls of Oxford, by whom it was enjoyed for nearly six centuries. 
On the death of the 18th earl of Oxford, of this family, without issue, in 1625, both 
the office and the earldom were claimed, together with other titles, by Robert Bertie, 
baron Willoiighby d'Eresby, in right of his mother, who was sister and heiress of 
Edward, 17th earl of Oxford. The earldom was awarded by the house of lords to 
the heir male collateral, in whose son it became extinct; while the office of Hereditary 
Great Chamberlain was adjudged to be descendible through heirs female, and was 
consequently confirmed to lord Willoughby d'Eresby, who took his seat in the house 
of lords in that capacity in 1626. This nobleman was created duke of Ancaster and 
Kesteven in July 1715, and the office descended uninterruptedly in his family until 
the death of the 4th duke in 1779, when the barony of Willoughby d'Eresby fell into 
abeyance, and the chamberlainship was claimed by five distinct branches of the 
family. The house of peers decided that it became vested in the two sisters of the 
deceased 4th duke jointly; and that they were competent to appoint a deputy. In 
favour of the elder of these sisters the abeyance of the barony of Willoughby was 
terminated, and she became a baroness in her own right : the second sister married 
into the family of Cholmondeley. The deputy appointed by these joint heiresses was 
Peter Burrell, afterwards lord Gwydyr. His son (who succeeded, in 1828, as 19th 
baron Willoughby d'Eresby, also) now performs the duties of the office in right 
of his mother, having held it jointly with his aunt, the dowager marchioness of 
Cholmondeley, until her death in 1838. The marquess of Cholmondeley and lord 
Willoughby d'Eresby are now the joint officers, in right of their mothers respectively. 
Many perquisites belong to this office, but they are usually compounded for when 
claimed at particular ceremonies, as coronations, &c. 



Lord Great Chamberlains of England. 



King Charles I. 

1G2G. Robert Bertie, lord Willoughby d'Eresby, 
by descent from the De Veres, earls of 
Oxford, created earl of Lindsey: killed 
at the battle of Edgehill, Oct. 23, 1642. 

1G42. Montagu Bertie, earl of Lindsey. 

King Charles II. 
16GG. Robert Bertie, earl of Lindsey. 

King William III. 
1701. Robert Bertie, earl of Lindse}^ created 
marquess of Lindsey in 1706, and duke 
of Ancaster and Kesteven in 1715. 

King George I. 
1723. Peregrine Bertie, duke of Ancaster and 
Kesteven. 

King George II. 
1742. Peregrine Bertie, duke of Ancaster and 
Kesteven. 



King George III. 

1778. Robert Bertie, duke of Ancaster and Keste- 

ven : died July 8, 1779. 

1779. [The office vacant, and the claim to it, in 

dispute, for upwards of a year.] 

1780. Priscilla-Barbara- Elizabeth Burrell, lady 

Willoughby d'Eresby, and Georgiana, 
countess, afterwards marchioness of 
Cholmondely, jointly: they appointed 
sir Peter Burrell, afterwards lord Gwy- 
dyr, their deputv; the baroness died 
Dec. 29, 1828. 

King George IY. 
1828. Peter-Robert, lord Willoughby d'Eresby, 
and Georgiana, dowager marchioness of 
Cholmondeley, jointly : the marchioness 
died June 23, 1838. 

Queen Victoria. 
1838. Peter-Robert, lord Willoughby d'Eresby, 
and George-Horatio, marquess of Chol- 
mondeley, jointl}' : present Lord Great 
Chamberlain of England. 



LORD HIGH CONSTABLES. 



149 



THE LORD HIGH CONSTABLE OF ENGLAND 

Is the SEVENTH great officer of the crown; and he, and the earl marshal of 
England, were anciently judges of the court of chivalry, called in Henry TV's time 
Curia Militarise and afterwards the Court of Honour. The court was holden in the 
king's hall, and was esteemed the fountain of the martial law. Formerly the power 
of the Lord High Constable was so great, and such improper uses were made of it, 
that so early as the 1 3th of Richard II. (1389) a statute was passed for regulatino- 
and abridging his authority, as also that of the earl marshal ; and by this statute no 
plea could be tried by them or in their courts, that could be tried by the common 
law of the realm. The office of Constable existed before the conquest, and seems to 
have been instituted by our Saxon ancestors, the word being derived from their 
language. It was granted in the reign of Stephen to Milo de Gloucester, earl of 
Hereford ; and went with inheritance, and by the tenure of certain manors in Glou- 
cestershire^, by grand sergeantry, into the family of the Bohuns, earls of Hereford 
and Essex, and afterwards into the family of Staffi3rd, as heirs-general to them. In 
1521 this great office became forfeited to the king in the person of Edward Staffi)rd, 
duke of Buckingham, who was in that year attainted of high treason ; and it then 
ceased to be hereditary. The Lord High Constable is now an appointment pro hdc 
vice^ to officiate at coronations, or at trials by combat.^ 



Lord High Constables at Cokonations. 



King Edward VI. 
1547. Henry, marquess of Dorset, afterwards 
duke of Suffolk. The king crowned, 
Sunday, Feb. 20. 

Queen Mary I. 
1553. William, earl of Arundel. The queen 
crowned, Oct. 1. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
1559. Henry, earl of Arundel. Her majesty 
crowned, Jan. 15. 

King James I. 
1603, Edward, earl of Worcester. The king 
crowned, with his queen, Anne, July 25. 

King Charles I. 
1626. George, duke of Buckingham. The king 
crowned, with his queen, Henrietta- 
Maria, Feb. 2. 

King Charles II. 
1661. Algernon, earl of Northumberland. The 
king crowned, April 23. 

King James II. 
1685. Henry, duke of Grafton. The king crowned, 
according to the Protestant ritual, 
April 23. 

King William III. and Queen Mary II. 
1689. James, duke of Ormond. The king and 
queen crowned by the bishop of London, 



the archbishop of Canterbury refusing 
to officiate, April 11. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Wriothesley, duke of Bedford. The queen 
crowned, April 13. 

King George I. 
1714. John, duke of Montagu. The king crowned, 
Oct. 20. 

King George II. 
1727. Charles, duke of Richmond, Lenox, and 
Aubigny. The king crowned, with his 
queen, Wilhelmina- Caroline, Oct. 11 

King George III. 
1761. John, duke of Bedford. The king crowned, 
with his queen, Charlotte - Sophia, 
Sept. 22. 

King George IV. 
1821. Arthur, duke of Wellington, 
crowned, July 19. 

King William IV. 
1831. Arthur, duke of Wellington. 

crowned, with his queen, 
Sept. 8. 

Queen Victoria. 
1838. Arthur, duke of Wellington.^ Her majesty 
crowned, June 28. 



The king 



The king 
Adelaide, 



1 The castle of Caldecot or Caldecote, near Chepstow, in Monmouthshire, was the residence of the Lord High 
Constables of England, and was held by them in virtue of their office. 

2 The only instance that occurs of a trial by combat being ordered since the office of Lord High Constable was 
in the hands of the Crown, is that between Lord Reay and David Ramsay, Esq., November 28, 1631 ; but the 
king afterwards prevented the trial. Ou this occasion Robert Bertie, Earl of Lindsey, was appointed Lord High 
Constable. 

3 It will be seen that the duke of Wellington officiated as lord high constable of England at the coronations of 
three sovereigns consecutively, George IV., William IV., and Victoria, a remarkable circumstance in the life of 
the duke, no similar instance having occurred from the Conquest up to our own times. 



L 3 



150 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



THE EAEL MARSHAL OF ENGLAND. 

The earl marshal is the eighth great officer of state. The office, until it was made 
hereditary, always passed by grant from the king, and never was held by tenure or 
sergeantry (by any subject) as the offices of lord high steward and lord high 
constable sometimes were. The Marshal was anciently styled Lord Marshal only ; 
but Richard IL, June 20, 1397, granted letters-patent to Thomas Mowbray, earl of 
Nottingham, and to h*is heirs, the style of Earl Marshal. James I. by letters-patent, 
dated August 29, 1622, constituted Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel and Surrey, 
Earl Marshal for life ; and his majesty the next year granted other letters-patent, 
wherein it was declared that during the vacancy of the office of lord high constable, 
the Earl Marshal should have the like jurisdiction in the court of chivalry as both 
constable and marshal had jointly exercised. Charles II. , Oct. 19, 1672, granted to 
Henry, lord Howard, and to his heirs, this office and dignity, with power to execute 
the same by deputy or deputies, in as full and ample a manner as the same had 
heretofore been executed by any former Marshal of England. The office, now held 
by the duke of Norfolk, confers the dignity of earl on its possessor. His grace is also 
earl of Arundel by his tenure of Arundel castle, without any creation, patent, or 
investiture. These are the only instances that exist of the title being so constituted. 



Lords and Earls Marshal of England. 



1135. Gilbert de Clare, lord marshal, created earl 
of Pembroke by king Stephen, 1139. 

1149. Richard de Clare, surnamed Strongbow, 
earl of Pembroke, and lord marshal: 
died in 1176. 

1176. John, surnamed Marshal, from this office, 
which was conferred on him by Hen. II. 
on the death of Richard, earl of Pem- 
broke. 

1199. William Marshal, lord Marshal, grandson 
of John; who, having married Isabel, 
daughter and heiress of Richard Strong- 
bow, was by king John created earl of 
Pembroke in 1201. 

1219. William Marshal, earl of Pembroke. 

1231. Richard Marshal, earl of Pembroke. 

1234. Gilbert Marshal, earl of Pembroke. 

1242. Walter Marshal, earl of Pembroke. 

1245. Anselm Marshal, earl of Pembroke. 

1245. Roger Bigot or Bigod, earl of Norfolk, lord 
marshal, in right of Maud his mother, 
one of the sisters and co-heiresses of 
the last five marshals. 

1269. Roger Bigot or Bigod, earl of Norfolk; 

whose estate, being confiscated to the 
crown, came, after his decease, into the 
king's hands. 

1307. Robert de Clifibrd, made lord marshal by 

Edward II. durante bene placito. 

1308. Nicholas Segrave, lord Segrave. 

1315. Thomas Plantagenet (of Brotherton), earl 
of Norfolk, in right of his wife, daughter 
and heiress of lord Segrave. 

— Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas 

Plantagenet, earl of Norfolk : she was 
often honoured with the title of lady 
marshal, and was afterwards created 
duchess of Norfolk. 

— William de Montacute, earl of Salisbury. 

— Thomas Beauchamp, the elder, earl of 

Warwick. 

— Edmund Mortimer, lord Mortimer. — 

These all successively discharged the 
office of lord marshal ; but whether as 
deputies to the lady Margaret, nondum 
plane constat. 



1377. Henry, lord Percy, lord marshal at the 
coronation of Richard II. 

— (John Fitz-Alan, lord Maltravers. — Cam- 

den.) 

1383. Thomas Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, 
grandson to the lady Margaret by her 
daughter Elizabeth ; made the first earl 
marshal by Richard II. and afterwards 
created duke of Norfolk. 

1398. Thomas Holland, earl of Kent and duke of 
Surrey; made earl marshal on the 
banishment of the duke of Norfolk. 

— Thomas, lord Mowbray, earl of Notting- 

ham : he assumed, on his father's death 
(at Venice), the title of earl marshal ; 
but the office was exercised by John, 
earl of Salisbury. — Camden. 

1400. Ralph Nevill, earl of Westmoreland ; made 
lord marshal of England for life, by 
Henry IV. in the beginning of his reign. 

1412. John, lord Mowbray, brother of Thomas, 
earl marshal : restored to the title of 
earl of Nottingham and earl marshal by 
Henry V., and to that of duke of Nor- 
folk by Henry VI. 

1435. John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk. 

1445. John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk. 

1476. Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, second 
son to Edward IV. : created, by his 
father, duke of Norfolk and earl mar- 
shal, in right of his wife Anne, daughter 
and heiress to John Mowbray, duke of 
Norfolk. 

— (Sir Thomas Grey, Knt. — Camden.) 
1483. John, lord Howard, in right of his wife 

Anne (widow of Richard, duke of York), 
daughter and heiress of John Mowbray, 
duke of Norfolk. 

1486. William, lord Berkeley, earl of Notting- 
ham, in right of Isabel his mother, 
daughter of Thomas Mowbray, duke of 
Norfolk, by Henry VII. 

1497. Henry Tudor, duke of York, second son to 
Henry VII. : afterwards Henry VIII. 

1509. Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (son to 
John, lord Howard, duke of Norfolk, 



LORD HIGH ADMIRALS. 



151 



attainted), created earl marshal, and 
restored as duke of Norfolk. 
1509. Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. — Cam- 
den. 

1546. Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk: at- 

tainted in 1546. 

1547. Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset : be- 

headed. 

— John Dudley, duke of Northumberland: 
beheaded. — Camden. 

1553. Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk: restored 

to his blood and honours by Queen 
Mary I. 

1554. Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk : beheaded 

in 1572. 

1572. George Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury: died 
in 1590. 

1597. Kobert Devereux, earl of Essex : beheaded 
in 1601. 

1603. Edward Somerset, earl of Worcester : per- 
formed the duties of earl marshal at the 
coronation of king James ; after which 
the office was for a long time executed 
by commission. 

1621. Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel and 
Surrey (grandson of Thomas, duke of 
Norfolk, by his son Philip, earl of 
Arundel) ; created earl marshal. 



1646. Henry Howard, earl of Arundel, &c. • died 
in 1652. 

1672. Henry Howard, second son to the preceding 
Henry: created by Charles II. lord 
Howard, of Castle Rising, in Norfolk, 
and afterwards earl marshal and earl of 
Norwich: he succeeded his brother as 
duke of Norfolk. 

1683. Henry Howard, lord Mowbray, and duke 
of Norfolk. 

1701. Thomas Howard : succeeded his uncle, and 
became duke of Norfolk, and earl 
marshal. 

1732. Edward Howard (brother of the preceding 
Thomas), duke of Norfolk. 

1777. Charles Howard (cousin to the preceding 
Edward), duke of Norfolk. 

1786. Charles Howard, duke of Norfolk: suc- 
ceeded his father Aug. 1786. 

1815. Bernard Edward Howard, duke of Norfolk : 
succeeded his cousin Dec. 1815. 

1842. Henry Charles Howard, duke of Norfolk : 
succeeded his father in 1842. The 
present duke of Norfolk ; earl of 
Arundel, Surrey, and Norfolk ; baron 
Fitz-Alan, Clun and Oswaldestre, and 
Maltravers; earl marshal, and here- 
ditary earl marshal of England. 



Deputy Earls Marshal of England. 

Commissioners for executing the office during the legal incapacity of the Dukes of Norfolk. 



1661. 
1662. 



1701. 
1706. 
1718. 
1725. 
1731. 
1743. 
1763. 
1765. 



James, earl of Suffolk. April 18. 

Thomas, earl of Southampton ; John, lord 
Roberts ; Henry, marquess of Dorches- 
ter ; Montagu, earl of Lindsey ; Edward, 
earl of Manchester; Algernon, earl of 
Northumberland; commissioaei'S. MLay 
26. 

Charles, earl of Carlisle. 

Henry, earl of Bindon. 

Henry Bowes, earl of Berkshire. 

Talbot, earl of Sussex. 

Francis, earl of Effingham. 

Thomas, earl of Effingham. 

Henry, earl of Suffolk and Berkshire. 

Richard, earl of Scarborough. 



1777. Thomas, earl of Effingham. 

1782. Charles, earl of Surrey, only son to the 

duke of Norfolk. 
[His lordship succeeded his father as duke 

of Norfolk in 1786.] 
1816. Henry Thomas Molyneux Howard, brother 

to Bernard-Edward, duke of Norfolk. 

Jan. 15. 

Henry Thomas Molyneux Howard was the last de- 
puty earl marshal. The functions of the high 
office of Earl Marshal of England, the dukes of 
Norfolk, notwithstanding their being of the Ro- 
man Catholic religion, were empowered to execute 
in person, by act of parliament, which received 
the royal assent June 24, 1824. 



THE LORD HIGH ADMIRAL OF ENGLAND.^ 

The Lord High Admiral is the ninth great officer of state. His office was anciently 
deemed of so much importance, that it was either retained by the king, or conferred 
upon one of the king's younger sons, or a near kinsman ; and even in modern times, it 
lias been held by royal personages. The duke of York (afterwards James II.) was 
Lord High Admiral in the reign of his brother, Charles II. ; and when he came to the 
throne, in 1685, he declared himself Lord High Admiral, again, in council. Prince 
George, of Denmark, consort of queen Anne, also filled the office ; and later, William 
Henry, duke of Clarence (afterwards William IV.) was appointed to the post in Mr, 
Canning s administration, 1827 : in the two latter cases the princes were assisted by a 
council. 

The Lord High Admiral (as described by the earlier writers) " has the management 
of all maritime afiairs, the government of the royal navy, and the power of decision in 

1 The distinction of Admiral does not appear to have been adopted in these realms until about the year 1300 ; 
but the title was in use some time previously in France. In 1297 Sir William Leybourne, "captain of the 
mariners," was styled in a convention signed at Bruges, " Admiral of the Sea of the King of England." 

L 4 



U2 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



all maritime cases, whether civil or criminal. He judges of all transgressions com- 
mitted upon or beyond the sea, in any part of the world, upon the coasts, in all ports 
and havens, and upon all rivers below the first bridge from the sea ; and by him all 
naval officers, from an admiral downwards, are commissioned, and all deputies and 
coroners appointed for particular coasts." ^ 

The j udicial functions of this great officer have, however, long been separated from 
his more onerous duties ; and a learned civilian is always appointed to preside in the 
High Court of Admiralty. The office of Lord High Admiral has for a series of years 
been usually in commission. As the great seal has been occasionally placed in the 
hands of commissioners, and as the office of lord high treasurer has for centuries been 
executed by several individuals instead of one person only, so the office of Lord High 
Admiral is now performed by a Board, whose members are designated " the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty," or, popularly, " the Board of Admiralty," and of 
which the chief or head is styled the " First Lord." 

The First Lord of the Admiralty is always a personage of great talents and 
political experience, and necessarily a cabinet minister; and the majority of the 
junior Lords (of whom there are usually four or more) are members of the house of 
commons, and at least two of them are naval officers. Besides these are a First and 
an Assistant or Second Secretary.^ 

Lord High Admirals of England, &c. 

The letter N subjoined to the names denotes the Northern station^ the letter W the Western, and 
S the Southern station. 



87L King Alfred, to his death in 90L 
925. King Athelstan, to his death, in 941. 
959. King Edgar, to his death, in 975. 

1016. The duke Edric. 

1066. King Harold. 

1106. King Henry I. 

1172. King Henry II. 

1177. WilHam Mandeville, earl of Essex. 

1189. King Richard L 

(Gerard, archbishop of Aix. 
Bernard, bishop of Bayonne. 
Robert de Sabloil. 
Richard de Camville. 
William de Fortze, of Oleron. 
Leaders and governors of all the king's 
navy, and governors of the king's ships 
going to the Holy Land. 
1191. Sir Stephen de Turnham, and 

Sir Robert de Turnham. 
1199. King John. 

1213. William Longespee (claiming to be) earl 

of Salisbury, natural son of Henry II., 

by Rosamond Clifford. 
* * The earl of Boulogne. 

Many of the kings in this list were in 

sea-battles, or went upon expeditions with 

their fleets. 

King Henry III. 
1217. 

Sir Hubert de Burgh. 
Sir Philip de Albini. 

1224. 

Sir Geoffrey de Lucy. 



Richard de Aguillon. 

1235. 

Peter de Rivall, a priest ? 

1264. 

Sir Thomas de Moleton ; captain and keeper of 
the sea and coasts. 

King Edward I. 
1293. 

Sir Robert Tiptoft. 

1294. 

Sir John de Botetourt; for the coasts of Yar- 
mouth. N. 

Sir William de Leybourne ; for the coasts of Ports- 
mouth. S. 
Sir Ormond ; for Ireland. 

1297. 

Sir John de Botetourt; keeper of the northern 
seas. 

Sir William de Leybourne ; captain of the ma- 
riners. 

300. 

Gervase Alard ; admiral of the fleet of the Cinque 
Ports. 

1306. 

Gervase Alard ; captain and admiral of the king's 
fleet. W. 

Edward-Charles ; captain and admiral of the 
king's fleet. N. 



' Mr. Beatson says : " To the Lord High Admiral belong, by law and custom, all fines and forfeitures of all 
transgressions at sea, on the sea-shore, in ports, and from the first bridge on rivers towards the sea; also the 
goods of pirates, and felons condemned or outlawed ; and all wayfs, stray-goods, wrecks of sea deodants ; a share 
of all lawful prizes, layon, jetson, and flotson ; that is, goods lying in the sea, goods cast by the sea on the shore, 
not granted formerly, or belonging to lords of manors adjoining the sea ; all great fishes, as sea-hogs, and other 
fishes of extraordinary bigness, called royal fishes, whales only and sturgeons excepted. But since the Revolution, 
and particularly of late years, the maritime laws of England have undergone many alterations, and the office of 
Lord High Admiral has, correspondingly, been subjected to change." 

2 When the First Lord happens to be a member of the Upper House, the First Secretary, chosen from among 
the supporters of the ministry in the commons, has usually represented the Admiralty department in that branch 
of the legislature. 



LORD HIGH ADMIRALS. 



153 



King Edward II. 
1308. 

William de Betour ; captain of the king's ships 
going to the relief of Aberdeen. 

1310. 

Sir John de Caunton ; captain and governor of 

the king's fleet going to Scotland. 
Sir Simon de Montacute ; admiral of the king's 

navy. 

1311. 

Sir John of Argyle ; coast of Argyle. 

1314. 

Sir John Sturmy, and \ Joint admirals against 
Peter Bard. j the Scots. 

1315. 

William de Creye ; W. Scotland, and Ireland. 
Thomas de Hewys. 

March 15, 1315. 
John, lord Botetourt ; admiral and captain of all 
the mariners from the Thames, to Berwick-on- 
Tweed. 

July 3, 1315. 
John de Athey, captain and leader of the expe- 
dition from Bristol against the Scots. 

Sept. 18, 1315. 
Sir Humphrey Littlebury; admiral-in-chief of 

one part of the king's navy. 
Sir John Sturmy; admiral -in- chief of one part 

of the king's navy. 

Nov. 3, 1316. 

Sir Robert Leybourne ; admiral of the fleet going 
against the Scots. 

Dec. 9, 1316. 

Sir Nicholas Kyriel ; admiral of the fleet of the 
Cinque Ports, westward. 

March 28, 1317. 
John de Athey ; captain of the fleet in Ireland. 
John de Perburn or Perbroun; admiral of the 

king's fleet. N. 
Sir Robert Leybourne ; admiral of the king's 

fleet west of the Thames. 

April 24, 1318. 
William Gettour ; captain and leader of the 
king's fleet going to Scotland. 

May 23, 1319. 
loT)ert AshnTam ' ladmirals of the ships going 
William de Thewell. j ^^amst the Scots. 

1321. 

Sir Hugh le Despenser ; admiral. 

May 19, 1322. 
Robert Battayle ; Cinque Ports. 
John de Perburn or Perbroun. N. 
Robert de Leybourne. W. 

July 16, 1324. 
Sir John de Cromwell ; admiral of the sea-coasts, 
and captain of the king's mariners going to 
Gasconv. 



Aug. 5, 1324. 
Sir Robert Beaudyn. W. 
Sir John Sturmy. N. 

Sept. 18, 1324. 
Stephen Alard; admiral in the absence of sir 
Robert Beaudyn. 

1325. 



ladmirals of the three En- 
Sir , 



Sir Nicholas Kyriel. > , 
-^ r JohnFelton. J S^isU seas. 



Jan. 2, 1326. 
Sir Nicholas Kyriel. \ admirals of the Western 
Sir John Sturmy. j fleets. 

Sept. 19, 1326. 
Sir Robert de Leybourne. N. 

King Edward III. 

April 21, 1327. 
John de Perburn, or Perbroun. N. 

May 24, 1327. 
Waresius de Yaloignes. W. 

April 6, 1333. 
Henry Randolph, captain and admiral for the 
Scottish war. 

July 16, 1333. 
Sir William Clinton, captain and admiral of the 
Cinque Ports and places west of the river 
Thames. 

Jan. 2, 1335. 
Sir John de Norwich. N. 
Sir Roger Higham. W. 

April 4, 1335. 
Sir John Howard, captain and admiral of the 
king's fleet of Great Yarmouth and the ports 
north of the Thames. 

April 6, 1335. 
Sir Robert Holand, captain and admiral of the 
fleet on the coast of Wales and part of Ireland. 

April 24, 1335. 
Sir John A thy or Athey, captain and admiral of 
the Irish fleet. 

July 6, 1335. 
Sir John Cobham, captain and admiral of the 

Cinque Ports and places west of the Thames. 
Peter Bard, captain and admiral of the Cinque 

Ports and other western ports, to proceed 

against the Scots. 



Sir 



Feb. 10, 1336. 
riiomas Ughtred, captain and admiral. N. 



April 10, 1336. 
Sir John de Norwich, captain and admiral. N. 
Sir Geofli-ey Say, or Galfrid de Say, captain and 
admiral. W. 

Nov. 8, 1336. 
Sir John Roos or de Ros. N. 



154 STATESMEN AND 

Jan, 14, 1337. 
Sir Robert Ufford, and 

Sir John Roos, appointed jointly admirals of the 

king's northern fleet 
Sir William Montacute, captain and admiral. W. 

May 30, 1337. 
Sir Geoffrey de Say, and 

Sir Otho Grandison, commanders of the western 
fleet. 

Aug. 11, 1337. 
Sir Walter Manny, captain and admiral. N. 
Sir William Burghersh, captain and admiral. W. 

July 28, 1338. 
SirThomas Drayton or Draiton. N. 
Peter Bard. W. 

Feb. 18, 1339. 
Sir Robert Morley. N. 
Sir William Trussell. W. 

Feb. 20, 1340. 
Sir Richard Fitz-Alan, earl of Arundel. W. 

March 6, 1340. 
Sir Robert Morley, captain and admiral. K 

April 5, 1341. 
Sir Robert Morley, admiral. N". 

June 12, 1341. 
Sir William Clinton, earl of Huntingdon, captain 
and admiral of the western fleet. 

April 10, 1342. 
Sir John de Montgomery. W. 

Dec. 20, 1342. 
Sir William Trussell. N. 
Sir Robert Beaupel. W. 

May 8, 1344. 
Sir Robert OTord, earl of Suff'olk. K 
Sir Reginald de Cobham, captain and admiral. W. 

Feb. 23, 1345. 
Richard, earl of Arundel. W. 

Jan. 25, 1347. 
King Edward III., styled " King of the Seas.^^ 

Feb. 23, 1347. 
Sir John de Montgomery. W. 

March 8, 1347. 
Sir John Howard. N". 

March 14, 1348. 
Sir Walter Manny. N. 
Sir Reginald Cobham. W. 

June 6, 1348. 
Sir Robert IMorley. N. 

Aug. 17, 1349. 
Sir John Beauchamp ; admiral of a fleet ofl" 
Calais. 

1350. 

Robert de Causton. ^.— Spdman. 



STATE OFFICERS. 

July 22, 1350. 
Sir Robert Morley, again. — Spehnan. 

March 8, 1351. 
Sir William de Bohun, earl of Northampton, 
captain and admiral. W. 

1352. 

Thomas, earl of Warwick. W. — Spelman. 

March, 1354. 
John Gybon, admiral of a squadron. 

March 5, 1355. 
Sir Robert Morley. N. 
Sir John Beauchamp. W. 

Jan. 1356. 

Robert Ledrede, admiral of a fleet going to Gas- 
cony for wine. 

Aug. 8, 1356. 
Robert Drouss, of Cork, admiral of the Irish fleet. 

July 18, 1360. 
Sir John Beauchamp, admiral of the king's 
Northern, Southern, and Western fleets. 

Jan. 26, 1361. 

Sir Robert Herle, admiral of the Northern, 
Southern, and Western fleets. 

July 7, 1364. 
Sir Ralph Spigurnell, admiral of the Northern 
and Western fleets. 

April 28, 1369. 
Sir Robert Ashton. W. 

June 12, 1369. 
Sir Nicholas Tamworth. N. 

Feb. 6, 1370. 
Sir Guy Bryan. W. 

[Sir Guy Bryan was at sea in command of a 
sqviadron in January, 1370.] 

May 30, 1370. 
John, lord Neville. N. 
Sir Guy Bryan, again. W. 

July 8, 1370. 
Sir Ralph Ferrers, admiral of the king's fleet 
going to Britanny. 

Oct. 6, 1371. 
Sir Robert Ashton, admiral. W. 
Sir Ralph Ferrers, admiral, N. 

March 7, 1372. 
Sir Philip Courtenay, admiral. W. 
Sir William de Neville. N. 

Feb. 16, 1373. 
Earl of Salisbury appointed captain of all ships 
and barges going to sea. 

July 16, 1376. 
William, earl of Suff'olk. N. 

Nov. 24, 1376. 
Sir Michael de la Pole. N. 
Sir Robert Ha'es, prior of St. John's of Jeru- 
salem, admiral. W. 



LORD HIGH 

King Richard II. 
Aug. 14, 1377. 
Sir Michael de la Pole. jST. 
Sir Robert Hales. W. 

Dec. 5, 1377. 
Thomas, earl of Warwick. N. 
Richard, earl of Arundel. W. 

Sept. 10, 1378. 
Sir Hugh Calverley. W. 

Nov. 5, 1378. 
Sir Thomas Percy. N. 

March 8, 1380. 
Sir Philip Courtenay. W. 

April 8, 1380. 
Sir William de Elmham. N. 

May 22, 1382. 
Sir John Roche, or Roches, admiral of a fleet 
from Southampton, -westward. 

Oct. 26, 1382. 
Sir Walter Fitz-Walter. N. 
Sir John Roche. W. 

Nov. 13, 1383. 

Edward, earl of Devonshire. W. 

Dec. 2, 1383. 
Henry, earl of Northumberland. N. 

Jan. 29, 1385. 
Sir Thomas Percy, again. N. He was after- 
wards earl of Worcester, and was beheaded in 
1402. 

Sir John Radington, or Radlington, prior of St. 
J ohn's of Jerusalem. W. 

Feb. 22, 1386. 
Sir Philip Darcy. N. 

Dec. 10, 1386. 
Richard, earl of Arundel, admiral of the North 
and West fleets- and held that office until 
May 18, 1389. 

May 20, 1389. 
John, lord Beaumont. N. 
John, earl of Huntingdon. W. 

May 31, 1389. 
Sir John Roche, admiral of the West and North 
fleets. 

June 22, 1389. 
John, lord Beaumont. N. 
John, earl of Huntingdon. W. 

March 22, 1391. 
Edward, earl of Rutland. N. 

Nov. 29, 1391. 
Edward, earl of Rutland, afterwards duke of 
Albemarle, admiral of the North and West 
fleets. 

Aug. 30, 1398 
Matthew Swetenham and Nicholas Macclesfield, 
made admirals of Ireland. 



ADMIRALS. 155 

May 9, 1398. 
John, marquess of Dorset, high admiral of the 
north and west fleets for life: he had been 
made admiral of the Irish fleet for life, Feb. 2, 
preceding. 

King Henry IV. 

Nov. 15, 1399. 
Thomas, earl of Worcester, admiral of the north 
and west fleets, and admiral of the Irish 
fleet. 

April 21, 1401. 
Sir Thomas Rampston, or Rempston. W. 

April 26, 1401. 
Richard, lord Grey, of Codnor. N. 

Nov. 5, 1403. 
Thomas, lord Berkeley. W. 

Nov. 18, 1403. 
Sir Thomas Beaufort. N. 

July 5, 1404. 
J ames Dartasso, made admiral of Ireland. 

Feb. 20, 1405. 

Sir Thomas Lancaster (Plantagenet), 2d son to 
the king, afterwards duke of Clarence, high 
admiral of England. 

April 28, 1406. 
Nicholas Blackburne. N. 
Richard Clyderow. W. 

Dec. 23, 1406. 
John, marquess of Dorset (earl of Somerset), 
admiral of the North and West fleets. 

May 8, 1407. 
Edmund, earl of Kent, high admiral of England. 

Sept. 21, 1408. 
Sir Thomas Beaufort, afterwards earl of Dorset 
and duke of Exeter, admiral of the North and 
West fleets for life. 

King Henry V. 

June 3, 1413. 
Thomas, earl of Dorset (duke of Exeter in 1416), 
admiral of England, Ireland, Aquitaine, and 
Picardy. 

Sept. 28, 1414. 
Patrick Coterell and James Cornewalsche, ap- 
pointed the king's admirals of Ireland, from 
Wykynglone Head to Leperisylond, for their 
lives. 

Feb. 18, 1415. 
Sir Thomas Carew, and 

Sir Gilbert Talbot, appointed captains and lead- 
ers of men at arms at sea, in the absence of the 
earl of Dorset, with the usual powers of ad- 
mirals. 

July 6, 1416. 
Thomas, lord Morley, admiral of a fleet going 
from London to Southampton. 



156 



STATESMEN^ AND STATE OFFICERS. 



July 26, 1416. 
Sir Walter Hungerford, admiral of an expedition 
under the duke of Bedford, the king's lieu- 
tenant at sea. 

July 20, 1417. 
Edmund, earl of March, appointed the king's 
lieutenant at sea to bring the fleet to England, 
and then conduct it again with troops to the 
king. 

July 25, 1417. 
John, earl of Huntingdon, appointed the king's 
lieutenant, with all the poAvers of admiral, 
during the king's absence. 

March 2, 1421. 
Sir William Bardolf, appointed admiral of a 
fleet. 

John, earl of Richmond and duke of Bedford, 
lord admiral. 

King Henry VI. 
1422. 

John, duke of Bedford, continued. 

Oct. 21, 1437. 
John, duke of Exeter and earl of Huntingdon, 
and Henry his son, for their lives, lord admiral 
of England, Ireland, and Aquitaine. 

1448—1451. 

William de la Pole, ditto ; during the minority 
of Henry Holland, duke of Exeter. 

July 23, 1451. 
Henry, duke of Exeter. 

King Edward IV. 
1461. 

Richard, earl of Warwick and Salisbury, styled 
the " King-maker." 

July 30, 1462. 
William, earl of Kent. 

Oct. 12, 1462. 
Richard, duke of Gloucester, brother to the king. 

Jan. 2, 1470. 
Richard, earl of Warwick (aforesaid), captain of 
the town and citadel of Calais, constable of 
Dover Castle, and lord warden of the Cinque 



Ports. 



1472. 



Richard, duke of Gloucester, aforesaid. 

King Richard III. 
July 25, 1483. 
John, duke of Norfolk. 

King Henry VII. 

1485—1512. 
John de Vere, earl of Oxford. 

King Henry VIII. 
John de Vere, earl of Oxford, continued. 

Aug. 15, 1513. 
Lord Edward Howard. 



May 4, 1514. 
Thomas, duke of Norfolk. 

1525—1536. 

Henry Fitzroy (natural son to the king), duke 
of Richmond and Somerset, and earl of Not- 
tingham. 

Aug. 16. 
William, earl of Southampton. 

July 18, 1540. 
John, lord Russel. 

June 27, 1542. 
John, viscount Lisle, and baron of Malpas, high 
admiral. 

King Edward VI. 

Feb. 17, 1547. 
Thomas, lord Seymour, of Sudley, high admiral 
of England, Ireland, Wales, Calais, Boulogne, 
Marches of ditto, Normandy, Gascony, ancl 
Aquitaine, captain-general of the navy and 
seas : beheaded 20th January, 1549. 

Oct. 28, 1549. 
John, viscount Lisle, afterwards duke of Nor- 
thumberland, high admiral. 

May 4, 1550. 
Edward, lord Clinton and Say. 

Queen Mary. 

IMarch 20, 1554. 
William, lord Howard, of Effingham, high ad- 
miral. 

March 3, 1556. 
Edward, lord Clinton and Say, afterwards earl of 
Lincoln. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
Earl of Lincoln, continued. 

1585—1619. 

Charles, lord Howard of Effingham, afterwards 
earl of Nottingham. 

King James I. 
Earl of Nottingham, continued. 

Jan. 28, 1619. 

George, marquess of Buckingham, afterwards 
earl of Coventry and duke of Buckingham. 

King Charles I. 

Duke of Buckingham, continued. 

March 16, 1636. 
Richard, lord Weston, and Robert, earl of Lind- 

sey, great chamberlain of England. 
Edward, earl of Dorset, lord chamberlain to the 

queen. 

Francis, lord Cottington, chancellor and under 
treasurer of the exchequer. 

Sir Henry Vane, knt., comptroller of the house- 
hold. 

Sir John Coke, knt., and Sir Francis Windebank, 
knt., principal secretaries of state. 



LOED HIGH 

March 23, 1636. 
Algernon, earl of Northumberland, lord admiral. 

King Charles I. 

Robert, earl of Warwick, lord high admiral of 
England, for the parliament. Surrendered his 
commission by an ordinance that members should 
have no employments. 

April 15, 1645. 

A committee appointed by both Houses. 
Arthur, earl of Essex. 
Robert, earl of Warwick. 
William, viscount Say and Sele. 
Dudley, lord North. 

William Earle ; Philip Stapleton ; J. Levelyn, 
jun. ; Christopher Wray ; J. Rolle ; G. Greene ; 
D. Mollis: J. Selden; F. Rouse; T. Eden; 
J. Lisle ; Bulstrode Whitelocke. 

April 28, 1645. 
Appointed by the Commons. 
Robert, earl of Warwick. 
Messrs. Bense, and H. Pelham. 

Feb. 12, 1649. 
Messrs. Dean, Francis Popham, and R. Blake. 

King Charles II. 

June 6, 1660. 
H. R. H. James, duke of York, brother to the 
king, lord high admiral of England. Resigned 
on the passing of the Test act. 

July 9, 1673. 

Prince Rupert. 

Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury, lord high chan- 
cellor. 

Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards earl of 

Danby, lord high treasurer. 
Arthur, earl of Anglesey, lord privy seal. 
George, duke of Buckingham. 
James, duke of Monmouth. 
J ohn, duke of Lauderdale. 
J ames, duke of Ormond. 

Henry, earl of Arlington, principal secretary of 
state. 

Sir George Carteret, bart., vice chamberlain. 
Henry Coventry, esq., principal secretary of state. 
Edward Seymour. 

Sept. 29, 1674. 

Prince Rupert. 

Heneage, lord Finch, lord high chancellor. 

Thomas, earl of Danby, lord high treasurer. 

Arthur, earl of Anglesey, lord privy seal. 

James, duke of Monmouth. 

John, duke of Lauderdale. 

James, duke of Ormond. 

Henry, earl of Arlington. 

Sir George Carteret, bart., vice chamberlain. 

Henry Coventry. 

Sir Joseph Williamson, knt. 

Edward Seymour. 

July 28, 1675. 

Prince Rupert. 

Heneage, lord Finch, lord high chancellor. 
Thomas, earl of Danby, lord high treasurer. 
Arthur, earl of Anglesey, lord privy seal. 
James, duke of Monmouth. 



ADMIRALS. 157 

James, duke of Ormond. 

Henry, earl of Arlington, principal secretarv of 

state. ^ 
Thomas, earl of Ossory. 
William, earl of Craven. 
Sir George Carteret, bart., vice chamberlain. 
Henry Coventry. 

Sir Joseph Williamson, knt., principal secretary 

of state. 
Edward Seymour. 

Sept. 14, 1677. 

Prince Rupert. 

Heneage, lord Finch, lord high chancellor. 
Thomas, earl of Danby, lord high treasurer. 
Arthur, earl of Anglesey, lord privy seal. 
James, duke of Monmouth. 
John, duke of Lauderdale. 
James, duke of Ormond. 
Thomas, earl of Ossory. 

Henry, earl of Arlington, lord chamberlain of the 

household. 
William, earl of Craven. 
Sir George Carteret, bart., vice chamberlain. 
Sir Joseph Williamson, knt., secretary of state 
Sir John Ernley, bart. 

Sir Thomas Chicheley, knt., master of the ord- 
nance. 
Edward Seymour. 

Feb. 14, 1679. 
Sir Henry Capel, knt. 
Hon. Daniel Finch. 
Sir Thomas Lee, bart. 
Sir Humphrey Winch, bart. 
Sir Thomas Meeres, knt. 
Edward Vaughan. 
Edward Hales. 

Feb. 19, 1680. 
Hon. Daniel Finch, afterwards lord Finch. 
Sir Humphrey Winch, bart. 
Sir Thomas Meeres, knt. 
Edward Hales. 

William, viscount Brounker, of Ireland. 
Sir Thomas Littleton, bart. 

Jan. 20, 1682. 
Daniel, lord Finch, afterwards earl of Not- 
tingham. 
Sir Humphrey Winch, bart. 
Sir Thomas Meeres, knt. 
Edward Hales. 
William, viscount Brounker. 
Henry Savile. 
Sir John Chicheley, knt. 

Aug. 28, 1683. 
Daniel, earl of Nottingham. 
Sir Humphrey Winch, bart. 
Sir Thomas Meeres, knt. 
Sir Edward Hales, bart. 
Henry Savile. 
Sir John Chicheley, knt. 
Arthur Herbert. 
John, lord Vaughan. 

April 17, 1684. 
Daniel, earl of Nottingham. 
Sir Humphrey Winch, bart. 
Sir Thomas Meeres, knt. 
Sir Edward Hales, bart. 
Henry Savile. 
Sir John Chicheley, knt. 



158 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Arthur Herbert. 
John, lord Vaughan. 

N. B. TTiis commission was revoked 3Iay 22, 
1684. 

His majesty King Charles IL lord high admi- 
ral of England. 

King James II. 

King James II. declared himself in council, lord 
high admiral and lord ,a:eneral of the navy ; and 
he managed the admiralty affairs by Mr. Se- 
cretary Pepys all his reign. 

King William III. 
March 8, 1689. 
Hon. Arthur Herbert. 
John, earl of Carberry. 
Sir Michael Wharton, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lee, bart. 

Sir John Lowther, bart., of Whitehaven, and 
William Sacheverell. 

Jan. 20, 1690. 
Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 
John, earl of Carberry. 
Sir Thomas Lee, bart. 
Sir John Lowther, bart. 
Sir John Chicheley, knt. 

Jan. 23, 1691. 
Thomas, earl of Pembroke. 
Sir Thomas Lee, bart. 
Sir John Lowther, bart. 
Sir Richard Onslow, bart. 
Henry Priestman. 
Anthony, viscount Falkland. 
Robert Austen. 

Nov. 16, 1691. 
Thomas, earl of Pembroke. 
Sir John Lowther, bart. 
Sir Richard Onslow, bart. 
Henry Priestman. 
Anthony, viscount Falkland. 
Robert Austen, and 
Sir Robert Rich, knt. and bart. 

March 10, 1692. 
Charles, lord Cornwallis. 
Sir John Lowther, bart. 
Sir Richard Onslow, bart. 
Henry Priestman. 
Anthony, viscount Falkland. 
Robert Austen, and 
Sir Robert Rich, bart. 

April 15, 1693. 
Anthony, viscount Falkland. 
Sir John Lowther, bart. 
Henry Priestman. 
Robert Austen. 
Sir Robert Rich, bart. 
Henry Killegrew, and 
Sir Ralph Delaval, bart. 

May 2, 1694. 
Edward Russell, afterwards earl of Orford. 
Sir John LoAvther, bart. 
Henry Priestman. 
Robert Austen. 
Sir Robert Rich, bart. 
Sir George Rooke, knt. 
Sir John Houblon, knt. 



Feb. 24, 1696. 
Edward Russell. 
Henry Priestman. 
Robert Austen. 
Sir Robert Rich, bart. 
Sir George Rooke, knt. 
Sir John Houblon, knt., and 
James Kendal. 

June 5, 1697. 
Edward Russell, now earl of Orford. 
Henry Priestman. 
Robert Austen. 
Sir Robert Rich, bart. 
Sir George Rooke, knt. 
Sir John Houblon, knt. 
James Kendal, and 
Goodwin Wharton. 

June 2, 1699. 
John, earl of Bridgewater. 
John, lord Haversham. 
Sir Robert Rich, bart. 
Sir George Rooke, knt. 
Sir David Mitchell, knt. 

April 4, 1701. 
Thomas, earl of Pembroke. 
John, lord Haversham. 
Sir George Rooke, knt. 
Sir David Mitchell, knt. 
George Churchill. 

Jan. 18, 1702. 

Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 
lord high admiral. 

Queen Anne. 
May 20, 1702. 
Prince George of Denmark, lord high admiral 
of England ; and, 

June 28, 1707. 
Prince George, lord high admiral of Great 
Britain ; on account of the Union. 

Commissioners appointed by Prince George of Den- 
mark to he his Council. 
May 20, 1702. 
Sir George Rooke, knt. 
Sir David Mitchell, knt. 
George Churchill, and 
Richard Hill. 

April 30, 1704. 
Sir George Rooke, knt. 
Sir David Mitchell, knt. 
George Churchill. 
Richard Hill. 

Hon. James Bridges, afterwards duke of 
Chandos. 

Hon. Henry Paget, afterwards earl of Ux- 
bridge. 

Feb. 8, 1706. 
Sir David Mitchell, knt. 
George Churchill. 
Richard Hill, and 
Hon. Henry Paget. 

June 28, 1707. 
Sir David Mitchell, knt. 
Ceorge Churchill. 
Richard Hill. 
Hon. Henry Paget. 
Sir Cloudesley Shovel, knt. 
Robert Walpule, afterwards prime minister. 
Sir Stafford I'airborne, knt. 

April 19, 1708. 
David, earl of Wemyss. 
George Churchill. 



LORD HIGH ADMIRALS. 



159 



Richard Hill. 

Hon. Henry Paget. 

Sir Stafford Fairborne, knt., and 

Sir John Leake, knt. 

June 20, 1708. 
David, earl of Wemyss. 
George Churchill. 
Richard Hill. 
Hon. Henry Paget. 
Sir John Leake, knt. 
Sir James Wishart, knt. 
Robert Fairfax. 



The prince died October 28, 1708, and Qu 
Anne acted by secretary Burchett. 



Lord High Admirals of Great Britain. 

Nov. 29, 1708. 
Thomas, earl of Pembroke, lord high admiral 
of Great Britain, with a fee of 300 marks per 
annum. 

Nov. 8, 1709. 
Edward, earl of Orford. 
Sir John Leake, knt. 

Sir George Byng, knt., afterwards viscount Tor- 

rington. 
George Dodington, and 
Paul Methuen. 

Oct. 4, 1710. 
Sir John Leake, knt. 
Sir George Byng, knt. 
George Dodington. 
Paul Methuen. 

Sir William Drake, bart., and 
John Aislabie. 

Sept. 30, 1712. 
Thomas, earl of Strafford. 
Sir John Leake, knt. 
Sir George Byng, knt. 
Sir William Drake, bart. 
John Aislabie. 

Sir James Wishart, knt., and 
George Clarke. 

April 9, 17 J 4. 
Thomas, earl of Strafford. 
Sir John Leake, knt. 
Sir William Drake, bart. 
Sir James Wishart, knt. 
George Clarke, and 
Sir George Beaumont, bart. 

King George L 

Oct. 14, 1714. 
Edward, earl of Orford. 
Sir George Byng, knt. 
George Dodington. 
Sir John Jennings, knt. 
Sir Charles Turner, knt. 
Abraham Stanyan, and 
George Baillie. 

April 16, 1717. 
James, earl of Berkeley. 

Matthew Aylmer, esq. ; afterwards lord Aylmer. 
Sir George Byng, knt. 
Sir John Jennings, knt. 
John Cockburne, and 
Wniiam Chetwynd. 



March 19, 1718. 
James, earl of Berkeley. 
Sir George Byng, knt. 
Sir John Jennings, knt. 
John Cockburne. 
William Chetwynd. 
Sir John Norris, knt. ; and 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 

Oct. 10, 1721. 
James, earl of Berkeley. 
Sir John Jennings, knt. 
John Cockburne. 
William Chetwjmd. 
Sir John Norris, knt. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. ; and 
Daniel Pulteney. 

June 11, 1725. 
James, earl of Berkeley. 
Sir John Jennings, knt. 
John Cockburne. 
William Chetwynd. 
Sir John Norris, knt. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt., and 
Sir George Oxenden, bart. 

King George XL 

Aug. 2, 1727. 
George, viscount Torrington. 
John Cockburne, esq. 
Sir John Norris, knt. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
George, viscount Malpas, K. B. ; afterwards earl 

of Cholmondeley, and 
Samuel Molyneux. 

June 1, 1728. 
George, viscount Torrington. 
John Cockburne. 
Sir John Norris, knt. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
George, viscount Malpas, and 
Sir William Yonge, K. B. 

May 19, 1729. 
George, viscount Torrington. 
John Cockburne. 
Sir John Norris, knt. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
Sir William Yonge, K. B., and 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 

May 13, 1730. 
George, viscount Torrington. 
John Cockburne. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Sir Thomas Frankland, bart. ; and 
Thomas Winnington. 

June 15, 1732. 
George, viscount Torrington. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Sir Thomas frankland, bart. 



160 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Thomas Wimiington, and 
Thomas Clutterbuck. 

Jan. 25, 1733. 

Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Sir Thomas Frankland, bart. 
Thomas Winnington. 
Thomas Clutterbuck, and 

Lord Hany Poulett, afterwards duke of Bolton. 

May 22, 1736. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Sir Thomas Frankland, bart. 
Thomas Clutterbuck, esq. 
Lord Harry Poulett, and 
John Campbell. 

March 13, 1738. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. 
Sir Thomas Frankland, bart. 
Thomas Clutterbuck. 
Lord Hany Poulett. 
John Campbell, and 

Lord Vere Beauclerk, afterwards lord Vere. 

May 14, 1741. 
Sir Charles Wager, knt. 
Sir Thomas Frankland, bart. 
Lord Harry Poulett. 
John Campbell. 
Lord Vere Beauclerk. 
John, viscount Glenorchy, and 
Edward Thompson. 

March 19, 1742. 
Daniel, earl of W inciiilsea and Nottingham. 
John Cockburne. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Charles, lord Baltimore. 
Philip Cavendish. 
George Lee, LL. D., and 
Hon. John Trevor. 

Dec. 13, 1743. 
Daniel, earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham. 
John Cockburne. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Charles, lord Baltimore. 
George Lee, LL. D. 
Sir Charles Hardy, knt., and 
Thomas Philipson. 

Dec. 27, 1744. 
John, duke of Bedford. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Lord Vere Beauclerk. 
Charles, lord Baltimore. 
George Anson, and 
George Grenville. 

April 20, 1745. 
John, duke of Bedford. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Lord Vere Beauclerk. 
George Anson. 



George Grenville, and 
Hon. Henry Bilson Legge. 

Feb. 22, 1746 
John, duke of Bedford. 
J ohn, earl of Sandwich. 
Lord Vere Beauclerk. 
George Anson. 
George Grenville. 
Hon. Henry Bilson Legge, and 
William Wildman, viscount Barrington. 

Feb, 1747. 
John, duke of Bedford. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
Lord Vere Beauclerk. 
George Anson, afterwards lord Anson. 
William Wildman, viscount Barrington. 
William, viscount Duncannon, and 
Welbore Ellis. 

Feb. 10, 1748. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
Lord Vere Beauclerk. 
George, lord Anson. 

William Wildman, viscount Barrington. 
William, viscount Duncannon. 
Welbore Ellis, and 
Hon. John Stanhope. 

Nov. 18, 1749. 
J OHN, earl of Sandwich. 
George, lord Anson. 

William Wildman, viscount Barrington. 
William, viscount Duncannon. 
Welbore Ellis. 
Hon. Thomas Villiers, and 
Granville Leveson, viscount Trentham, after- 
wards earl Gower. 

June 22, 1751. 
George, lord Anson. 
William Wildman, viscount Barrington. 
William, viscount Duncannon. 
Welbore Ellis. 
Hon. Thomas Villiers. 
William Rowley, and 
Hon. Edward Boscawen. 

April 6, 1754. 
George, lord Anson. 
William, viscount Duncannon. 
Welbore Ellis. 
Hon. Thomas Villiers. 
Sir William Rowley, K. B. 
Hon. Edward Boscawen, and 
Hon. Charles Townshend. 

Dec. 23, 1755. 

George, lord Anson. 

William, viscount Duncannon, afterwards earl of 

Besborough. 
Hon. Thomas Villiers. 
Sir William Rowley, K. B. 
Hon. Edward Boscawen. 
John, viscount Bateman. 

Hon. Richard Edgcumbe, afterwards lord Edg- 
cumbe. 

Nov. 19, 1756. 
Richard, earl TE:MrLE. 
Hon. Edward Boscawen. 
Temple West. 
John Pitt. 



LORD HIGH 

George Hay, LL. D. 
Thomas Orby Hunter, and 
Gilbert Elliot. 

Dec. 11, 1756. 
Richard, earl Temple. 
Hon. Edward Boscawen. 
Temple West. 
George Hay, LL. D. 
Thomas Orby Hunter. 
Gilbert Elliot, and 
Hon. John Forbes. 

April 6, 1757. 
Daniel, earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham. 
Sir William Rowley, K. B. 
Hon. Edward Boscawen. 
Gilbert Elliot. 
John, lord Carysfort. 
Savage Mostyn. 

Hon. Edwin Sandys (afterwards lord Sandys). 

July 2, 1757. 
George, lord Anson. 
Hon. Edward Boscawen. 
Temple West. 
George Hay, LL. D. 
Thomas Orby Hunter, Esq. 
Gilbert Elliot, and 
Hon. John Forbes. 



King George IIL 

March 21, 1761. 
George, lord Anson. 
Hon. Edward Boscawen. 
George Hay, LL. D. 
Thomas Orby Hunter. 
Hon. John Forbes. 
Hans Stanley. 

George Bussey, viscount Villiers. 
Thomas Pelham. 

June 19, 1762. 
George Montagu Dunk, earl of Halifax. 
George Hay, LL. D. 
Thomas Orby Hunter. 
Hon. John Forbes. 
Hans Stanley. 
George B. viscount Villiers. 
Thomas Pelham, afterwards lord Pelham. 

Jan. 1, 1763. 
Hon. George Grenville. 
George Hay, LL. D. 
Thomas Orby Hunter. 
Hon. John Forbes. 
Rt. hon. Hans Stanley. 
John, lord Carysfort. 
James Harris. 

April 23, 1763. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
George Hay, LL. D. 
Rt. hon. Hans Stanley. 
John, lord Carysfort. 
Richard, viscount Howe. 
Henry, lord Digby. 
Thomas Pitt. 

Sept. 10, 1763. 
John, earl of Egmont. 
George Hay, LL. D. 



ADMIRALS. 161 

Rt. hon. Hans Stanley. 
John, lord Carysfort. 
Richard, viscount Howe. 
Henry, lord Digby. 
Thomas Pitt. 

Aug. 30, 1765. 
John, earl of Egmont. 
Thomas Pitt, afterwards lord Camelford. 
Sir Charles Saunders, K. B. 
Hon. Augustus Keppel. 
Charles Townshend. 
Sir William Meredyth, bart. 
John Buller. 

Dec. 21, 1765. 
John, earl of Egmont. 
Sir Charles Saunders, K. B. 
Hon. Augustus Keppel. 
Charles Townshend. 
Sir William Meredyth, bart. 
John Buller, and 
Hon. John Yorke. 

Sept. 10, 1766. 
Sir Charles Saunders, K. B. 
Hon. Augustus Keppel, afterwards viscount 

Keppel. 
Charles Townshend. 
Sir William Meredyth, bart. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Sir George Yonge, bart. 

Dec. 10, 1766. 
Sir Edward Hawke, K. B., afterwards lord 

Hawke. 
Charles Townshend. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Sir George Yonge, bart. 
Sir Piercy Brett, knt., and 
Charles Jenkinson. 

March 19, 1768. 
Sir Edward Hawke, K. B. 
Charles Townshend. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Sir George Yonge, bart. 
Sir Piercy Brett, knt. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 

Feb. 24, 1770. 
Sir Edward Hawke, K. B. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 
Wilmot, viscount Lisburne. 
Francis Holburne, and 
Hon. Charles James Fox. 

Jan. 12, 1771. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 
Wilmot, viscount Lisburne. 
Francis Holburne, and 
Hon. Charles James Fox. 

Jan. 26. 1771. 

John, earl of Sandwich. 

M 



162 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 
Wilmot, viscount Lisburne. 
Hon. Charles James Fox. 
Hon. Augustus John Hervey. 

May 6, 1772. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 
Wilmot, viscount Lisbunie. 
Hon. Augustus John Hervey. 
Thomas Bradshaw. 

Dec. 4, 1774. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 

Lord Charles Spencer. 

Wilmot, viscount Lisburne. 

Hon. Augustus John Hervey (afterwards earl of 

Bristol), and 
Henry Penton. 

April 6, 1775. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
John Buller. 

Henry, viscount Palmerston. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 
Wilmot, viscount Lisburne. 
Henry Penton, and 
Sir Hugh Palliser, bart. 

Dec. 4, 1777. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
John Buller. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 
Wilmot, now earl of Lisburne. 
Henry Penton. 
Sir Hugh Palliser, bart. 
Constantine John, lord Mulgrave. 

April, 1779. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
John Buller. 
Lord Charles Spencer. 
Wilmot, earl of Lisburne. 
Henry Penton. 

Constantine John, lord Mulgrave. 
Robert Man. 

July 6, 1779. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
John Buller. 

Wilmot, earl of Lisburne. 
Henry Penton. 

Constantine John, lord Mulgrave. 
Robert Man, and 
Bamber Gascoigne. 

Sept. 6, 1780. 
John, earl of Sandwich. 
Wilmot, earl of Lisburne. 
Henry Penton. 

Constantine John, lord Mulgrave. 
Bamber Gascoigne. 

Honourable Charles-Francis Greville, and 
George Darby. 

March 30, 1782. 
Hon. Augustus Keppel. 



Sir Robert Harland, bart. 
Hugh Pigot. 

William, viscount Duncannon. 
Hon. John Townshend. 
Charles Brett, and 
Richard Hopkins. 

July 13, 1782. 
Augustus, viscount Keppel. 
Sir Robert Harland, bart. 
Hugh Pigot. 
Charles Brett. 
Richard Hopkins. 
Hon. John Jeffreys Pratt, and 
John Aubrey. 

Jan. 28, 1783. 

Richard, viscount Howe. 

Hugh Pigot. 

Charles Brett. 

Richard Hopkins. 

Hon. John Jeffreys Pratt. 

John Aubrey, and 

Hon. J ohn Leveson Gower. 

April 8, 1783. 
Augustus, viscount Keppel. 
Hugh Pigot. 

William, viscount Duncannon. 
Hon. John Townshend. 
Sir John Lindsay, K, B. 
William Jolliffe, and 
Whitshed Keene. 

Dec. 30, 1783. 
Richard, viscount Howe. 
Charles Brett. 
Hon. John Jeffreys Pratt. 
Hon. J ohn Leveson Gower. 
Henry, lord Apsley. 

Hon. Charles-George Perceval; afterwards lord 
Arden. 

James Modyford Heywood. 

April 2, 1784. 
Richard, viscount Howe ; afterwards earl 

Howe. 
Charles Brett. 
Richard Hopkins. 

Hon. John Jeffreys Pratt; afterwards viscount 

Bayham. 
Hon. John Leveson Gower. 
Henry, lord Apsley. 

Hon. Charles-George Perceval, lord Arden. 

July 16, 1788. 
John, earl of Chatham. 
Richard Hopkins. 
John Jeffreys, viscount Bayham. 
Hon. John Leveson Gower. 
Henry, lord Apsley. 
Charles- George, lord Arden. 
Samuel, lord Hood. 

Aug. 12, 1789. 
John, earl of Chatham. 
Richard Hopkins. 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Samuel, lord Hood. 
Robert, viscount Belgrave. 
Sir Francis S. Drake, bart. : died in Nov. 1789. 
Hon. John-Thomas Townshend. 



LOED HIGH ADMIRALS. 



163 



Jan. 19, 1790. 
John, earl of Chatham. 
Richard Hopkins. 
Charles- George, lord Arden. 
Samuel, lord Hood. 
Robert, viscount Belgrave. 
Hon. John-Thomas Townshend. 
Alan Gardner. 

June 25, 1791. 
John, earl of Chatham, 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Samuel, lord Hood. 
Hon. John-Thomas Townshend. 
Alan Gardner. 
John Smyth, and 
Charles Small Pybus. 

May 4, 1793. 
John, earl of Chatham. 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Samuel, lord Hood. 
Alan Gardner. 
John Smyth. 

Charles Small Pybus, and 
Philip Affleck. 

May, 1794. 
John, earl of Chatham. 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Samuel, lord Hood. 
Alan Gardner. 
Charles Small Pybus. 
Philip Affleck, and 
Sir Charles Middleton, bart. 

Dec. 20, 1794. 
George- John, earl Spencer. 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Samuel, lord Hood. 
Sir Alan Gardner, bart. 
Charles Small Pybus. 
Philip Affleck, and 
Sir Charles Middleton, bart. 

Mar. 2, 1795. 

George- John, earl Spencer. 

Charles- George, lord Arden. 

Charles Small Pybus. 

Sir Charles Middleton, bart. 

Lord Hugh Seymour. 

Sir Philip Stephens, bart., and 

James Gambier. 

Dec. 2, 1795. 
George-John, earl Spencer. 
Charles- George, lord Arden. 
Charles Small Pybus. 
Lord Hugh Seymour. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
James Gambier, and 
William Young. 

July, 1797. 
George-John, earl Spencer. 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Lord Hugh Seymour. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
James Gambier. 
William Young, and 
Thomas Wallace. 

Sept. 18, 1798. 
George- John, earl Spencer. 



Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
James Gambier. 
William Young. 
Thomas Wallace, and 
Robert Man. 

July 10, 1800. 
George- John, earl Spencer. 
Charles -George, lord Arden. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
James Gambier. 
William Young. 
Robert Man, and 
Hon. William Eliot. 

Feb. 19, 1801. 
John, earl St. Vincent. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
Hon. William Eliot. 
Sir Thomas Troubridge, bart 
James Adams. 
John Markham, and 
William Garthshore. 

Jan. 17, 1804 
John, earl St. Vincent. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
Sir Thomas Troubridge, bart 
James Adams. 
John Markham. 
John Lemon, and 
Sir Harry Burrard Neale, bart. 

May 15, 1804. 
Henry, viscount Melville. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
James Gambier. 
Sir Harry Burrard Neale, bart. 
Sir John Colpoys, K. B, 
Philip Patton, and 
William Dickinson, jun. 

Sept. 13, 1804. 
Henry, viscount Melville. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
James Gambier. 
Sir John Colpoys, K. B. 
Philip Patton. 

William Dickinson, jun., and 
Sir Evan Nepean, bart. 

May 2, 1805. 
Sir Charles Middleton, created lord Barham. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
James Gambier. 
Philip Patton. 
William Dickinson, jun. 
Sir Evan Nepean, bart., and 
George, lord Garlics. 

Feb. 10, 1806. 
Hon. Charles Grey. 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
John Markham. 
Sir Charles Morice Pole, bart. 
Sir Harry Burrard Neale, bart. 
Lord William Russell. 
William, lord Kensington. 

Sept. 29, 1806. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Grenville, 
Sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
John Markham. 
Sir Charles Morice Pole, bart. 
M 2 



164 



STATESMEN AKD 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Sir Harry Burrard Neale, bart. 
Lord William Russell. 
William, lord Kensington. 

Oct. 23, 1806. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Grenville. 
John Markham. 
Sir Harry Burrard Neale, bart. 
Lord William Russell. 
William, lord Kensington. 
Thomas-Francis Fremantle. 
William Frankland. 

April 6, 1807. 
Henry, lord Mulgrave. 
James Gambler. 
Sir Richard Bickerton, bart. 
William Johnstone Hope. 
Robert Ward. 

Henry-John, lord Palmerston. 
James Buller. 

May 9, 1808. 
Henry, lord Mulgrave. 
Sir Richard Bickerton, bart 
William Johnstone Hope. 
Robert Ward. 

Henry-John, viscount Palmerston. 
James Buller. 
William Domett. 

Nov. 24, 1809. 

Henry, lord Mulgrave. 
Sir Richard Bickerton, bart. 
Robert Ward. 
James Buller. 
William Domett. 
Robert Moorsom. 
William, viscount Lowther. 

May 1, 1810. 

Rt. hon. Charles Yorke. 

Sir Richard Bickerton, bart. 

Robert Ward. 

James Buller. 

William Domett. 

Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, knt. 

Hon. Frederick John Robinson. 

June 17, 1811. 
Rt. hon. Charles Yorke. 
Sir Richard Bickerton, bart. 
James Buller. 
William Domett. 
Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, knt. 
Hon. Frederick John Robinson. 
Horatio, lord Walpole. 

March 25, 1812. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
William Domett. 
Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, knt. 
Hon. Frederick John Robinson. 
Horatio, lord Walpole. 
Rt. hon. William Dundas. 
George Johnstone Hope. 

Oct. 5, 1812. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
William Domett. 
Sir J oseph Sydney Yorke, knt. 
Rt. hon. William Dundas. 
George- Johnstone Hope. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
John Osborn. 



May 18, 1813. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
William Domett. 
Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, knt. 
Rt. hon. William Dundas. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
John Osborn, and 
Lord Henry Paulet. 

Oct. 23, 1813. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, knt. 
Rt. hon. William*^ Dundas. 
George Johnstone Hope. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
John Osborn, and 
Lord Henry Paulet. 

Aug. 23, 1814. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir Joseph Sj^dney Yorke, knt. 
George-Johnstone Hope. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
John Osborn. 
Lord Henry Paulet, and 
Barrington Pope Blachford. 

May 24, 1816. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, K. C. B. 
Sir George Hope, K. C. B. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
John Osborn. 

Sir Graham Moore, K. C. B. 
Henry, marquess of Worcester. 

April 2, 1818. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
John Osborn. 

Sir Graham Moore, K. C. B. 
Henry, marquess of Worcester. 
Sir George Cockburn, G. C. B. 
Sir Henry Hotham, K. C. B. 

March 15, 1819. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
Sir John Osborn, bart. 
Sir Graham Moore, K. C. B. 
Sir George Cockburn, G. C. B. 
Sir Henry Hotham, K. C. B. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 

March 13, 1820. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir William- Johnstone Hope, K. C. B. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
Sir John Osborn, bart. 
Sir George Cockburn, G. C. B. 
Sir Henry Hotham, K. 0. B. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 

Feb. 8, 1822. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir William Johnstone Hope, K. C. B. 
Sir John Osborn, bart. 
Sir George Cockburn, G. C. B. 
Sir Henry Hotham, K. C. B. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 
William Robert Keith Douglas. 

March 23, 1822. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir William Johnstone Hope, K. C. B. 



LOED HIGH ADMIRALS. 



165 



Sir John Osborn, bart. 

Sir George Cockbum, G. C. B. 

Sir George Clerk, bart. 

Feb. 16, 1824. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Sir William Johnstone Hope, K. C. B. 
Sir George Cockburn, G. C. B. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 
William Robert Keith Douglas. 

May 2, 1827. 
His royal highness, William Henry, duke of 
Clarence, Lord High Admiral of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 
H. R. H. Council. 
Vice adm. sir William Johnstone Hope, G. C. B. 
Vice adm. Rt. hon. sir George Cockburn, G. C.B. 
William- Robert Keith Douglas. 
John Evelyn Denison. 

Feb. 4, 1828. 
Vice adm. sir William Johnstone Hope, G. C. B. 
Vice adm. Rt. hon. sir George Cockburn, G. C. B. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 
George- Charles, earl of Brecknock. 

March 12, 1828. 
Vice adm. Rt. hon. sir George Cockburn, G. C. B. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 
George-Charles, earl of Brecknock. 
Rear admiral sir Edward- William Campbell Rich 

Owen, K. C.B. 
[The duke of Clarence resigned the office of lord 

high admiral, Aug. 12, 1828.] 

Commissioners 
For executing the office of Lord High Admiral of 
Great Britain, ^c. 

Sept. 19, 1828. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Vice admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice Admiral sir Henry Hotham. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 
George-Charles, earl of Brecknock. 

July 15, 1829. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Vice admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice admiral sir Henry Hotham. 
Sir George Clerk, bart. 
Frederick, viscount Castlereagh. 

July 31, 1830. 
Rt. hon. Robert, viscount Melville. 
Vice admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice admiral sir Henry Hotham. 
Frederick, viscount Castlereagh. 
Charles Ross. 

Nov. 25, 1830. 
Rt. hon. sir James-Robert-George Graham, 
bart. 

Rear admiral sir Thomas Masterman Hardy. 
Rear admiral hon. George Heneage L. Dundas. 
Sir Samuel-John Brooke Pechell, bart. 
Hon. George Barrington. 

June 8, 1832. 
Rt. hon. sir James-Robert-George Graham, 
bart. 

Rear admiral sir T. M. Hardy. 

Rear admiral hon. George Heneage L. Dundas. 

Sir Samuel- John Brooke Pechell, bart. 

Hon. George Barrington. 

Henry Labouchere. 



April 13, 1833. 
Rt. hon. sir James R. G. Graham, bart. 
Rear admiral sir T. M. Hardy. 
Rear admiral hon. George Heneage L. Dundas. 
Sir Samuel- John Brooke Pechell, bart. 
Henry Labouchere, and 

Hon. Maurice- Frederick Fitzhardinge Berkeley. 

June 11, 1834. 
Rt. hon. George, lord Auckland. 
Rear admiral sir T. M. Hardy. 
Rear admiral hon. George Heneage L. Dundas. 
Sir Samuel-John Brooke Pechell, bart. 
Henry Labouchere, and 

Hon. Maurice- Frederick Fitzhardinge Berkeley. 

Aug. 1, 1834. 

Rt. hon. George, lord Auckland. 
Hon. George-Heneage-Lawrence Dundas. 
Sir Samuel-John Brooke Pechell, bart. 
Henry Labouchere, and 
Hon. M. F. Fitzhardinge Berkeley. 

Nov. 1, 1834. 
Rt. hon. George, lord Auckland. 
Rear admiral sir Charles Adam. 
Rear admiral sir William Parker. 
Sir Samuel- John Brooke Pechell, bart. 
Henry Labouchere, and 
Hon. M. F. Fitzhardinge Berkeley. 

Dec. 23, 1834. 
Thomas-Philip, earl de Grey. 
Vice admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Sir John Poo Beresford, bart. 
Sir Charles Rowley, K. C. B. 
Anthony, lord Ashley. 
Rt. hon. Maurice Fitzgerald. 

April 25, 1835. 
Rt. hon. George, lord Auckland. 
Rear admiral sir Charles Adam. 
Rear admiral sir William Parker. 
Capt. George Elliot. 
Sir Edward-Thomas Troubridge, bart. 
Archibald, lord Dalmeny. 

Sept. 19, 1835. 
Gilbert, earl of Minto. 
Rear admiral sir Charles Adam. 
Rear admiral sir William Parker. 
Capt. George Elliot. 
Sir Edward-Thomas Troubridge, bart. 
Archibald, lord Dalmeny. 

July 22, 1837. 
Gilbert, earl of Minto. 
Vice admiral, sir Charles Adam. 
Rear admiral sir William Parker. 
Sir Edward-Thomas Troubridge, bart. 
Archibald, lord Dalmeny. 
Hon. Maurice F. Fitzhardinge Berkeley. 

March 5, 1839. 
Gilbert, earl of Minto. 
Sir Charles Adam. 
Sir William Parker. 
Sir Edward-Thomas Troubridge, bart. 
Sir Samuel-John Brooke Pechell, bart. 
Archibald, lord Dalmeny. 

June 25, 1841. 
Gilbert, earl of Minto. 
Sir Charles Adam. 
3 



166 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEES. 



Sir Edward-Thomas Troubridge, bart. 
Sir Samuel- John B. Pechell, bart. 
Archibald, lord Dalmeny. 
Capt. James Whitley Deans Dundas, C. B. 

Sept. 8, 1841. 
Thomas, earl of Haddington. 
Admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice admiral sir William Hall Gage. 
Sir George-Francis Seymour, knt. 
Hon. William Gordon, capt. R. N. 
Hon. Henry-Thomas Lowry Corry. 

May 22, 1844. 
Thomas, earl of Haddington. 
Admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice admiral sir William Hall Gage. 
Rear admiral William Bowles. 
Hon. William Gordon. 
Hon. Henry-Thomas Lowry Corry. 

Feb. 12, 1845. 
Thomas, earl of Haddington. 
Admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice admiral sir William Hall Gage 
Rear admiral William Bowles. 
Hon. William Gordon. 
Hon. Henry Fitzroy. 

Jan. 13, 1846. 
Edward, earl of Ellenborough. 
Admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice admiral sir William Hall Gage. 
Rear admiral William Bowles. 
Hon. William Gordon. 
Hon. Henry Fitzroy. 

Feb. 17, 1846. 
Edward, earl of Ellenrorough. 
Admiral sir George Cockburn. 
Vice admiral sir William Hall Gage. 
Rear admiral William Bowles. 
Hon. Henry Fitzroy. 
Hon. Henry-John Rous. 

July 13, 1846. 
George, earl of Auckland. 
Vice admiral sir William Parker. 
Rear admiral James Whitley Deans Dundas, 
C. B. 

Hon. captain Maurice-Frederick Fitzhardinge 
Berkeley, C. B. 



Capt. lord John Hay, C. B. 
Hon. William-Francis Cowper. 

July 24, 1846. 
George, earl of Auckland. 
Vice admiral sir Charles Adam. 
Rear admiral James Whitley Deans Dundas, 
C. B. 

Hon. captain Maurice-Frederick Fitzhardinge 

Berkeley, C. B. 
Capt. lord John Hay, C. B. 
Hon. William-Francis Covfper. 

July 20, 1847. 
George, earl of Auckland. 
Rear admiral James Whitley Deans Dundas, 
C. B. 

Rear admiral Henry Prescott. 

Hon. captain Maurice-Frederick Fitzhardinge 

Berkeley, C. B. 
Capt. lord John Hay, C. B. 
Hon. WilUam-Francis Cowper. 

Dec. 23, 1847. 
George, earl of Auckland. 
Rear admiral James Whitley Deans Dundas, C.B. 
Hon. captain Maurice-Frederick Fitzhardinge 

Berkeley, C. B. 
Capt. lord John Hay, C. B. 
Capt. Alexander Milne. 
Hon. William-Francis Cowper. 

Jan. 18, 1849. 
Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, bart., M. P. 
Rear admiral James Whitley Deans Dundas, C.B. 
Hon. Maurice- Frederick Fitzhardinge Berkeley, 

now rear admiral, C. B. 
Capt. lord John Hay, C. B. 
Capt. Alexander Milne. 
Hon. William-Francis Cowper. 

Jan. 30, 1850. 
Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, bart. 
Rear admiral James Whitley Deans Dundas, C.B. 
Rear admiral hon. Maurice-Frederick Fitz- 
hardinge Berkeley, C. B. 
Capt. Houston Stewart, C. B. 
Capt. Alexander Milne. 
Hon. William-Francis Cowper. 

The present (1850) Commissioners for ex- 
ecuting the office of Lord High Admiral. 



Secretaries of the Admiralty since the Eevolution. 



1689. 
1690. 
1694. 
1695. 

1698. 

1742. 
1751. 
1763. 

1795. 

1804. 



[Samuel Pepys, esq., the then Seecretary, 

was dismissed at the Revolution.] 
March. Phineas Bowles, esq. 
Jan. 17. James Southern, esq. 
Aug. 1. William Bridgeman, esq. 



Jan. 

June 24 



The preceding, and j jointly. 



M. P., 



Josiah Burchett, esq 
J osiah Burchett, esq. 
ahne. 

Thomas Corbett, esq. M. P. 
John Cleveland, esq. M. P. 
June 19. Philip Stephens, esq., afterwards 

sir Philip Stephens, bart. 
Mar. 3. Evan Nepean, esq., afterwards 

sir Evan Nepean, bart. 
Jan. 21. Wilham Marsden, esq. 



Oct. 14. 
May 1. 



1807. June 24. Hon. Wm. Wellesley Pole, M. P., 
afterwards lord Maryborough. 

1809. Oct. 9. John-Wilson Croker, esq. M. P., 
privy councillor in 1827. 

1830. Nov. 29. Hon. George Elliot, capt. R. N., 
M. P. 

1S34. Dec. 24. Rt. hon. George Robert Dawson. 
1835. Apr. 27. Charles Wood, esq., afterwards 

sir Charles Wood, bart. 
1839. Oct. 4. Richard More O'Ferral, esq. M. P. 
1841. June 9. John Parker, esq. M. P. 
— Sept. 10. Hon. Sidney Herbert, M. P. 

1845. Feb. 13. Rt. hon. H. T. Lowrv Corry, M. P. 

1846. July 13. Henry- George Ward, esq. M. P. 
1849. May 21. John Parker, esq., M.P. The 

present (1850) Secretary. 



CHANCELLOES OF THE EXCHEQUER. 



167 



Second Secretaries to the Admiralty since 1702.^ 



1702. May 20. George Clarke, esq. joint secre- 
tary, to Oct. 25, 1705. 

1728. June 25. Thornas Corbett, esq., deputy and 
afterwards joint secretary, to 
Oct. 13, 1742. 

1744. Nov. 17. Robert Osborne, esq., deputy se- 
cretary. 

1746. Aug. 4. John Cleveland, esq., second se- 
cretary, to May 1, 1750. 

1756. June 15. John Milnes, esq., deputy secre- 
tary. 

1759. Oct. 16. Philip Stephens, esq,, second se- 
cretary. 

1764. June 28. Charles Fearne, esq., deputy se- 
cretary. 

1766. Nov. 11. Sir George Jackson, knt., deputy 
secretary. 



1782. June 3. John Ibbotson, esq., deputy and 

second secretary. 
1795. Mar. 3. William Marsden, esq., second 

secretary. 

1804. Jan. 21. Benjamin Tucker, esq., second 
secretary. 

— May 22. John Barrow, esq., afterwards sir 
John Barrow, second secretary. 

1806. Feb. 10. Benjamin Tucker, esq., againy 

second secretary. 

1807. April 9. Sir John Barrow, bart. (so cre- 

ated 1835), second secretary. 
1845. Jan 28. Capt. William-Alexander Baillie 
Hamilton, R. N., second se- 
cretary. The PRESENT (1850) 
Second Secretary. 



THE CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER. 

The lord chancellor in ancient times performed part of his duties in the Exchequer ; 
he acted with the chief justiciar in matters of revenue. Madox supposes the chancery 
to have been separated from the exchequer about the close of Richard I.'s reign, or 
the beginning of the reign of John; and the appointment of Chancellor of the 
Exchequer appears to have taken place soon afterwards. John Mansell was appointed 
to reside at the Receipt of the Exchequer, 18 Hen. III. (1234), and this seems to 
have been the first appointment of a Chancellor of the Exchequer. — Mr» Thomas's 
Notes of the Rolls' Office. 

This officer is often mentioned in the reign of Henry HI. Ralf de Leycestre 
surrendered the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer 32 Henry III., and the 
king committed the exchequer seal to Edward de Westminster. The same king by 
his writ commanded Albric de Fiscamp to execute the office ; and he gave leave 
to GeolTrey Giffard, Chancellor of the Exchequer, to substitute a fit person to act for 
him, as often as his affairs should render his absence necessary. Henry III. also, by 
his writ, had the custody of the exchequer seal delivered to Roger de la Leye, to 
be kept by him durante bene placito. — Idem. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer is one of the lords of the treasury, except on 
particular emergencies, when the office is held by the lord chief justice of the king's 
bench.^ It is difficult to describe the present various functions of the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer. In fact he exercises all the powers vested in the treasury board, and 
has therefore the entire control and management of all matters relating to the receipt 
and expenditure of the public money. — Idem. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer was, also, entitled to sit, as well as the Lord 
Treasurer, with the Barons of the Exchequer, when they sat, in what was called the 
Exchequer Chamber, as a court of equity. " As late as Michaelmas term, 1735," 
Mr. Thomas states, " Sir Robert Walpole sat as Chancellor of the Exchequer, in the 
case of Naish v. the East India Company., in which the barons were equally divided in 
opinion, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer decided, after a hearing of three days, 
and the decision is reported to have given general satisfaction.*' The equity jurisdic- 

* The office of Second Secretary existed at first only at intervals, and under various titles ; but the succession 
has been regular since the year 1756, and the name has been the same since Jan. 13, 1783. 

2 Sir John Pratt was chancellor of the exchequer in 1721, sir William Lee in 1754 ; lord Mansfield, in 1767 and 
1767; lord EUenborough, in 1806; and, more recently, lord Denman in 1834, from 2d to the 10th December ; 
all of them lord chief justices of England. The reason assigned for the lord chief justice holding the post is, 
that the writs and other process issuing from the court of exchequer from day to day, and from hour to hour, 
require to be sealed instanter with the initial seal of the chancellor of the exchequer, and sometimes certain 
appointments require to be signed ; and when on occasions there happens to be no finance minister of the crown, 
the lord chief justice holds the o^ce. — Notes of the Rolls' Office. 

M 4 



168 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



tion of the court of exchequer is now abolished, having been transferred to the court 
of chancery in 1841.i 



Roll of the Chancellors of the Exchequer. 

From the Restoration of King Charles II. to the present time. 
W The earlier Chancellors will be found in the roll of Lord Treasurers. 



King Charles II. 
Sept, 8, 1660. 

Sir Robert Long. 

May 24, 1667. 
Anthony, lord Ashley, afterwards earl of Shaftes- 
bury. 

Nov. 13, 1672. 
Sir John Duncombe, knt. 

March 26, 1679. 
Hon. Lawrence Hyde, afterwards viscount Hyde 
and earl of Rochester. 

Nov. 21, 1679. 
Sir John Ernie (Ernley), knt. 

King James II. 
Sir John Ernley, continued. 

William and Mary. 
April 8, 1689. 
Henry, lord De la Mere, afterwards earl of War- 
rington, 

March 18, 1690. 
Rt. hon. Richard Hampden. 

May 3, 1694. 
Sidney, lord Godolphin ; and first commissioner 
of the treasury. Afterwards earl of Godolphin. 

King William III., alone. 
Nov. 1, 1695. 
Rt. hon. Charles Montagu. 

May 1, 1697. 
Rt. hon. Charles Montagu ; and first commis- 
sioner of the treasury. 

Nov. 15, 1699. 
Rt. hon. John Smith, afterwards speaker of the 
house of commons. 

March 29, 1701. 
Hon. Henry Boyle, afterwards baron Carleton. 

Queen Anne. 
Hon. Henry Boyle, continued. 

Feb. 11, 1708. 
Rt. hon. John Smith, speaker of the house of 
commons, again. 

Aug. 10, 1710. 
Rt. hon. Robert Harley, afterwards earl of Ox- 
ford and Mortimer. 



June 14, 1711. 
Rt. hon. Robert Benson, afterwards lord Bingley. 

Nov. 1, 1713. 
Sir William Wyndham, bart. 

King George I. 

Oct. 13, 1714. 
Sir Richard Onslow, bart., previously speaker of 
the house of commons ; created lord Onslow, in 
1716. 

Oct. 11, 1715. 
Rt. hon. Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert ; 
first commissioner of the treasury; resigned 
April 10, 1717. 

April 15, 1717. 
Rt. hon. James Stanhope; and first lord of the 
treasury ; afterwards earl Stanhope. 

March 18, 1718. 
Rt. hon. John Aislabie : resigned Jan. 23, 1721. 

Jan. 25, 1721. 

Sir John Pratt, lord chief justice of the king's 
bench, pro tem. 

April 3, 1721. 
Rt. hon. Robert Walpole (sir Robert) ; and first 
lord of the treasury. 

[This powerful minister continued at the head 
of the government until Feb. 3, 1742, when he 
resigned, and was created baron Houghton, 
viscount Walpole, and earl of Orford : died in 
1745.] 

Feb. 16, 1742. 
Rt. hon. Samuel Sandys, afterwards baron San- 
dys. 

Aug. 25, 1743. 
Hon. Henry Pelham ; and first lord of the trea- 
sury. 

[He continued, a very short interval excepted, 
as head of the executive until his death, 
March 6, 1754.] 

March 9, 1754. 
Sir William Lee, knt., lord chief justice of the 
king's bench, pro tem. 

April 6, 1754. 
Hon. Henry Bilson Legge. 

Nov. 22, 1755. 
Sir George Lyttelton, bart., afterwards lord 
Lyttelton, of Frankley: resigned Nov. 11, 
1756. 



roL7,.!i^ ^^^^^ ^/ I^J ^P^H' yiy^ich we have made the preceding extracts, is an unpubHshed work of great 
research, compued bv the learned antiquary, Mr. Thomas, Secretary of the Rolls' Office. 



CHANCELLORS OF 

Nov. 15, 1756. 
Hon. Henry Bilson Legge, again. 

April 9, 1757. 
William, lord Mansfield, lord chief justice of the 
king's bench, pro tern. 

July 2, 1757. 
Hon. Henry Bilson Legge, again. 

King George III. 
March 12, 1761. 
William Wildman, viscount Barrington. 

May 28, 1762. 
Sir Francis Dashwood, bart., afterwards lord Le 
Despencer : resigned April, 1763. 

April 15, 1763. 
Rt. hon. George Grenville ; and first lord of the 
treasury, 

July 10, 1765. 
Rt. hon. William Dowdeswell . resigned July, 
1766. 

Aug. 2, 1766. 
Hon. Charles Townshend : died Sept. 4, 1767. 

Sept. 12, 1767. 
William, lord Mansfield, lord chief justice of the 
king's bench, again, pro tern. 

Dec. 10, 1767. 
Frederick, lord North. 

Feb. 10, 1770. 
Frederick, lord North, now, also, first lord of the 
treasury. 

[He continued at the head of the government 
until March 19, 1782, when he resigned. Suc- 
ceeded as earl of Guilford, Aug. 4, 1790 ; and 
died Aug. 5, 1792.] 

March 27, 1782. 
Lord John Cavendish : resigned in July. 

July 13, 1782. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt : resigned April, 1783. 

April 4. 1783. 
Lord John Cavendish, again. 

Dec. 27, 1783. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt ; and first lord of the trea- 
sury. 

[This illustrious statesman continued prime 
minister until 1801, when he resigned.] 

March 21, 1801. 
Rt. hon. Henry Addington ; and first lord of the 
treasury : previously speaker of the house of 
commons ; afterwards viscount Sidmouth. 

May 16, 1804. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt (again) ; and first lord of 

the treasury. 
[Held the united office until his death, Jan. 23, 

1806.] 



THE EXCHEQUER. jeo 
Jan. 1806. 

Edward, lord Ellenborough, lord chief justice of 
the king's bench, on Mr. Pitt's decease, pro 
tem. ^ 
Feb. 10, 1806. 

Lord Henry Petty, afterwards marquess of Lans- 
downe. 

March 31, 1807. 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval. 

Dec. 6, 1809. 
Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval ; and first lord of the 
treasury. 

[Mr. Perceval continued prime minister until 
his death, by assassination. May 11, 1812.] 

June 9, 1812. 
Rt. hon. Nicholas Yansittart. 

King George IV. 
Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, continued: resigned 
Jan. 1823 ; and created baron Bexley, March 
1, 1823. 

Jan. 31, 1823. 
Rt. hon. Frederick John Robinson, afterwards 
successively viscount Goderich and earl of 
Ripon. 

April 24, 1827. 
Rt. hon. George Canning ; also first lord of the 
treasury : died Aug. 8, same year. 

Aug. 17, 1827. 
Rt. hon. John Charles Herries. 

Jan. 26, 1828. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn. 

King William IV. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, continued, 

Nov. 22, 1830. 
John -Charles, viscount Althorpe ; afterwards 
earl Spencer. 

Dec. 2, 1834. 
Lord Denman, lord chief justice of the king's 
bench, pro tem. 

Dec. 10, 1834. 
Sir Robert Peel, bart. ; also first lord of the trea- 
sury. 

April 18, 1835. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Spring Rice, afterwards lord 
Monteagle. 

Queen Victoria. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Spring Rice, continued. Cre- 
ated lord Monteagle in Sept. 1839. 

Aug. 26, 1839. 
Rt. hon. Francis Thornhill Baring: afterwards 
sir Francis, bart. 

Sept. 3, 1841. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn, again. 

July 6, 1846. 
Rt. hon. Charles Wood, afterwards sir Charles 
Wood, bart. The present (1850) Chancellor 
of the Exchequer. 



In some instances the date of the commission to the 
lords of the treasury, instead of that of the ai>- 
pointment separately, is adopted in the preceding 
list. 



170 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



THE PRINCIPAL SECRETARIES OF STATE. 

The Principal Secretaries of State have been, by their office, members of the privy 
council ever since the reign of queen Elizabeth ; before that time they only pre- 
pared business for the council board in a room adjoining to the council chamber, 
nothing being debated in their presence. The earliest mention of a King's Secretary 
(Secretarius Noster) occurs in the 37th of Henry III. 1253. — Rymers Fcedera. 
There was only one Principal Secretary of State until near the close of Henry VIII.'s 
reign, when that sovereign increased the number to two, both of equal rank and 
authority. Upon the union with Scotland, queen Anne augmented the number to 
three, viz. : a Principal Secretary of State for Scotch Affairs ; which appointment was 
afterwards laid aside. In the reign of George III. 1768, the number was again 
increased to three, one for the American or Colonial department; but in 1782, this 
office also was abolished by act of parliament. The two other Secretaries at this 
time were the Secretary for the Northern Department, or province, which included the 
Low Countries, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Russia, &c. ; and the Secretary 
for the Southern Department, or province, which included France, Switzerland, Italy, 
Spain, Portugal, and Turkey. The affairs of Ireland and the colonies devolved upon 
the elder of these two secretaries. 

In the last-mentioned year (1782), the terms Northern*' and Southern" were 
discontinued, and the duties divided into "Home" and "Foreign." On July 11, 
1794, a Secretary for War was appointed, and to him the business of the Colonies was 
transferred in 1801 : the two departments have since remained consolidated. At pre- 
sent there are a Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, a Principal 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and a Principal Secretary of State for War and 
Colonies : these personages are necessarily privy councillors, and always members of 
the cabinet. Usually two of the Secretaries are in the lower, and one in the upper, 
house of parliament. This order, however, is sometimes reversed ; but there is no 
instance of the three Secretaries being at one and the same time members of the same 
branch of the legislature while there were only two Secretaries, however, the in- 
stances were frequent. 



Secretaries of State. 



The earlier dates represent the time when they were 
found to be secretaries, not their appointments ; 
unless expressly so mentioned. 

King Henry HI. 
1253. John Maunsell, described as " secretarius 
noster.^' 

King Edward I. 
1278. Francis Accursii. 
1299. John de Benstede. 



1308. 



King Edward II. 
William de Melton. 



King Richard II. 
1379. Robert Braybrooke. 

King Henry IV. 
1402. John Profit; held the office until 1412, 
when he was appointed lord privy 
seal. 

King Henry V. 
1415. John Stone; who, before 1421, was suc- 
ceeded by William Alnwick. 



King Henry YI. 

1432. William Hayton: dismissed and no per- 
son at that time appointed to succeed 
him. 

1439. Thomas Beckington ; who held the office 
until 1443, when he was appointed 
privy seal. 

1460. Thomas Manning. 



Kind Edward IV. 



1464. 



William Hatcliffe, called "one of the 
king's secretaries." — Foedera. Called 
secretary and councillor, in 1467 : held 
the office until 1480, when a coadjutor 
(Dr. King) was given him on account 
of his age: Dr. King was to succeed 
him. Hatcliffig died same year. 
1480. Doctor Oliver King. 

King Richard HI. 

1483. John Kendal; Dr. King having been re- 
moved. Mr. Kendal was secretary on 
Aug. 1, 1485. 



in fi?i ;„To unpublished Notes we take many of the earlier names, with their respective dates, 

l^.^rho J^/ "l^^^o^^^'"''^^"^^ of State, says, in reference to the office of Secretary of State, that, "what- 
a mhorlfl pTk -Secretaries, they constitute but one officer, and are co-ordinate and equal in rank and 
befng Se matter VfTrangemen^ ^^'^ "^"""^ ^^'^^ Secretary of State, the division of duties 



SECEETAKIES OF STATE. 



171 



King Henry VII. 

1485. Dr. Richard Fox : made bishop of Exeter 
in 1487 ; probably succeeded by 

1487. Dr. Oliver King, who was certainly secre- 
tary in 1489 and in 1492, when he was 
made bishop of Exeter ; probably suc- 
ceeded by 

1500. Dr. Thomas Ruthal, or Routhall, who was 
certainly secretary in 1500 and to 1509, 
when he became bishop of Durham. 

King Henry VIII. 

1509. Dr. Routhall, continued. Secretary until 
May 1516, when he became privy seal. 

1516. Dr. Richard Pace. 

1526. Dr. William Knight. 

1528. Dr. Stephen Gardiner; elected in 1531 
bishop of Winchester. 

1533. Thomas Cromwell, afterwards lord Crom- 
well and earl of Essex : privy seal, 
July 2, 1536. 

1536. Thomas Wriothesley. 

First Appointment of Two Secretaries. 
1539. Thomas Wriothesley, and 

— Sir Ralph Sadler, knt. 

1543. Sir William Petre, knt. : succeeded Wrio- 
thesley. 

— Sir William Paget, knt., in room of sir 

Ralph Sadler. April 23. 

King Edward VI. 

1547. Sir William Petre, and 

— Sir William Paget, knts., continued, 

1548. Sir William Petre, and 

— Sir Thomas Smith, knts. 

1549. Dr. Nicholas Wotton, and 

— Sir William Petre, knt. 

— Sir William Cecil, knt., in the room of 

Wotton. 

1551. Sir William Petre and sir William Cecil, 

" our secretaries." 
1553. Sir John Cheke ; in addition to sir William 

Petre and sir William Cecil. 

Queen Mary. 
1553. Sir William Petre, and sir John Bourne, 
knts. 

1557. John Boxall, the first secretary appointed 

by letters-patent. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

1558. Sir William Cecil, knt., afterwards lord 

Burleigh ; lord-treasurer in 1572. 

1572. Sir Thomas Smith, knt. 

1574. Sir Francis Walsingham. 

1578. Thomas Wilson, appointed by patent, 
Jan. 5, in addition to sir Francis Wal- 
singham. 

1586. William Davison, appointed "one of the 
chief secretaries " by patent. 



1596. Sir Robert Cecil, knt., also appointed " one 
of the chief secretaries " by patent. July 

[He continued secretary during the re- 
mainder of this reign. ] 

King James I. 
1603. Sir Robert Cecil, continued: afterwards 

earl of Salisbury. 
1609. Sir Alexander Hay. 
1612. Thomas Hamilton. 
1616. Sir Ralph Winwood, knt. 

— Sir Thomas Lake. 

1618. Sir John Herbert, vice Winwood. 

— Sir Robert Naunton, vice Herbert. 

1619. Sir George Calvert, afterwards lord Balti- 

more, vice Lake. 
1622. Sir Edward Conway (afterwards lord Con- 
way) vice Naunton. 

King Charles I. 
1625. Sir Albertus Morton. April 9. 

— Sir Edward, lord Conway, contijiued, 

^ April 23. 

— Sir John Coke, vice Morton. Nov. 9. 
1630. Sir Dudley Carleton, lord Carleton, after- 
wards viscount Dorchester, vice Conway. 

1632. Francis, lord Cottington, vice Dorchester. 

— Sir Harry Vane, knt., vice Coke. 

— Sir Francis Windebanke, vice Cottington. 

1641. Sir Edward Nicholas, vice Windebanke. 

1642. Lucius, viscount Falkland, vice Vane. 

— George, lord Digby, vice Falkland. 

[On the commencement of the civil war 
all went into confusion. The name of 
Secretary of State was abolished during 
the interregnum.] 

The Restoration. 
King Charles II. 
1660. Sir Edward Nicholas. June 1. 

— Sir William Morrice. June 30. 

1662. Sir Henry Bennet, afterwards earl of Ar- 

lingtoni, vice Nicholas. 
1668. Sir John Trevor, knt. vice Morrice. Sept. 

29. 

1672. Henry Coventry, vice Trevor. July 18. 

1674. Sir Joseph Williamson, knt. vice lord 
Arlington. Sept. 11. 

1678. Robert, earl of Sunderland, vice William- 
son. Feb. 20. 

1680. Sir Leoline Jenldns, knt. vice Coventry. 

Feb. 11. 

1681. Edward, earl of Conway, vice lord Sunder- 

land. March 9. 

1683. Robert, earl of Sunderland, again, vice lord 

Conway. March 6. 

1684. Sidney Godolphin, afterwards earl of Go- 

dolphin, vice Jenkins. May 1. 

— Charles, earl of Middleton, vice Godolphin. 

Sept. 25. 



' One of the five Cabal ministers. The ministers so denominated were, Lord Clifford, the earl of Arlington, 
the duke of Buckingham, lord Ashley and the duke of Lauderdale ; the initial letters of whose names make up 
the word. See Administrations . But this appears to have been merely an accidental coincidence. The term 
Cabal was derived (through the medium of the French Cabale) from the Cabala, or secret doctrine of the Jews, 
and was used in England to designate the small body of persons having in their hands the supreme direction of 
the affairs of state even before the Restoration. It probably carried with it at first something of an offensive 
sense ; but that meaning would seem to have been wearing away when it was revived and fixed by the unpopu- 
larity of the ministry of 1670. The word, we believe, has never since been applied except to convey an imputa- 
tion of objectionable as well as secret combination ; and it has in later t'mes been more commonly used to desig- 
nate any self-constituted knot of factious intriguers than a ministry or cabinet. Another error into which some 
of our writers have fallen, relates to the term cabinet council. 1 hey state that the cabinet council was so called, 
from having been usually held, in the reign of Charles I., in the cabinet or closet of queen Henrietta. Be this as 
it may, it is manifest, however, that the name was familiar enough in England long before that time. 



172 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



King James II. 
1685. Robert, earl of Sunderland, again. March 13. 

1688. Richard, viscount Preston, vice lord Mid- 

dleton. 

King William III. 

1689. Charles, earl of Shrewsbury. Feb. 19. 

— Daniel, earl of Nottingham. 

1690. Henry, viscount Sydney, afterwards earl 

Romney, vice lord Shrewsbury. Dec. 26. 
1692. Sir John Trenchard, knt. vice lord Sydney. 

1694. Charles, earl of Shrewsbury, vice lord Not- 

tingham. March 4. 

1695. Sir William Trumbull, knt. vice Trenchard. 

May 3. 

1697. James Vernon, vice Trumbull. Dec. 5. 

1700. Edward, earl of Jersey, vice lord Shrews- 

bury. May 26. 

— Sir Charles Hedges, knt.i vice Vernon. 

Nov. 6. 

1701. Charles, earl of Manchester, vice lord 

Jersey. Jan. 4. 

Queen Anne. 

1702. Daniel, earl of Nottingham. May 15. 

— Sir Charles Hedges, again, May 2. 

1704. Robert Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford 
and earl Mortimer, vice lord Notting- 
ham. May 18. 

1706. Charles, earl of Sunderland, vice Hedges. 
Dec. 3. 

1708. Henry Boyle, afterwards lord Carleton, 

vice Harley. Feb. 15. 
1710. William, lord Dartmouth, afterwards earl 

of Dartmouth. June 15. 

— Henry St. John, afterwards viscount Bo- 

lingbroke. Sept. 21. 
1713. William Bromley, vice lord Dartmouth. 

King George 1. 
Sept. 27, 1714. 
Charles, viscount Townshend, vice lord Boling- 
broke.2 

James Stanhope, afterwards earl Stanhope, vice 
Bromley. 

June 23, 1716. 
Paul Methuen, in the absence of Mr. Stanhope. 

April 16, 1717. 
Charles, earl of Sunderland, vice lord Stanhope. 
Joseph Addison, vice lord Townshend. 

March 16, 1718. 
James Craggs, vice Addison. 
James, earl Stanhope, again, vice lord Sunder- 
land. March 18. 

Feb. 10,' 1721. 
Charles, viscount Townshend, vice lord Stanhope. 
John, lord Carteret (afterwards earl Granville), 
vice Craggs. March 5. 



April 14, 1724. 
Thomas Holies, duke of Newcastle, vice lord 
Carteret. 

King George II. 
Duke of Newcastle, and 

Viscount Townshend, continued; patents dated 
July 27, 1727. 

June 27, 1730. 
William, lord Harrington, afterwards earl of 
Harrington, vice lord Townshend. 

Feb. 15, 1742. 
John, lord Carteret again, vice lord Harrington. 

Nov. 27, 1744. 
William, earl of Harrington, vice lord Carteret. 

Feb. 10, 1746. 
John, earl Granville, vice lord Harrington. 

Feb. 14, 1746. 
Thomas Holies, duke of Newcastle. 
William, earl of Harrington, vice lord Granville. 

Nov. 4, 1746. 
Philip Dormer, earl of Chesterfield, vice lord 
Harrington. 

Feb. 13, 1748. 
John, duke of Bedford, vice lord Chesterfield. 

June 21, 1751. 
Robert, earl of Holdernesse, vice the duke of 
Bedford. 

April 15, 1754. 
Sir Thomas Robinson, afterwards lord Grant- 
ham, vice the duke of Newcastle. 

Nov. 25, 1755. 
Rt. hon. Henry Fox, afterwards lord Holland, 
vice sir Thomas Robinson. 

Dec. 14, 1756. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt (afterwards earl of Chat- 
ham), vice Mr. Fox: he resigned in April, 
1757. 

June 30, 1757. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt, again. 

King George III. 

Rt. hon. William Pitt, and 

Robert, earl of Holdernesse, continued. 

March 25, 1761. 
John, earl of Bute, vice the earl of Holdernesse; 
patent dated April 13. 

Oct. 9, 1761. 
Charles, earl of Egremont, vice Mr. Pitt ; patent 
dated Oct. 23. 

May 29, 1762. 
Hon. George Grenville, vice lord Bute; patent 
dated June 19. 



^ The duchess of Marlborough, in a letter to queen Anne, thus speaks contemptuously of Sir Charles Hedges : 
" He has no capacity, no quality, no interest ; nor could he ever have been in that post (that of secretary of state), 
but, as every body knows, my lord Rochester cares for nothing so much as a man that he thinks will depend upon 
him." — Cootes^s English Civilians. 

2 " Mr. Murray arrived express from Hanover, and brought orders from the regency for removing lord 
Bolingbroke from his office of secretary of state ; the seals were in consequence taken from him, and the doors of 
his office locked and sealed up. — Annals of Great Britain. The Whigs having gained the ascendancy on the 
accession of George I., preparations were made for the impeachment of Bolingbroke, who fled to France, and 
being invited to Lorraine by Charles Stuart, the Pretender, he became his secretary of state. For this he 
was impeached and attainted, and was not allowed to return to England until 17'23. His estates were restored to 
him in 1725, when the attaint was removed, but in blood only. — Ch7'on. of Great Britain. 



SECRETARIES OF STATE. 



173 



Sept. 23, 1763. 
John, earl of Sandwich, vice lord Egremont. 
George, earl of Halifax, vice Mr. Grenville ; pa- 
tent dated Nov. 15. 

July 10, 1765. 
Augustus-Henry, duke of Grafton, vice lord 
Halifax. 

Hon. Henry Seymour Conway, vice lord Sand- 
wich. July 19. 

May 23, 1766. 
Charles, duke of Richmond, vice the duke of 
Grafton ; patent dated June 3. 

Aug. 18, 1766. 
William, earl of Shelburne, vice the duke of 
Richmond. 

Jan. 20, 1768. 
Thomas, viscount Weymouth, vice the hon. 
Henry Seymour Conway ; patent dated 
Feb. 5. 

Feb. 27, 1768. 
WillS; earl of Hillsborough, afterwards marquess 
of Downshire. Colonies. 

Nov. 11, 1768. 
William-Henry, earl of Rochford, vice lord Shel- 
burne ; date of patent as above. 



Dec. 19, 1770. 
John, earl of Sandwich, vice lord Weymouth. 

Jan, 22, 1771. 
George, earl of Halifax, vice lord Sandwich. 

June 12, 1771. 
Henry, earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, vice lord 
Halifax. 

Aug. 27, 1772. 
William, earl of Dartmouth. Colonies, 

Nov. 10, 1775. 
Thomas, viscount Weymouth, vice lord Roch- 
ford. 

Jan. 25, 1776. {Patent) 
Lord George Sackville Germaine*, afterwards 
viscount Sackville. Colonies. 

Oct. 27, 1779. 
David, viscount Stormont, vice lord Suffolk; 
patent dated Nov. 30. 

Nov. 24, 1779. 
Wills, earl of Hillsborough, vice lord Weymouth ; 
patent dated Jan. 19, 1780. 

Feb. 11, 1782. 
Rt. hon. Welbore Ellis, afterwards lord Mendip; 
patent dated March 8. 



Secretaries of State for the Home Department. 



March 27, 1782. 
William, earl of Shelburne, vice lord Stormont. 
Lord Shelburne was appointed first lord of the 
treasury, July 13, same year. 

July 17, 1782. 
Thomas, lord Grantham; resigned the seal, 
April, 1783. 

April 2, 1783. 
Frederick, lord North, afterwards earl of Guild- 
ford. 

Dec. 23, 1783. 
Francis, marquess of Carmarthen; afterwards 
succeeded as duke of Leeds. 

June 5, 1789. 
Rt. hon. William Wyndham Grenville, after- 
wards lord Grenville : became foreign secretary 
in May, 1791. 

June 8, 1791. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, afterwards lord Mel- 
ville. Appointed colonial secretary, July 11, 
1794. 

July 11, 1794. 
William- Henry, duke of Portland. Appointed 
lord president of the council, July 30, 1801. 

July 30, 1801. 
Thomas, lord Pelham, afterwards earl of Chi- 
chester. 



July 17, 1803. 
Rt. hon. Charles-Philip Yorke ; resigned in Maj^, 
1804. 

May 12, 1804. 
Robert, lord Hawkesbury: afterwards earl of 
Liverpool. 

Feb. 5, 1806. 
George-John, earl Spencer. 

March 25, 1807. 
Robert, lord Hawkesbury, again. 

Nov. 1, 1809. 
Rt. hon. Richard Ryder. 

June 11, 1812. 
Rt. hon. Henry, viscount Sidmouth. 

Jan. 17, 1822. 
Rt. hon. Robert Peel: afterwards sir Robert 
Peel, bart. 

April 30, 1827. 
Rt. hon. William Sturges Bourne; afterwards 
first commissioner of woods and forests. 

July 16, 1827. 
Henry, marquess of Lansdowne. 

Jan. 26, 1828. 
Rt. hon. Robert Peel, again. 



^ From his many accomplishments, great talents, his knowledge of official business, and the bias of his political 
opinions, lord George Sackville Germaine has been regarded by many as the author of the Letters of Junius. 
These Letters, however, have been ascribed to sir Philip Francis, the duke of Portland, and others, with equal 
probability. Junius was, as he himself said, " the depository of his own secret ; " and we may now well believe, 
after all the controversies that have taken place on the subject, that it has, indeed, " perished with him." 



174 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Nov. 22, 1830. 
William, viscount Melbourne; afterwards first 
lord of the treasury. 

July 19, 1834. 
John, viscount Duncannon; afterwards earl of 
Besborough. 

Dec. 15, 1834. 
Rt. hon. Henry Goulburn. 

April 18, 1835. 
Kt. hon. lord John Russell ; afterwards secretary 
for war and colonies. 



Aug. 30, 1839. 
Constantine-Henry, marquess of Normanby ; 
previously colonial secretary. 

Sept. 6, 1841. 
Rt. hon. sir James-Robert- George Graham, bart. 

July 6, 1846. 
Rt. hon. sir George Grey, bart. The present 
(1850) Secretary of State for the Home De- 
partment. 



Secretaries of State 

March 27, 1782. 
Rt. hon. Charles- James Fox : resigned J uly 5, 
1782. 

July 13, 1782. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Townshend; afterwards lord 
Sydney. 

April 2, 1783. 
Rt. hon. Charles-James Fox, again. 

Dec. 19, 1783. 
George, earl Temple ; afterwards marquess of 
Buckingham. 

Dec. 23, 1783. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Townshend, lord, afterwards 
viscount Sydney, second time : resigned May, 
1791. 

June 8, 1791. 
William Wyndham, lord Grenville; previously 
home secretary. 

Feb. 20, 1801. 
Robert, lord Hawkesbury ; became home secre- 
tary in May, 1804 : afterwards earl of Liver- 
pool. 

May 14, 1804. 
Dudley, lord Harrowby, afterwards earl of 
Harrowby. 

Jan. 11, 1805. 
Henry, lord Mulgrave, afterwards earl of Mul- 
grave. 

Feb. 7, 1806. 
Rt. hon. Charles-James Fox, again : died Sept. 
13, 1806. 

Sept. 24, 1806. 
Charles, lord Howick, afterwards earl Grey. 



FOR Foreign Affairs. 

March 25, 1807. 
Rt. hon. George Canning : resigned Sept. 1809. 

Oct. 11, 1809. 
Henry, earl of Bathurst, afterwards colonial 
secretary. 

Dec. 6, 1809. 
Richard, marquess Wellesley. 

March 4, 1812. 
Robert, viscount Castlereagh ; afterwards mar- 
quess of Londonderry : died at his seat North 
Cray, in Kent, Aug. 12, 1822. 

Sept. 16, 1822. 
Rt. hon. George Canning : became first minister 
in April 1827 : died Aug. 8, same year. 

April 30, 1827. 
John-William, earl Dudley. 

June 2, 1828. 
George, earl of Aberdeen. 

Nov. 22, 1830. 
Henry-John, viscount Palmerston. 

Nov. 15, 1834. 
Arthur, duke of Wellington ; entrusted with the 
three seals of secretary of state ; he retained 
the seal of foreign secretary, Dec. 9, 1834. 

April 18, 1835. 
Henry- John, viscount Palmerston, again, 

Sept. 2, 1841. 
George, earl of Aberdeen, again. 

July 6, 1846. 
Henry-John, viscount Palmerston, third time. 
The PRESENT (1850) Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs. 



Secretaries of State for War and Colonies. 



July 11, 1794. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, afterwards created 

viscount Melville ; secretary for war. 
[The business of the Colonies, which was carried 

on at the Home office, was transferred in 1801 

to the department of War.] 

March 17, 1801. 
Robert, lord Hobart. 



May 12, 1804. 
John, earl Camden, afterwards created marquess 
Camden ; made lord-president of the council, 
July 1805. 

July 10, 1805. 
Robert, viscount Castlereagh. 

Feb. 14, 1806. 
Rt. hon. William Windham. 



SECRETARIES OF STATE. 



March 25, 1807. 

Robert, viscount Castlereagh, second time : be- 
came foreign secretary in June, 1812. 

Robert, earl of Liverpool, late lord Hawkes- 
bury ; previously foreign and home secretary ; 
afterwards first lord of the treasury. 

June 11, 1812. 
Henry, earl Bathurst ; previously foreign secre- 
tary. 

April 30, 1827. 
Frederick- John, viscount Goderich; appointed 
first lord of the treasury in August, same 
year. 

Aug. 17, 1827. 
Rt. hon. William Huskisson : resigned. 

May 80, 1828. 
Rt. hon. sir George Murray. 

Nov. 22, 1830. 
Frederick-John, viscount Goderich, afterwards 
earl of Ripon ; second time : appointed lord 
privy seal in April, 1833. 

April 3, 1833. 
Rt. hon. Edward-Geoffrey Smith Stanley, after- 
wards lord Stanley. 



June 5, 1834. 

Rt. hon. Thomas Spring Rice; afterwards lord 

Monteagle. 
George, earl of Aberdeen. 

April 18, 1835. 
Rt. hon. Charles Grant, afterwards lord Glenelg. 

Feb. 20, 1839. 
Constantine-Henry, marquess of Normanby. 

Aug. 30, 1839. 

Lord John Russell, afterwards first minister of 
the crown. 

Sept. 3, 1841. 
Rt. hon. lord Stanley, afterwards lord Stanley of 
Bickerstaff*e, summoned to the house of peers 
in 1844 ; second time. 

Dec. 23, 1845. 

Rt. hon. William-Ewart Gladstone; previously 
president of the board of trade. 

July 3, 1846. 
Henry, earl Grey. The present (1850) Secre- 
tary of State for War and Colonies. 



Principal Secretaries of State for Scotland, in England, 

(From the Union of the Kingdoms.) 

Queen Anne. 



1708. 

James, duke of Queensbury and Dover. 
1710. 

John, earl of Marr.i 

King George I. 
1714. 

James, duke of Montrose. 



1716. 

John, duke of Roxburgh. 

King George IL 
1731. 

Charles, earl of Selkirk. 

Feb. 16, 1742. 
John, marquess of Tweeddale. He resigned in 
Jan. 1746, and the office since has never 
been revived. 



UNDER SECRETARIES OF STATE.^ 
Home Department. 



From the year 1782, when the Souther] 

1782. Thomas Orde, and 

— Evan Nepean. 

— Henry Strachey, vice Orde. 

1783. Hon. G. North, vice Strachey. 

1784. Hon. John Thomas Townshend, vice 

North. Feb. 10. 
1789. Scrope Bernard. 
1792. John King, vice Bernard. 
1796. Charles Greville. 
1798. William Wickham, vice Greville. 
1800. Edward Finch Hatton, vice Wickham. 

— Sir George Shee, bart., vice Hatton. 
1803. Reginald Pole Carew, vice sir George Shee. 



was changed into the Home Department. 

1804. John-Henry Smyth, vice Pole Carew. 

1806. John Beckett, jun., afterwards sir John 

Beckett, bart., vice King. Feb. 19. 
— Charles Watkin Williams Wynn, vice 
Smyth. Same date. 

1807. Hon. Charles Cecil Cope J enkinson, after- 

wards earl of Liverpool, vice Wynn. 
Oct. 10. 

1810. Henry Goulburn, vice Jenkinson. Feb. 27. 
1812. Rt. hon. John Hiley Addington, vice 
Goulburn. Aug. 21. 

1817. Henry Hobhouse, vice Beckett. June 28. 

1818. Henry Clive, vice Addington. April 21. 



* Soon after the accession of George I., the earl of Marr was deprived of all his offices, and joining the Pre- 
tender in 1715, followed him, on the failure of his enterprise to Rome, and was attainted by act of parliament : 
the earl died at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1732. The honours of the family were restored to John-Francis, the 12th 
earl, by his majesty George IV. 

2 Among the persons eminently distinguished in literature, who were under secretaries of state, previous to 
1782, when this list commences, were : Matthew Prior, the poet, 1699 ; Joseph Addison, the illustrious writer, 
1707, secretary of state in 1717; and David Hume, the historian, 1765. 



176 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1822. George-Robert Dawson, vice Clive. Jan. 
17. 

1827. Spencer Perceval, vice Dawson. Apr. 30. 

— Thomas Spring Rice, afterwards lord 

Monteagle, vice Perceval. July 16. 

— Samuel March Phillipps, vice Hobhouse. 

Same date. 

1828. William Yates Peel, vice Spring Rice. 

April 5. 

1830. Sir George Clerk, bart., vice Peel. Aug. 5. 

— Hon. George Lamb, vice Clerk. Nov. 22. 

1834. Henry, viscount Howick, afterwards earl 

Grey, vice Lamb. Jan. 13. 

— Edward- John Stanley, now lord Eddis- 

bury, vice lord Howick. J uly 23. 

— William Gregson, vice Stanley. Jan. 3. 

1835. Hon. Fox Maule, vice Gregson. April 18. 



1841. Edward- Adolphus, lord Seymour, vice hon. 

Fox Maule. June 15. 

— Hon. John-Henry-Thomas Manr ers Sut- 

ton, vice lord Seymour. Sept. 3. 

1842. Sir William Marcus Somerville, bart., vice 

Manners Sutton. July 5. 

1847. Sir Denis Le Marchant, vice Somerville. 

July 22. 

1848. George Cornewall Lewis, vice Le Mar- 

chant. May 15. 

— Horatio Waddington, vice March Phil- 

lipps. Same date. 
1850. Hon. Edward Pleydell Bouverie, vice 
Cornewall Lewis. July 9. 
Mr. Bouverie and Mr. Waddington, the 
PRESENT (1850) Under Secretaries of 
State for this Department. 



Foreign Department. 

From the year 1782, when the Northern Department was named the Foreign. 



1782. Richard Brinsley Sheridan. 

— William Fraser. 

— George Maddison, vice Mr. Sheridan. 

1783. St. Andrew St. John, vice Mr. Maddison. 

— William Fraser, solely. 

1789. Hon. Dudley Ryder : afterwards lord Har- 
rowby. 

— James Bland Burgess, vice Fraser. 

— George Aust, vice Ryder. 

1795. George Hammond, vice Burgess. 

1796. George Canning, vice Aust. 

1799. John Hookham Frere, vice Canning. 

April 1. 

1800. Edward Fisher, vice Frere. Sept. 25. 

1801. Frederick, lord Hervey, vice Fisher. Feb. 20. 

1803. Charles Arbuthnot, vice lord Hervey. 

Nov. 8. 

1804. Hon. William Eliot, vice Arbuthnot. 

June 5. 

1805. Robert Ward, vice Eliot. Jan. 25. 

1806. Hon. George Walpole, vice Hammond. 

Feb. 20. 

— Sir Francis Vincent, bart., vice Ward: 

same date. 

1807. George Hammond, vice Walpole, March 30. 

— James-Edward, viscount Fitz-Harris, vice 

sir Francis Vincent : same date. 

— Hon. Charles Bagot, vice lord Fitz-Harris. 

Aug. 19. 

1809. William Hamilton, vice Bagot. Oct. 16. 

— CuUing-Charles Smith, vice Hammond. 

Dec. 13. 

1812. Edward Cooke,t;ice Culling Smith. Feb. 28. 
1817. Joseph Planta, vice Cooke. July 25. 
1822. Richard, earl of Clanwilliam, vice Hamil- 
ton. Jan. 22. 



1827. 
1828. 



1823. Lord Francis Conyngham, vice lord Clan- 

william. Jan. 6. 

1824. Lord Howard de Walden. Third under- 

secretary. May 26. 
1826. Ulick-John, marquess of Clanricarde, vice 
lord Francis Conyngham, afterwards 
earl of Mount Charles. Jan. 2. 
[This nobleman retired, Aug. 17, 1827» 
and the third under- secretaryship was 
not afterwards filled up.] 
John Backhouse, vice Planta. April 23. 
Cospatrick Alexander, lord Dunglas, vice 
lord Howard de Walden. June 9. 
1830. Sir George Shee, bart., vice Dunglas. 
Nov. 26. 

1834. George, viscount Fordwich, vice sir George 

Shee. Nov. 13. 

— Philip -Henry, viscount Mahon, vice lord 

Fordwich. Dec. 15. 

1835. Hon. William T. H. Fox Strangways, 

vice lord Mahon. Aug. 15. 

1840. Lord Leveson, vice Strangways. March 7. 

1841. Charles- John, viscount Canning, vice lord 

Leveson. Sept. 4. 

1842. Henry Unwin Addington, vice Backhouse. 

March 4. 

1846. Hon. George Sydney Smythe, vice lord 
Canning. Jan. 27. 

— Rt. hon. Edward J. Stanley (afterwards 

lord Eddisbury, and lord Stanley, of 
Alderley), vice Smythe. July 6. 

— Mr. Addington and lord Stanley are the 

PRESENT (1850) Under Secretaries of 
this Department. 



War and Colonies. 

From the Establishment of the War Department in 1794. 



War. 

1794. Evan Nepean. 

1795. William lEluskisson, vice Nepean. 

War and Colonies. 
1801. John Sullivan, vice Huskisson. 
1804. Edward Cooke, vice Sullivan. 
1806. Sir George Shee, bart., vice Cooke. 
— Sir James Cockburn : additional appoint' 
ment. 



1807. Edward Cooke, vice sir George Shee. 

— Hon. Charles-William Stewart, vice Cock- 

burn. 

1809. Hon. Frederick-John Robinson, vice Stew- 

art. 

— Hon. Cecil Jenkinson, vice Cooke. 

— Lieut. Col. Henry E. Bunbury, vice Robin- 

son. 

1810. Robert Peel, afterwards sir Robert, bart. 

vice Jenkinson. 



BOARD OF TRADE. 



177 



181'2. Henry Goulburn, vice Robert Peel. 

1816. [Lieut. -col. Banbury's appointment was 
this year set aside. ] 

1821. Robert -Wilmot Horton, vice Henry Goul- 
burn. 

1825. Robert -William Hay: additional appoint- 
ment. 

1828. Hon. Edward-GeofFrey-Smith Stanley, vice 
Robert- Wilmot Horton. 

— Lord Francis-Leveson Gower, afterwards 

lord Francis Egerton, and earl of Elles- 
mere, vice Stanley. 

— Horace Twiss, vice lord Francis-Leveson 

Gower. 

1830. Henry, viscount Howick, now earl Grey, 
vice Twiss. 

1833. John G. Shaw Lefevre, vice lord Howick. 

1834. Sir George Grey, bart., vice Shaw Le- 

fevre. 



1835. William -Ewart Gladstone, vice sir George 

Grey. 

— Sir George Gre}^ bart., again ; vice Glad- 

stone. 

1836. James Stephen (now Rt. hon. sir James 

Stephen) vice tlay, 
1839. Rt. hon. Henry Labouchere, vice sir George 
Grey. 

— Robert- Vernon Smith, vice Rt. hon. Henry 

Labouchere. 

1841. George-William Hope, vice Vernon Smith. 
Sept. 8. 

1846. George- Willi am, lord Lyttelton, vice Hope. 
Jan. 8. 

— Benj amin Hawes, vice lord Lyttelton. July 0. 
1848. Herman Merivale, vice Stephen. May 3. 

Mr. Hawes and Mr. Merivale, the pre- 
sent (1850) Under Secretaries of State 
for this Department. 



THE BOARD OF TRADE. 

Cromwell seems to have given the first notion of a Board of Trade.^ Charles II., on 
his restoration, established a Council of Trade, " for keeping a control and super- 
intendence upon the whole commerce of the nation," ISTov. 7, 1660 ; and by patent, 
dated Dec. 1, same year, he also created a Council of Foreign Plantations. In 1672, 
these Boards were united, and various revisions followed from time to time. In 1782, 
by statute 22d George III. cap. 82, the Board was abolished, and the business was 
managed by a Committee of the Privy Council, whose duty was " to examine the 
" custom-house accounts of all goods and merchandise exported and imported to and 
" from the several ports in the kingdom, as well as from foreign ports, in order to 
" inform the government of the advantages and disadvantages of the trade of this 
" nation with other kingdoms and states, in regard to the balance of trade. And also 
" to encourage our plantations abroad, by endeavouring to promote their trade ; and 
" by discovering and encouraging such branches as were most conducive to their 
" respective interests, as well as to those of the kingdom at large." But it was not 
until 1786, by an Order in Council, dated Aug. 23, that the Board of Trade, as at pre- 
sent constituted, was formed. The President is now always a cabinet minister. 

The Original Boards, 



1660. 

Edward, lord Hyde, afterwards earl of Claren- 
don, lord chancellor, ex officio. 
Thomas, earl of Southampton, lord treasurer. 
George, duke of Albemarle. 
Montagu, lord Willoughby d'Eresby. 
William, earl of Pembroke. 
James, earl of Marlborough, 
Charles, earl of Portland. 
Charles, earl of Norwich. 
Edward, earl of Sandwich. 
John, lord Robartes, and others. 

Oct. 20, 1668. 
All the great officers of state. 
The secretaries of state. 
John, earl of Bridgewater. 
William, earl of Craven. 
Sir Henry Coventry. 
Sir John Ernley, 



Sir George Carteret. 
Robert Southwell. 

Sept. 16, 1672. 
A standing council, of which, 
Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury, and 
Thomas, lord Colepeper, were respectively pre- 
sident and vice president. 

April 16, 1679. 
A new commission, which included many of the 

preceding commissioners, and 
William, earl of Devonshire. 
George, viscount Halifax, and 
George, lord Berkeley. 

King William III. 

Dec. 16, 1695. 
The lord chancellor or keeper of the great seal. 
Lord president of the council. 



1 In 1655, Oliver Cromwell appointed his son Richard, with many lords of his council, judges, and gentlemen, 
and about twenty merchants of London, York, Newcastle, Yarmouth, Dover, and other places, to meet and 
consider by what means the traffic and navigation of the republic might be best promoted and regulated, and to 
report upon the subject Adolphus's State the British Empire 



178 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Lord keeper of the privy seal, all for the time 

being, together with 
John, earl of Bridgewater, and others. 

May 15, 1696. 
The great officers of state for the time being, 
and 

John, earl of Bridgewater. 
Ford, earl of Tankerville. 
Sir Philip Meadows, knt. 
William Blathwayte. 
John Pollexfen. 
John Locke. 1 
Abraham Hill, and 
John Methuen. 

" June 9, 1699. 
By a commission under this date, the following 
great officers of state were specially mentioned : 

Lord chancellor or keeper of the great seal. 
Lord president of the council. 
Lord keeper of the privy seal. 
Lord treasurer, or first commissioner of the trea- 
sury. 

Lord high admiral, or first commissioner of the 
admiralty. 

The two principal secretaries of state, and 
Chancellor of the exchequer, all for the time 

being; with 
Thomas, earl of Stamford. 
Robert, lord Lexinton. 
Sir Philip Meadows, knt. 
William Blathwayte. 
John Pollexfen. 
John Locke. 
Abraham Hill, and 
George Stepney. 

[From this time all the great state officers con- 
tinued to be members of the board.] 

June 11, 1700. 

The same board, with the addition of Matthew 
Prior.2 

Jan. 8, 1702. 
The same board, with the addition of Robert 
Cecil. 

1705. 

Thomas, earl of Stamford. 
Thomas, viscount Weymouth. 
William, lord Dartmouth. 
Sir Philip Meadows, knt. 
William Blathwayte. 
John Pollexfen. 
George Stepney. 
Matthew Prior, and 
Robert Cecil. 

1706. 

1'homas, earl of Stamford. 
William, lord Dartmouth. 
Henry, lord Herbert. 
Sir Philip IMeadows. 



George Stepney. 
John Pulteney. 
Robert Monckton. 

1707. 

Thomas, earl of Stamford. 

William, lord Dartmouth. 

Henry, lord Herbert, of Cherbury. 

Robert Monckton. 

John Pulteney. 

Sir Charles Turner, knt. ; and 

John Locke. 

1710. 

Thomas, earl of Stajiford. 

William, lord Dartmouth. 

Sir Philip Meadows, knt. 

John Pulteney. 

Robert Monckton. 

Sir Charles Turner, and 

George Baillie. 

Oct. 4, 1710. 
The same board, with the addition of Arthur 
Moore. 

June 12, 1711. 
Charles, earl of Winchilsea, and the same 
board, with the addition of Francis Gwyn. 

Sept. 15, 1713. 
Francis, lord Guilford. 
Sir Philip Meadows, knt. 
Robert Monckton. 
Arthur Moore. 

Sir John Hynde Cotton, bart. 
John Sharpe. 
Samuel Pitts, and 
Thomas Vernon. 

Sept. 1714. 
William, lord Berkeley, of Straton. 
Sir Jacob Astley, bart. 

Robert Molesworth, afterwards viscount Moles- 
worth. 
John Cockburn. 
Archibald Hutchinson. 
John Chetwynd. 
Charles Cooke, and 
Paul Docminique. 

1715. 

Henry, earl of Suffolk and Bindon, and the 
same board, except Archibald Hutchinson, in 
whose room came the Rt. hon. Joseph Addi- 
son.3 

Daniel Pulteney, vice Cockburn. 
Martin Bladen, vice Addison. 

July 13, 1717. 
Henry, earl of Suffolk and Bindon. 
John Chetwynd. 
Charles Cooke. 
Paul Docminique. 
John Molesworth. 
Thomas Pelham, vice Astley. 



' The distinguished philosopher, and writer on the " Human Understandina'' who had previously been secre- 
tary to the Board. 

2 The elegant, easy, and harmonious poet and classic writer; afterwards ambassador to the court of France, 
and a negotiator of the celebrated treaty of Utrecht in 1713. 

^j'^n ^1^^^^*' gifted Addison, by whom our literature has been adorned in almost every walk ; and who first 
modelled our language to the lucid, copious, and graceful style that prevails at this day. ^ Johnson. 



BOARD OF TRADE. 



179 



Jan. 31, 1718. 

Robert, earl of Holdernesse (vice lord Suf- 
folk), and the same board. 

May 11, 1719. 
Thomas, earl of Westmoreland (;cice lord 
Holdernesse), and the same board. 

June 24, 1720. 
Thomas, earl of Westmoreland. 
John Chetwvnd. 
Sir Charles Cooke, bart. 
Paul Docminique. 
Thomas Pelham. 
Martin Bladen, and 
Edward Ashe, vice Pulteney. 

Sept. 4, 1721. 
Thomas, earl of Westmoreland ; and the 

same board, with the addition of 
Richard Plumer. 

Oct. 4, 1721. 

Thoisias, earl of Westmoreland ; and the 

same board, except 
Sir John Hobart, bart., afterwards earl of 

Buckinghamshire, vice Cooke. 

Aug. 8, 1727. 
Thojias, earl of Westmoreland ; and the 

same board, except 
Sir Orlando Bridgeman, bart., vice Plumer, and 
Walter Carey, vice Hobart. 

June 1, 1728. 
Thoivias, earl of Westmoreland ; and the 

same board, except 
Sir Thomas Frankland, bart., vice Chetwynd. 

1730. 

Tho:mas, earl of Westmoreland ; and the 

same board, except 
Hon. James Brudenell, vice Frankland. 

May 13, 1730. 
Thomas, earl of Westmoreland ; and the 

same board, except 
Sir Archer Croft, bart., vice Carey. 

May 1735. 

Benjamin Mildmay, earl FitzwAlter, vice 

lord Westmoreland. 
Thomas Pelham. 
Martin Bladen. 
Edward Ashe. 

Sir Orlando Bridgeman, bart. 
Hon. James Brudenell. 
Sir Archer Croft, bart., and 
Richard Plumer. 

June 1737. 

John, lord Monson, vice lord Fitzwalter; and 
the same board. 

Feb. 1742. 
John, lord Monson. 
Martin Bladen. 
Edward Ashe. 
Hon. James Brudenell. 
Richard Plumer. 

Hon. Robert Herbert, vice Pelham. 

Sir Charles Gilmour, bart., vice Bridgeman. 

Benjamin Keene, vice Croft. 

N 



Dec. 25, 1744. 

John, lord Monson. 

Martin Bladen. 

Edward Ashe. 

Hon. James Brudenell. 

Richard Plumer. 

Hon. Robert Herbert. 

Sir John Phillips, bart., vice Gilmour. 

John Pitt, vice Keene. 

May 7, 1745. 
John, lord Monson ; and the same board, with 

the exception of 
Hon. Baptist Leveson Gower, appointed vice 

Phillips. 

Feb. 1746. 

John, lord Monson ; and the same board, with 

the exception of 
Hon. James Grenville, appointed vice Bladen. 

Nov. 1746. 
John, lord Monson. 
Edward Ashe. 
Richard Plumer. 
Hon. Robert Herbert. 
John Pitt. 

Hon. James Grenville. 

Thomas, viscount Dupplin, vice Brudenell. 

Francis Fane, vice Gower. 

Nov. 1, 1748. 
George Montagu Dunk, earl of Halifax, 

vice lord Monson. 
Richard Plumer. 
Hon. Robert Herbert. 
John Pitt. 

Hon. James Grenville. 
Thomas, viscount Dupplin. 
Francis Fane, and 

Sir Thomas Robinson, K. B., afterwards lord 
Grantham, vice Ashe. 

June 1749. 
George Dunk, earl of Halifax. 
Hon. Robert Herbert. 
John Pitt. 

Hon. James Grenville. 
Thomas, viscount Dupplin. 
Francis Fane. 

Sir Thomas Robinson, K. B., and 
Hon. Charles Townsliend, vice Plumer. 

Nov. 1749. 
George Dunk, earl of Halifax. 
Hon. Robert Herbert. 
John Pitt. 

Hon. James Grenville. 
Thomas, viscount Dupplin. 
Francis Fane. 

Hon. Charles Townshend, and 
Andrew Stone, vice Robinson* 

Dec. 1751. 

George Dunk, earl of Halifax. 
John Pitt. 

Hon. James Grenville. 
Thomas, viscount Dupplin. 
Francis Fane. 
Hon. Charles Townshend. 
Andrew Stone, and 
James Oswald, vice Herbert. 
2 



18.0 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



April 6, 1754. 
George Dunk, earl of Halifax. 
John Pitt. 

Hon. James Grenville. 
Francis Fane. 
Andrew Stone. 
James Oswald. 

Hon. Richard Edgcumbe (afterwards lord Edg- 

cumbe), vice Dupplin. 
Thomas Pelham (afterwards lord Pelham), vice 

Townshend. 

Dec. 23, 1755. 
George Dunk, earl of Halifax. 
Francis Fane. 
Andrew Stone. 
James Oswald. 
Thomas Pelham. 
Hon. John Talbot, vice Pitt. 
Soame Jenyns^, vice Grenville. 
Richard Rigby, vice Edgcumbe. 

April 24, 1756. 
George Dunk, earl of Halifax ; and the 

same board, with the exception of 
WiUiam Gerard Hamilton, appointed vice Fane. 

Dec. 11, 1756. 

George Dunk, earl of Halifax; and the same 

board, with the exception of 
William Sloper, appointed vice Talbot. 

Dec. 24, 1759. 

George Dunk, earl of Halifax. 

Andrew Stone. 

Thomas Pelham. 

Soame Jenyns. 

Richard Rigby. 

William Gerard Hamilton. 

William Sloper, and 

Edward Bacon, vice Oswald. 

Jan. 1760. 
George Dunk, earl of Halifax. 
Andrew Stone. 

Thomas Pelham (now lord Pelham). 

Soame Jenyns. 

William Gerard Hamilton. 

William Sloper. 

Edward Bacon, and 

Edward Eliot, vice Rigby. 

March 21, 1761. 
Samuel, lord Sandys, vice lord Halifax. 
Andrew Stone. 
Soame J enyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
Edward Bacon. 

Hon. John Yorke, vice Pelham. 

Sir Edmund Thomas, bart., vice Hamilton. 

George Rice, vice Sloper. 

Oct. 23, 1761. 
Samuel, lord Sandys. 
Soame Jenyns. 



Edward Eliot. 

Edward Bacon. 

Hon. John Yorke. 

Sir Edmund Thomas, bart. 

George Rice, and 

John Roberts, vice Stone. 

Dec. 28, 1762. 
Samuel, lord Sandys ; and the same board, 

with the exception of 
Francis, lord Orwell, afterwards earl of Ship- 

brooke, appointed vice Roberts. 

Mar. 1, 1763. 
Hon. Charles Townshend (vice lord Sandys) ; 
and the same board. 

Apr. 20, 1763. 
William, earl of Shelburne (afterwards mar- 
quess of Lansdowne), vice Mr. Townshend. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
Edward Bacon. 
George Rice. 
Francis, lord Orwell. 
Jeremiah Dyson, vice Yorke, and 
Bamber Gascoyne, vice Thomas. 

Sept. 9, 1763. 
Wills, earl of Hillsborough (vice lord Shel- 
burne) ; and the same board. 

July 20, 1765. 
William, earl of Dartmouth, vice lord Hills- 
borough. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
George Rice. 
Jeremiah Dyson. 

Hon. John Yorke, vice lord Orwell. 
John Roberts, vice Gascoyne. 
William Fitzherbert, vice Bacon. 

Dec. 1765. 
William, earl of Dartmouth. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
George Rice. 
Jeremiah Dyson. 
John Roberts. 
William Fitzherbert, and 
Henry, viscount Palmerston, vice Yorke. 

Aug. 16, 1766. 

Wills, earl of Hillsborough, vice lord Dart- 
mouth ; and the same board. 

Oct. 11, 1766. 
Wills, earl of Hillsborough. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
George Rice. 
Jeremiah Dyson. 
John Roberts. 



1 Soame Jenyns was a man of delicate and refined wit, an elegant writer, and a shrewd observer of manners 
and men. His attachment to the government was rewarded by his post at the Board of Trade, which he held for 
five-and-twentyyears, maintaining a high character for political integrity. Mr. Jenyns was the author of "Poems," 
in 2 vols.; " A Free Inquiry into the Origin of Evil ; " and " A View of the Internal Evidence of the Christian Re- 
ligion.'''' But these form only a portion of his works. In early life he was of a religious turn of mind, but he 
subsequently wandered into deism. It is gratifying to add, however, that a closer inquiry brought him out of the 
dangerous path of scepticism, and that he remained ever afterwards a firm and pious Christian He died at the 
age of 84. The work last mentioned was, it is supposed, written as some atonement (and it is valuable upon 
that account) for his previous infidelity. 



BOARD or TRADE. 



181 



William Fitzherbert. 

Hon. Thomas Robinson (afterwards lord Gran- 
tham), vice lord Palmerston. 

Dec. 1766. 

Robert Nugent (afterwards earl Nugent), 
vice lord Hillsborough ; and the same board. 

Jan. 20, 1768. 

Wills, earl of Hillsbokough ; and the same 

board, except 
Wilmot, viscount Lisburne, vice Dyson. 

April 12, 1770. 
W^iLLS, earl of Hillsborough. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
George Rice. 
John Roberts. 
William Fitzherbert. 
AVilmot, viscount Lisburne. 
George Greville, lord Greville, vice hon. Thomas 
Robinson. 

April 16, 1770. 
Wills, earl of Hillsborough; and the same 

board, except 
William Northey, vice lord Lisburne. 

May 16, 1770. 
Wills, earl of Hillsborough. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
John Roberts. 
William Fitzherbert. 
George, lord Greville. 
William Northey, and 
Bamber Gascoyne, vice Rice. 

Jan. 16, 1771. 

Wills, earl of Hillsborough. 
Soame Jenj'-ns. 
Edward Eliot. 
John Roberts. 
William Fitzherbert. 
George, lord Greville. 
E amber Gascoyne, and 
Thomas Whateley, vice Northey. 

Feb. 11, 1772. 

Wills, earl of Hillsborough ; and the same 

board, except 
William JoUiffe, vice Fitzherbert. 

Aug. 15, 1772. 
Wills, earl of Hillsborough. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 
John Roberts. 
George, lord Grevill. 
Bamber Gascoyne. 
William JoUiffe, and 
John, lord Garlics, vice Whateley. 

Aug. 31, 1772. 
William, earl of Dartmouth, vice lord Hills- 
borough. 



Soame Jenyns. 
Edward Eliot. 

George, lord Greville, afterwards earl of War- 
wick. 
Bamber Gascoyne. 
William JoUiffe. 

John, lord Garlics, afterwards earl of Galloway. 
Lord Robert Spencer, vice Roberts. 

Jan. 25, 1774. 

William, earl of Dartmouth. 
Soame Jenyns. 

Edward Eliot (afterwards lord Eliot). 

Bamber Gascovne. 

William JoUiffe. 

Lord Robert Spencer. 

Hon. Charles Greville, vice lord Warwick. 

Whitshed Keene, vice lord Galloway. 

Nov. 10, 1775. 
Lord George Sackville Germaine, vice lord 
Dartmouth ; and the same board. 

March 9, 1776. 
Lord George Germaine. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Bamber Gascoyne. 
William JoUiffe. 
Lord Robert Spencer. 
Hon. Charles Greville. 
Whitshed Keene, and 
William Eden, vice Eliot. 

June 5, 1777. 
Lord George Germaine. 
Soame Jenyns. 
Bamber Gascoyne. 
William JoUiffe. 
Lord Robert Spencer. 
Hon. Charles Greville. 
William Eden, and 
Thomas de Grey, vice Keene. 

July 6, 1779. 
Lord George Germaine (afterwards viscount 

Sackville). 
Soame Jenyns. 
Lord Robert Spencer. 
Hon. Charles Greville. 
William Eden. 
Thomas de Grey. 
Andrew Stuart, vice Gascoyne. 
Edward Gibbon vice JoUiffe. 

Nov. 6, 1779. 

Frederick, earl of Carlisle Qvice lord George 
Germaine) ; and the same board. 

Sept. 6, 1780. 
Frederick, earl of Carlisle. 
Lord Robert Spencer. 
William Eden. 

Hon. Thomas de Grey (afterwards lord Walsing- 

ham). 
Andrew Stuart. 
Edward Gibbon. 
Hans Sloane, vice Jenyns. 
Benjamin L'Anglois, vice Greville. 



The historian. A greater number of the hterary luminaries of their time belonged to this Board than, 
perhaps, to any other division of the state. We have already noticed Locke, Prior, Addison, and Soame Jenyns ; 
and to this brilliant galaxy is now to be added the illustrious author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ; 
a work that (despite its one great faulc, a grievous fault no doubt; will eternize his name. Gibbon obtained a 
commission at this board for the Manifesto (the ablest state paper of the day), which he was employed to draw 
up on the occasion of the war with France, in 1778. He lost his place on the suppression of the Board in 1782. 

K 3 



182 



STATESMEI^ AND 



STATE OEEICERS. 



Dec. 9, 1780. 
Tho^ias, lord Grantham, vice lord Carlisle ; and 
the same board. 

1781. 

Thomas, lord Grantham. 
Lord Robert Spencer. 
Et. hon. William Eden. 
Andrew Stuart. 
Edward Gibbon. 
Hans Sloane. 

Sir Adam Fergusson, bart., vice lord Walsing- 
liam. 

Anthony Storer, vice L'Anglois. 

Dec. 22, 1781. 

Thoinias, lord Grantham. 
Rt. hon. William Eden. 
Andrew Stuart. 
Edward Gibbon. 
Hans Sloane. 

Sir Adam Fergusson, bart. 
Anthony Storer, and 

John-Chetwynd Talbot, afterwards earl Talbot, 
vice lord Robert Spencer. 

[The office of Trade and Plantations was sup- 
pressed under an act of Parliament (22 George 
III. cap. 82.) in June 1782, and the business 
was transferred to the secretaries of state.] 



March 5, 1784. 

The suppression of the Board of Trade, being 
greatly felt by the trading part of the nation, His 
Majesty was pleased, in order to protect the in- 
terests of the mercantile community, to appoint 
the following Committee of the most honourable 
Privy Council, for the consideration of all matters 
relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations. 

Thomas, lord Sydney, one of the principal se- 
cretaries of state, president. 
Heneage, earl of Aylesford. 
Thomas, earl of Effingham, 
Thomas, earl of Clarendon. 
George, earl of Leicester. 
Lord Frederick Campbell 
Richard, viscount Howe. 
Robert, lord bishop of London. 
Thomas, lord Grantham. 
Thomas, lord Walsingham. 
Fletcher, lord Grantley. 
Constantine-John, lord Mulgrave. 
Hon. Thomas Harley. 
Hon. Sir Joseph Yorke, K. B. 
Rt. hon. Charles Jenkinson. 
Sir John Goodricke, bart. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas. 
Rt. hon. James Grenville, and 
Rt. hon. William- Wyndham Grenville. 



Establishment of the present Board of Trade. 



Lords of the Committee o/ Privy Council appointed by His Majesty (George III.) 
for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations. 

August 23, 1786. 

" His Majesty having thought fit to revoke his Order in Council, bearing date the 
5 th day of March, 1784, appointing a Committee of Privy Council for the consideration 
of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations, and to declare the said 
Committee dissolved, was pleased to appoint a New Coomiittee of Privy Council for 
the business above-mentioned, to consist of the following members : — 
The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of the Ex- 



chequer. 

The Speaker of the House of Commons. 



The First Commissioner of the Treasury. 
The First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty. 
His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State. 

" And also such of the persons of His Majesty's most honourable Privy Council as 
shall hold any of the following offices : — 



The Treasurer of the Navy, and 
The Master of His Majesty's Mint. 



The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 
The Pa3anaster or Paymaster-general of His 
Majesty's forces. 

" And His Majesty was at the same time pleased to order, that the Speaker of the 
House of Commons of Ireland, and such persons as shall hold offices in His Majesty's 
kingdom of Ireland, and shall be members of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy 
Council in this kingdom, shall be members of this Committee ; and also that — 

Lord Frederick Campbell. Sir John Goodricke, bart., 

Kobert, Lord Bishop of London, 
Fletcher, Lord Grantley, 
Sir Lloyd Kenyon, bart.. 
The Hon. Sir Joseph Yorke, 

be members of this Committee. And that the Rt. hon. Cliarles Lord ITawkesbury, 
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and, in his absence, the Kt. hon. William 



The Hon. William Eden, 
Rt. Hon. James Grenville, and 
Rt. Hon. Thomas Orde, 



BOARD OF TRADE. 



183 



Wyndham Grenville, joint paymaster- general of the forces (vice-president of the 
Board, &c.)) be President of the Committee." 

Subsequent Members of the Board. 



1788. Dr. Beilby Porteus, lord bishop of London. 

1790. Rt. hon John-Charles Yilliers, Feb. 24. 

— Sir Richard Pepper Arden, master of the 

rolls. March 13. 

— Rt. hon. Dudley Ryder ; same date. 

— Sir William Wynne ; same date. 
1793. John, viscount Bayham. June 21. 

— Rt. hon. Sylvester Douglas, afterwards 

lord Glenbervie. March 17. 

1797. Rt. hon. sir Joseph Banks, bart.^ March 

20. 

1798. Sir William Scott, knt., afterwards lord 

Stowell. Oct. 31. 

1799. Robert Banks, lord Hawkesbury, after- 

wards earl of Liverpool. March 14. 

— Rt. hon. sir John Scott, knt., afterwards 

earl of Eldon. July 17. 

1802. Rt. hon. John Beresford. Feb. 17. 

— Rt. hon. John Foster ; same date. 

— Rt. hon. William Wickham ; same date. 

— Rt. hon. George Rose ; same date. 

— Rt. hon. Charles Long ; same date. 

1803. Rt. hon. Charles Bragge. June 22. 
1805. Lord George Thynne. May 1. 

— Lord John Thynne. May 1. 



1805. Rt. hon. John Smyth. -\ 

— Rt. hon. Nathaniel Bond. f same 

— Rt. hon. Reginald Pole Carew (date. 

— Rt. hon. John Sullivan. J 

1806. Frederick Morton, lord Henley. Feb. 14. 

— Richard, lord Donoughmore. May 23. 

— John Joshua, earl of Carysfort. June 18. 

1807. Rt. hon. Isaac Corry. Jan. 28. 

— Charles, lord Whitworth. April 15. 

— Richard, earl of Clancartv. May 20. 

1808. John, lord Redesdale. March 30. 

1809. Rt. hon. sir John Nicholl. Feb. 6. 

— Dr. John Randolph, lord bishop of Lon- 

don. Oct. 11. 

— John, lord Sheffield. Dec. 20. 

1812. Rt. hon. Frederick-John Robinson, after- 

wards viscount Goderich and earl of 
Ripon. Aug. 13. 

1813. Dr. William Howley, lord bishop of Lon- 

don. Dec. 2. 
1815. Rt. hon. William Huskisson. Jan. 7. 
1823. Rt. hon. Charles Arbuthnot. April 3. 
1846. Rt. hon. John Nicholl, D. C. L. Jan. 21. 
1848. Rt. hon. James (Sir) Stephen. April 15. 

— Rt. hon. Sir Edward Ryan. April 18. 



Presidents op the Board op Trade from 1786. 



Aug. 23, 1786. 
Charles, lord Hawkesbury; afterwards earl of 
Liverpool, first president. 

June 7, 1804. 
James, duke of Montrose. 

Feb. 5, 1806. 
William, lord Auckland. 

March 31, 1807. 
Henry, earl Bathurst. 

Sept. 29, 1812. 
Richard, earl of Clancarty. 

Jan. 24, 1818. 
Rt. hon. Frederick- John Robinson ; afterwards, 
successively, viscount Goderich and earl of 
Ripon. 

King George IV. 
Feb. 21, 1823. 
Rt. Hon. William Huskisson. 

Sept. 4, 1827. 
Rt. hon. Charles Grant ; afterwards lord Glenelg. 

June 11, 1828. 
Rt. hon. William Vesey Fitzgerald ; afterwards 
lord Fitzgerald and Vesci. 



Feb. 2, 1830. 
Rt. hon. John-Charles Herries. 

King William IV. 

Nov. 22, 1830. 

George, lord Auckland ; afterwards earl of Auck- 
land. 

June 5, 1834. 
Rt. hon. Charles Poulett Thomson ; afterwards 
lord Sydenham, vice-president, acting as pre- 
sident. 

Dec. 15, 1834. 
Rt. hon. Alexander Baring; afterwards lord 
Ashburton. 

April 18, 1835. 
Rt. hon. Charles Poulett Thomson; afterwards 
lord Sydenham, again. 

Queen Victoria. 

Aug. 29, 1839. 
Rt. hon. Henry Labouchere. 

Sept. 3, 1841. 
Frederick- John, earl of Ripon, again. 

June 10, 1843. 
Rt. hon. William Ewart Gladstone. 



1 The eminent naturalist, and president of the Royal Society, and member of the National Institute of France. 
This illustrious name may well be associated with the names already noticed. Sir Joseph Banks's enthusiasm 
in the study of natural history led him to accompany Captain Cook in his first circumnavigation of the world • 
he died in 1820. 

N 4 



184 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Feb. 5, 1845. 
James Andrew, earl (afterwards marquess) of 
Dalhousie. 

July 6, 1846. 
George-William -Frederick, earl of Clarendon. 



July 22, 1847. 
Rt. lion. Henry Laboucliere, again. The now 
(1850) President of the Board. 



Vice Presidents from 1786. 



Aug. 23, 1786. 
Rt. hon. William Wyndham Grenville; after- 
Avards lord Grenville. 

Aug. 8, 1789. 
James, marquess of Graham; afterwards duke of 
Montrose, and president. 

Oct. 20, 1790. 
Rt. hon. Dudley Ryder ; afterwards successively 
lord and earl of Harrowby. 

Nov. 18, 1801. 
Sylvester Douglas, lord Glenbervie. 

Feb. 8, 1804. 
Rt. hon. Nathaniel Bond. 

June 7, 1804. 
Rt. hon. George Rose. 

Feb. 5, 1806. 
Richard Chandos, earl Temple. Created duke 
of Buckingham. 

March 30, 1807. 
Rt. hon. George Rose, again. 

Sept 29, 1812. 
Rt. hon. Frederick- John Robinson; afterwards 
president. 

Jan. 28, 1818. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace; afterwards lord 
Wallace. 

King George IV. 
April 3, 1823. 
Rt. hon. Charles Grant ; afterwards president. 

Feb. 5, 1828. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Frankland Lewis. 



May 30, 1828. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Peregrine Courtenay. 

King William IV. 

Nov. 22, 1830. 
Rt. hon. Charles Poulett Thomson; afterwards 
president. 

Dec. 20, 1834. 
Rt. hon. William, viscount Lowther. 

May 6, 1835. 
Rt. hon. Henry Labouchere; afterwards presi- 
dent. 

Queen Victoria. 

Aug. 29, 1839. 
Rt. hon. Richard Lalor Shell. 

June 28, 1841. 
Rt. hon. Fox Maule. 

Sept. 3, 1841. 
Rt. hon. WiUiam Ewart Gladstone; afterwards 
president. 

June 13, 1843. 
James- Andrew, earl of Dalhousie; afterwards 
president. Now Marquess of Dalhousie. 

Feb. 5, 1845. 
Rt. hon. sir George Clerk, bart. 

July 6, 1846. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Milner Gibson. 

May 8, 1848. 
Granville George, earl Granville ; who conjoins 
with this office that of paymaster-general. 
The NOW (1850) Vice-President of the Board 
of Trade. 



Sir Stephen Cottrell 
William Fawkener 



Secretaries to the Board. 



virtue of their 
office of clerks of 
the council, 
the death of Mr. 



Lord Chetwynd 
Fawkener. 

1810. Thomas Lack, appointed assistant secre- 
tary. Aug. 25. 

1829. Joseph Deacon Hume, second assistant 
secretary; new appointment. July 15. 

1836. Denis le Marchant (afterwards sir Denis, 
bart.) appointed to succeed Mr. Lack. 
Feb. 8. 

1840. John Mac Gregor; appointed to succeed 
Mr. Hume. Jan. 24. 

The Board of Trade consisted of six or more members from the time of its rein- 
slitution in 1786 (as it had previously done), besides the ex officio commissioners. But 
the business of late years has been wholly conducted by the president, the vice- 



1841. John-George Shaw Lefevre ; appointed 
to succeed Mr. Le Marchant, on his 
going to the treasury. June 19. 

1847, George Richardson Porter; appo uted to 
succeed Mr. Mac Gregor. Aug. 6. 

1848. Sir Denis Le Marchant, bart. ; appointed 
to succeed Mr. Lefevre, on his going to 
the house of lords. May 14. 

1850. James Booth; appointed to succeed Sir 
Denis le Marchant on his going to the 
house of commons. Oct. 10. 



BOARD OF CONTKOL. 



185 



president, and the secretaries ; no other members having been appointed since the 
year 1823, with the exception of Dr. Nicholl in 1846, and of sir James Stephen and 
sir Edward Kyan in 1848, who were appointed for special purposes and in reference 
to certain duties. 

Mr. Thomas, Secretary of the Record Office, thus describes the business of this 
Board : — 

" The business of this department is of a very miscellaneous character. All matters relating to the interests of 
trade, which come before the several departments of the government, are usually referred to the Board of Trade, 
either for the information of its members or for the purpose of obtaining their advice. Thus, for example, there 
are frequent communications with the Foreign Office on the subjects of the negotiation of commercial treaties, 
of difficulty arising out of them, and of the proceedings necessary to give effect to them. With the Treasury, on 
the alterations made or contemplated in the laws of the customs, on cases of hardship to individuals arising from 
the operation of those laws, and on points connected with them which require solution. And with other depart- 
ments on matters of interest in a commercial point of view . The preparation also of bills and of orders in council 
for carrying out the intentions of the government on these subjects frequently falls to the care of this board. The 
correspondence of the board with private individuals on the subjects of which it has cognizance is likewise ex- 
tensive. 

" Every private bill passing through parliament is submitted to the Board of Trade ; and, in cases where the 
public interest is affected, it frequently interferes to procure the modification or rejection of certain clauses. All 
applications made to the Queen in council by committees or individuals seeking charters or letters -patent, and all 
cases of parties desiring to establish joint stock banks, are referred to this board to be reported on. And so like- 
wise are all acts passed by colonies having legislative governments before they are laid before her majesty ; but 
in regard to these the Colonial Secretary, through whom they are transmitted, recommends what should be done, 
and his recommendation is always followed as a matter of course. Still, all acts of this class must receive the 
formal sanction ot the Board of Trade before being assented to by the crown. Such also of the ordinances of 
what are called Crown Colonies (that is, those having no legislative assemblies) as relate to the matters of trade 
are usually submitted to this board either by the Colonial Secretary, or by the Lords of the Treasury. 

" The Board of Trade contains, amongst other subordinate departments, the following : The Corn Returns 
Department. The Statistical Department, established in 1832. And the Railway Department, originally con- 
stituted in 1840 ; enlarged in its powers in 1844 ; and again modified and its functions considerably curtailed 
in 1845." 

In connexion with this department may also be mentioned the duty imposed on the Board by the late act for the 
" Protection of Merchant Seamen," 8 and 9 Victoria cap. 116, of " granting licences to fit persons to act as ship- 
ping agents, etc. ; " and the more recent act (13 and 14 Victoria, cap. 93) passed 14th August, 1850, for " Improv- 
ing the condition of Masters, Mates, and Seamen, and maintaining discipline in the Merchant Service." 



THE BOARD OF CONTROL, 

This Board was originally established by an act of parliament (Mr. Pitt's celebrated 
East India bill) passed on the 18th of May, 1784. The act empowered his majesty 
(George III.) to appoint six privy councillors to be Commissioners for the affairs of 
India, with very extensive powers ; they having the " controul and superintendence of 
all the British territorial possessions in the East Indies, and over the Affairs of the 
United Company of Merchants trading thereto." One of the principal secretaries of 
state was constituted President, and in his absence the chancellor of the exchequer, 
and in the absence of both, then the senior commissioner was to be President. Sub- 
sequently, however, to the passing of this act, it was found necessary to alter the 
constitution of the Board.^ The President is now always specially appointed, and is 
chosen for his great abilities. He is necessarily a privy councillor, and is one of the 
most important members of the cabinet, entering upon office and retiring with his 
official friends on every change in the administration. 

The lord president of the council, the lord privy seal, the first lord of the treasury, 
the principal secretaries of state, and the chancellor of the exchequer, for the time 
being, are, ex officio^ members of the Board (popularly the India Board), and the 
sovereign may appoint any other personages to be members also. 

Commissioners . 



Rt. hon. Henry Dundas. 
Thomas, lord Walsinghara. 
Rt. hon. William Wyndham Grenville. 
Constantine-John, lord Mulgrave. 

March 12, 1790. 
Rt. hon. William Wyndham Grenville, 

president. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas. 

1 By the 33d George III. cap. 52, sec. 3, it is enacted, " that any three or more commissioners shall and may 
form a board, and that the first-named commissioner in the letters-patent or commission for the time being shall 
be the president of the said board; and that when any board shaU be formed in the absence of the president, 
the commissioner whose name shall stand next in the order of their nomination in the said commission of those 
who shall be present, shall for that turn preside at the said board." — Statutes at large. 



*#* The following dates are those of the patents, in all 
cases, unless otherwise expressed. 

King George III. 

Sept. 3, 1784. 
Thomas, lord Sydney, president. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. 



186 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Constantine-John, lord Mulgrave. 
Thomas, lord Sydney. 
Thomas, lord Walsingliara. 
Lord Frederick Campbell. 
Rt. hon. Dudley Ryder. 

May 16, 1791. 
William Wyndham Giienville, afterwards 

lord Grenyille, president. 
Rt. hon. William Pitt. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dmidas. 
Lord Frederick Campbell. 
James, duke of Montrose. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Steele. 

June 28, 1793. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, the first paid presi- 
dent. 

James, duke of Montrose. 
Richard, earl of Mornington. 
Robert Grosvenor, viscount Belgrave. 
Henry Bathurst, lord Apsley. 
Hon. Edward-James Eliot. 
Hon. Robert Banks Jenkinson. 

June 29, 1795. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, president. 
James, duke of Montrose. 

Richard, earl of Mornington, afterwards mar- 
quess Wellesley. 
Robert, viscount Belgrave. 
Henry, earl Bathurst (late lord Apsley). 
Hon. Edward- James Eliot. 
Hon. Robert Banks Jenkinson. 
Rt. hon. Sylvester Douglas. 

Xov. 16, 1797. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, president. 
James, duke of Montrose. 
Robert, viscount Belgrave. 
Henry, earl Bathurst. 
Robert Banks, lord Hawkesbury. 
Rt. hon. Sylvester Douglas. 
William Dundas. 

March 28, 1799. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, president. 
James, duke of INIontrose. 
Robert, viscount Belgrave. 
Henry, earl Bathurst. 
Rt. hon. Sylvester Douglas. 
William Dundas. 
George Canning. 

July 2, 1800. 
Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, president. After- 
wards viscount Melville. 
James, duke of Montrose. 
Robert, viscount Belgrave. 
Henry, earl Bathurst. 
Rt. hon, Sylvester Douglas. 
Rt. hon. George Canning. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
Richard Temple Nugent, earl Temple. 

May 19, 1801. 
George, viscount Le wish am, president. Suc- 
ceeded as earl of Dartmouth. 
J ames, duke of INIontrose. 
Henry, earl Bathurst. 
Sylvester Douglas, lord Glenbervie. 
Rt. hon. William Dundas. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 



Rt. hon. Thomas Pelham. 
Edward Golding. 

July 12, 1802. 
Robert, viscount Castlereagh, president. 
James, duke of Montrose. 
Sylvester, lord Glenbervie. 
Rt. hon. William Dundas. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
Charles-George, lord Arden. 
Edward Golding. 

Oct. 22, 1803. 
Robert, viscount Castlereagh, president. 
Sylvester, lord Glenbervie. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
Edward Golding, and 
Hon. Thomas Maitland. 

May 31, 1804. 
Robert, viscount Castlereagh, president. 
Sylvester, viscount Glenbervie. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 

Richard Trench, viscount Dunlo. Afterwards 
earl of Clancarty. 

Feb. 12, 1806. 
Gilbert, lord Minto, president. Afterwards 

earl of Minto. 
George Howard, viscount Morpeth. 
Rt. hon. John Hiley Addington. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

July 16, 1806. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Grenville, president. 
George Howard, viscount Morpeth. 
Rt. hon. John Hiley Addington. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
John-Joshua, earl of Carysfort. 

Oct. 1, 1806. 
Rt. hon. George Tierney, president. 
George Howard, viscount Morpeth. Afterwards 

earl of Carlisle. 
Rt. hon. John Hiley Addington. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
John-Joshua, earl of Carysfort. 

April 6, 1807. 
Rt. hon. Robert Dundas, president. 
George Percy, lord Lovaine. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
George Johnstone. 

July 17, 1809. 
Dudley^ earl of Harrowby, president. 
Rt. hon. Robert Dundas. 
George Percy, lord Lovaine. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
Thomas Hamilton, lord Binning. 

Nov. 13, 1809. 
Rt. hon. Robert Dundas, president. 
George Percy, lord Lovaine. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
Lord Francis Almaric Spencer. 

July 7, 1810. 
Rt. hon. Robert Dundas, president. 
George Percy, lord Lovaine. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 



BOARD OF CONTROL. 



187 



Rt. lion. Thomas Wallace. 
William, viscount LoAvther. 

April 7, 1812. 
Robert, earl of Buckinghamshire, president. 
George Percy, lord Lovaine. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 
William, viscomit Lowther. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

Sept. 8, 1812. 

Robert, earl of Buckinghamshire, president. 

John, lord Teignmouth. 

Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 

William, viscount Lowther. 

Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

Henry Bathurst, jun., lord Apsley. 

Sept. 7, 1814. 

Robert, earl of Buckinghamshire, president. 

John, lord Teignmouth. 

Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace. 

William, viscount Lowther. 

Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

Henry Bathurst, lord Apsley. 

Thomas Hamilton, lord Binning. 

Rt. hon. William Sturges Bourne. 

June 20, 1816. 
Rt. hon. George Canning, president. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
William, viscount Lowther. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Henry Bathurst, lord Apsley. 
Thomas Hamilton, lord Binning. 

June 17. 1818. 
Rt. hon. George Canning, president. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Thomas Hamilton, lord Binning. 
Rt. hon. William Sturges Bourne. 
James Brownlow William Cecil, viscount Cran- 
borne. 

Horatio Walpole, lord Walpole. 

King George IV 

Jan. 16, 1821. 
Rt. hon. Charles Bathurst, president. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

Thomas Hamilton, lord Binning: succeeded as 

earl of Haddington. 
Rt. hon. William Sturges Bourne. 
James Brownlow William Cecil, viscount Cran- 

borne. 

Horatio Walpole, lord Walpole: succeeded as 
earl of Orford. 

Feb. 8, 1822. {Gazette.) 
Rt. hon. Charles- Watkin-Williams Wynn, 

president. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

James Brownlow William Cecil, viscount Cran- 

borne : succeeded as marquess of Salisbury. 
Rt. hon. William-Henry Fremantle. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
Joseph Phillimore, LL. D. 



June 2, 1826. {Gazette.) 

Rt. hon. Charles- Watkin-Williams Wynn 

president. 
James, marquess of Salisbury. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
Joseph Phillimore, LL. D. 
William Yates Peel. 

June 4, 1827. 

Rt. hon. Charles- Watkin-Williams Wynn, 

president. 
John, lord Teignmouth. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Sir George Warrender, bart. 
Joseph Phillimore, LL. D. 
Sir James Macdonald, bart. 

Feb. 7, 1828. 
Robert Dundas, viscount Melville, presi- 
dent. 

Thomas Wallace, lord Wallace. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Anthony Ashley Cooper, lord Ashley. 
James, marquess of Graham. 
Laurence Peel. 

July 31, 1828. 
Robert, viscount Melville, president. 
Thomas, lord Wallace. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Anthony Ashley, lord Ashley. 
James, marquess of Graham. 
Laurence Peel, and 

Rt. hon. Thomas-Peregrine Courtenay. 

Sept. 24, 1828. 
Edward, lord Ellenborough, president. 
Thomas, lord Wallace. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Anthony Ashley, lord Ashley. 
James, marquess of Graham. 
Laurence Peel, and 

Rt. hon. Thomas-Peregrine Courtenay. 

Feb. 24, 1830. 

Edward, lord Ellenborough, president. 

Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

Anthony Ashley, lord Ashley. 

James, marquess of Graham. 

Rt. hon. Thomas-Peregrine Courtenay. 

George Banks. 

King William IV. 
Dec. 6, 1830. 
Rt. hon. Charles Grant, president. 
Rt. hon. Charles- Watkin-Williams Wynn. 
Rt. hon. J ohn Sullivan. 
Sir J ames Macdonald, bart. 
Sir James Mackintosh, knt. 
Rt. hon. Robert Grant, and 
Henry Ellis. 

July 28, 1832. 
Rt. hon. Charles Grant, president. 
Rt. hon. Charles-Watkin- Williams Wynn. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Rt. hon. Robert Grant. 
Rt. hon. Henry Ellis. 
Rt. hon. Ho't Mackenzie. 
Robert Gordon, and 
Thomas-Babington Macaulay. 



188 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



Dec. 21, 1832. 
Rt. hon. Charles Grant (afterwards lord 

Glenelg), president. 
Rt. lion. John Sullivan. 
Rt. hon. Robert Grant. 
Rt. hon. Henr}^ Ellis. 
Rt. hon. Holt Mackenzie. 
Robert Gordon, and 
J ames- Alexander-Stewart Mackenzie. 

Dec. 20, 1834. 

Edward, lord Ellenborough, president. 

Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

Joseph Planta, and 

Sir Alexander-Cray Grant. 

April 29, 1835. . 
Sir John Hobhouse, bart., president. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 
Sir Charles Cockerell, bart. 



Queen Victoria. 
July 21, 1837. 
Sir John Hobhouse, bart., president. 
Rt. hon. John Sullivan. 

Sept. 9, 1841. {Gazette.) 
Edward, lord Ellenborough (afterwards earl 
of Ellenborough), president, again. 

Oct. 28. 1841. 
William- Vesey Fitzgerald, lord Fitzgerald 
and Vesci, president. Died while holding this 
office, in 1843. 

May 23, 1843. 
Frederick-John, earl of Ripon, president. 

July 10, 1846. 
Sir John Hobhouse, bart., president, again. 
The NOW President (1850) of the Board. 



By the act 3 & 4 William 4. cap. 85. sect. 20.^ it is provided, as before, " That 
the lord president of the council, the lord privy seal, the first lord of the treasury, the 
principal secretaries of state, and the chancellor of the exchequer, for the time being, 
shall, by virtue of their respective offices, be Commissioners for the affairs of India in 
conjunction with the person or persons to be nominated in any such commission as 
aforesaid." It will be seen, however, that from and after the passing of this act (Aug. 
28, 1833) fewer commissioners (other than the ex officio commissioners) have been 
named as a Board, and that, latterly, but one commissioner has been named. The 
letters-patent, since Sept. 1841, have been addressed to but one commissioner (exclu- 
sively of the ex officio commissioners), and the whole powers of the former boards are 
now vested in that one commissioner, at present sir J ohn Hobhouse. 

Secretaries to the Board. 



1784. C. W. Broughton Rouse, esq. Sept. 8. 
1791. Henry Beaufoy, esq. Mav 10. 
1793. William Broderick, esq. July 3. 

1803. Benjamin Hobhouse, esq., late sir Ben- 

jamin Hobhouse. Nov. 19. 

1804. George-Peter Holford, esq. May 22. 

1806. Thomas Creevy, esq. Feb. 14. 

1807. George-Peter Holford, esq., again. April 8. 
1810. Sir Patrick Murray. Jan. 6. 

1812. John Bruce, esq. March 14. 
1812. Thomas Peregrine Courtenav, esq. Aug. 
20. 

1829. George Bankes, esq. May 2. 

1830. Hon. John -Stuart Wortley, now lord 

Wharncliffe. Feb. 16. 

1830. Dudley, lord Sandon, now earl of Har- 

rowby. Dec. 18. 

1831. Thomas-Hyde Villiers, esq. May 18. 

1832. Thomas-Babington Macaulay, esq. Dec. 19. 

1833. rRobert Gordon, esq. Dec. 26, and 

1834. < James-Alexander-Stewart Mackenzie, 
( esq. April 22 ; joint secretaries. 

1834. rWinthrop M. Praed, esq. Dec. 20, and 

1835. < Hon. Sidney Herbert. Jan. 8 ; joint 
t secretaries. 



.oQK f Robert Gordon, esq., again, and 

I Robert- Vernon Smith, esq. April 21. 

r Edward Adolphus, lord Seymour, and 
1839. < William Clay, esq., now sir William 

( Clay, bart. Sept. 30. 
1841. Charles Buller, esq., in the room of lord 
Seymour. June 21. 

/^James-Emerson Tennent, esq., now sir 
1841 < JaiT^es- Emerson Tennent, and 

* J Hon. William-Bingham Baring, now 
C lord Ashburton. Sept. 8. 

-laAr r Robert, viscount Jocelyn. Feb. 17. 

* ( Philip-Henry, viscount Mahon. Aug. 5. 
rRt. hon. George- Stevens Byng, now 

1846. < viscount Enfield, and 

( Thomas Wyse, esq. July 6. 

1847. George-Cornewall Lewis, esq. Nov. 30. 

1848. f James Wilson, esq. May 16. 

1849. J Hon. John-Edmund Elliot. Jan. 26. 

i The PRESENT (1850) Secretaries of 
(. the Board of Controul. 

Assistant Secretary/. 
Hugh Stark, esq. 



1 This very important act received the royal assent August 28, 1833. It is entitled " An Act for effecting an 
arrangement with the East hidia Company, and for the better government of His Majesty's Indian territories till 
the 30th of April, 1854." Besides the provision above recited, this act empowers the Board of Commissioners to 
control all the acts of the company concerning India (section 25), and directs that no official communications 
shall be transmitted by the Court of Directors in London to India, until they shall have been approved of by the 
Board (section 30). The act further directs that the government of India shall be in a Governor-General and 
Councillors, to be styled "" the Governor-General of India in Council." Until the passing of this act, the 
Governor-General had been styled "the Governor-General of Bengal," but his authority had, nevertheless, ex- 
tended over all the presidencies. 



CHANCELLORS OF THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER. 



189 



THE CHANCELLOR OF THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER. 

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is an officer of great eminence in the 
government, and frequently a cabinet minister. He holds his office by letters-patent; 
and if a peer, takes precedence according to his rank in the peerage ; if not, he takes 
precedence nex: after the chancellor of the exchequer, and immediately before the lord 
chief justice of the queen's bench. He formerly sat as judge of the Duchy court of 
Lancaster, held in Westminster, in which all causes any way relating to the revenue 
of the Duchy of Lancaster were tried. Another branch of the same court was estab- 
lished at Preston, in Lancashire, called the court of the county palatine of Lancaster, 
for the same purposes in that county as the other was in Westminster. 

These courts were erected by Henry lY. after he had deposed Richard II., when 
possessing the Duchy of Lancaster in right of his mother, he imagined his claim to it 
better than that to the throne, and therefore separated it from the crown, and erected 
these courts for its use. The office of Chancellor of the Duchy is now, practically, a 
sinecure. 

Chancellors of the Duchy of Lancaster. 



King Charles II. 
1660. Charles, lord Seymour, of Trowbridge. 
June 1. 

1672. Sir Robert Carr, knt. and bart. Feb. 14. 
1680. Sir Thomas Ingram, knt. Feb. 14. 

King James IL 
1688. Robert, lord Willoughby, of Eresby. 

King William III. 
1697. Thomas, earl of Stamford. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Sir John Leveson Gower, bart., afterwards 

lord Gower. April 21. 
1706. James, earl of Derby. June 10. 
1710. William, lord Berkeley, of Stratton. 

King George I. 
1714. Heneage, earl of Aylesford. Oct. 12. 
1716. Richard, earl of Scarborough. March 6. 
1718. Nicholas Lechmere, afterwards lord Lech- 
mere; for life. June 12. 

King George II. 
1727. John, duke of Rutland. July 17. 
1736. George, earl of Cholmondelev. May 21. 
1743. Richard, lord Edgcumbe. Dec. 22. 
1758. Thomas Hay, viscount Dupplin; after- 
wards earl of Kinnoul. Jan. 24. 

King George III. 
1762. James, lord Strange. Dec. 15. 
1771. Thomas, lord Hyde, afterwards earl of 
Clarendon. June 14. 

1782. John, lord Ashburton. March 27. 

1783. Edward, earl of Derby. Aug. 29. 

— Thomas, earl of Clarendon. Dec. 31. 
1786. Charles, lord Hawkesbury. Sept. 9 ; after- 
wards earl of Liverpool. 



1803. Thomas, lord Pelham, afterwards earl of 

Chichester. Nov. 9. 

1804. Henry, lord Mulgrave. June 6. 

1805. Robert, earl of Buckinghamshire. Jan. 14. 

— Dudley, lord Harrowby, afterwards earl of 

Harrowby, July 10. 

1806. Edward, earl of Derby. Feb. 12. 

1807. Rt. hon. Spencer Perceval, afterwards first 

lord of the treasury, i March 30. 
1812. Robert, earl of Buckinghamshire. May 
23. 

— Rt. hon. Charles Bathurst. June 23. 

King George TV. 
1823. Rt. hon. Nicholas Vansittart, previously 

chancellor of the exchequer (created 

lord Bexley). Feb. 13. 
1828. George, earl of Aberdeen. Jan. 26. 

— Rt. hon. Charles Arbuthnot. June 2. 

King William IV. 
1830. Henry-Richard, lord Holland. Nov. 25. 

1834. Rt. hon. Charles-Watkin- Williams Wynn. 

Dec. 26. 

1835. Henry -Richard, lord Holland, again. 

April 23. 

Queen Victoria. 

1840. George- William-Frederick, earl of Claren- 

don. Oct. 31. 

1841. Rt. hon. sir George Grey, bart. June 23 : 

appointed home secretary in July, 
1846. 

— Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 

Sept. 3. 

1846. Rt. hon. John, lord Campbell. July 6. 

Appointed lord chief justice K. B. 
March, 1850. 

1850. George- Frederick- William, earl of Carlisle. 

March 6. The present (1850) Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 



1 When Mr. Perceval became first minister of the crown, in 1809, he continued to hold the office of chancellor 
of the duchy of Lancaster conjointly with the two superior offices of first lord of the treasury and chancellor of 
the exchequer. This is the only instance we have met with of the three offices having been united in the same 
individual. 



190 STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



THE SECRETARY-AT-WARi 

It is probable that the War-office had its origin, like many other departments, in a 
committee of the privy council. — Thomas' Notes of the Rolls. " The first 
Secretary-at-War was an officer detached from the secretary of state's office : the 
secretary of state, as is understood, finding the consolidation of the finance of the 
army inconvenient, got rid of it by establishing a secretaryship-at-war, as a separate 
and independent branch." — Si?^ Henry Hardinge, It is probable that the Secretary- 
at-War was originally a clerk attending upon a committee of council. This I had 
suspected, because Mr. Blathwayte, who was Secretary-at-War to James II., was in 
attendance on the privy council when the bishops were called in. — Mr. Thomas 
Bahington Macaulay. 

The Secretary-at-War is deemed the Military Secretary to the sovereign, and 
conveys his majesty's, or, as now, the queen's, orders to all the generals and military 
governors at home and abroad, in relation to the troops and garrisons under their 
command ; and with him they correspond, and to him they make their returns and 
reports, as well as to the commander-in-chief or the commander of the forces, as the 
case may be. The trust reposed in this officer is very great. All orders for marching, 
quartering, encamping, and recruiting the army are signed by him ; and all military 
commissions issue from his office. The Secretary-at-War prepares the army estimates 
to be laid before parliament, and he is on that account necessarily a member of the 
house of commons ; he is always a privy councillor, and frequently, as now, a cabinet 
minister. 

Secretaries-at-War. 



King Charles I. 
1644. Edward Walker was secretary-at-war this 
year. — Harleian Catalogue, No. 6802. 

Commonwealth. 
William Clarke. He was sometimes 
called " Clerk to the General " (Monk), 
sometimes " Secretarj^ to the Forces." 
But the title of the office was, pro- 
bably, " Secretary to the Council of 
War." — Council Book during the In- 
terregnum. State Paper Office. 

King Charles 11. 
1661. Sir William Clarke, continued. Jan. 28. 
1666. Rt. hon. Matthew Locke. June 5. 
1683. Rt. hon. William Blathwayte. Aug. 18. 

King James II. 
1685. Rt. hon. William Blathwayte, continued. 

King William III. 
1692. Rt. hon. George Clarke. March 3. 

Queen Anne. 
1704. Henry St. John, afterwards lord and vis- 
count St. John, and viscount Boling- 
broke. April 20. 



1708. Rt. hon. Robert Walpole, afterwards sir 
Robert, and earl of Orford; and first 
minister of the crown. Feb. 25. 

1710. Rt. hon. George Granville, afterwards lord 
Lansdowne, of Bideford. Sept. 28. 

1712. Rt. hon. sir William Wyndham, bart. 

June 28. 

1713. Rt. hon. Francis Gwyn. Aug. 21. 

King George I. 

1714. Rt. hon. William Pulteney, afterwards 

earl of Bath. Sept. 25. 

1717. Rt. hon. James Craggs, jun. April 13. 

1718. Christopher Wandesford, viscount Castle- 

comer. March 14. , 

— Rt. hon. Robert Pringle. May 18. 

— Rt, hon. George Treby. Dec. 24. 

1720 *j It is stated in Tindal, ii. 631, that 
& > Mr. Trevor was secretary-at-war in 
1721. J these years. 

1724. Hon. Henry Pelham, afterwards Rt. hon., 
and subsequently first minister of the 
crown. April 1. 

King George II. 

1730. Sir William Strickland, bart. June 11. 
1735. Sir William Yonge, bart. May 9. 



1 There appears to have been established, about the close of 1620, or at the beginning of 1621, a council or 
committee for war. Sir William Trumbull, ambassador at Brussells, writing to Sir Dudley Carleton, then 
ambassador at the Hague, under date of February 19, 1620-1, says: " By other means, you have heard of the 
newly- elected council or committee for war, whereof the earls of Oxford, Leicester, and Essex, are the most 
eminent persons, to whom are joined the viscounts Canfield and Wilmot, Sir Ho. Vere, Sir Edward Cecil, Sir 
Edward Conway, and Capt. Binghnm." — Holland Correspondence. State Paper Office. 

It appears, also, that there was a council of war established " for securing Ireland, and the rest of the kingdom, 
and for putting the navy in readiness." Date, April 21, 1624. See " Commissions Sir Joseph Williamson's 
Collection; First Series, vol. 35. 

From the Sixth Report of the Commissioners appointed under the act 45th George III. cap. 47, to inquire into 
and examine the pubhc expenditure and the conduct of the public business in the military departments therein 
mentioned, it appears that the origin of this office could not be traced. It is clear, however, that the first person 
whe held the appointment was detached from the secretary of state's office, so intimately connected were the two 
departments then considered. 



MASTEES-GEXERAL OF THE OEDNANCE. 



191 



1741. Rt. hon. Thomas Winnington. April 27. 
— Kearsley^s Annals. 
[This name does not appear in the au- 
thorised Hsts; nor can we trace it at 
the Rolls' offices.] 

1746. Rt. hon. Henry Fox, afterwards lord 
Holland. July 23. 

1755. Rt. hon. William Wildman Barrington, 
viscount Barrington. Nov. 14. 

King George III. 

1761. Rt. hon. Charles Townshend. March 18. 

1762. Rt. hon. Welbore Ellis, afterwards lord 

Mendip. Dec. 17. 
1765. William, viscount Barrington, acj'mw. July 
19. 

1778. Charles Jenkinson, afterwards lord 
Hawkesbury and earl of Liverpool. 
Dec. 16. 

1782. Rt. hon. Thomas Townshend, aftervvards 
viscount Sydney. March 27 : ap- 
pointed secretary of state, July, same 
year. 

1782. Sir George Yonge, bart. July 11. 

1783. Colonel hon. Richard Fitzpatrick. April 

11. 

— Sir George Yonge, bart., again. Dec. 24. 
1794. Rt. hon. William Windham. July 11: 

afterwards secretary of state for war 

and colonies. 
1801. Rt. hon. Charles Yorke. Feb. 20. 

1803. Rt. hon. Charles Bragge (Bathurst). Aug. 

17. 

1804. Rt. hon. William Dundas. May 15. 

1806. General hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, again. 

Feb. 7. 

1807. Lieut.-Gen. sir James Murray Pultenay, 

bart. March 30. 



1809. Lord Granville Leveson Gowcr, afterwards 

earl Granville. June 27. 
1809. Henry-John, viscount Palmerston. Oct. 

27. 

King George IY. 
1820. Viscount Palmerston, continued. 
1828. Sir Henry Hardinge. May 31. 

King William IV. 
1830. Lord Francis Leveson Gowcr, afterwards 
lord Francis Egerton. July 30. His 
lordship was subsequently created earl 
of Ellesmere. 

1830. Rt, hon. Charles- Watkin-Williams Wynn. 

Nov. 30. 

1831. Sir Henry Brooke Parnell, bart., after- 

wards created lord Congleton. April 
4. 

1832. Sir John Cam Hobhouse, bart. Feb. 1. 

1833. Rt. hon. Edward Ellice. April 4. 

1834. Rt. hon. John-Charles Herries. Dec. 16. 

1835. Henry, viscount Howick, now earl Grey. 

April 20. 

Queen Victoria. 

1837. Viscount Howick, continued. 

1839. Rt. hon. Thomas Babington Macaulay. 

Sept. 26 ; afterwards paymaster-gene- 
ral. 

1841. Lieut.-gen. sir Henry Hardinge, again. 

Sept. 4. Created viscount Hardinge, 
April 1846. 

1844. Sir Thomas-Francis Fremantle, bart. May 

17. 

1845. Hon. Sidney Herbert. Feb. 4. 

1846. Hon. Fox Maule. July 6. The present 

(1850) Secretary-at-War. 



THE MASTER-GENERAL OF THE ORDNANCE. 

This officer is always chosen from among the first generals in the service of the 
sovereign. His appointment was formerly for life, but since the Restoration he holds 
it durante bene placito ; and now usually enters upon office with the party to which he 
is politically attached, and retires with each change in the responsible advisers of the 
crown. To the Master- General of the Ordnance is entrusted the storing of all the 
military magazines in the dominions of Great Britain, and the supply of all the 
munitions of war to the royal navy that issue from his department. He is colonel-in- 
chief of the corps of artillery and the corps of engineers, and he has a peculiar 
jurisdiction over all the engineers employed in the several fortifications throughout 
the realm. The Master- General is not unfrequently a cabinet minister. 



Masters-General of the Ordnance. 



Queen Elizabeth. 
1596. Robert, earl of Essex: beheaded in her 
majesty's reign. 

King James I. 
1603. Charles, earl of Devonshire. 
1609. George, earl of Totnes. 
1623. Sir Richard Morrison. 

King Charles I. 

1628. Sir Thomas Stafford. 

1629. Horatio, lord Vere, of Tilbury. 
1634. Montjoy Blount, earl of Newport. 



King Charles II. 
1660. Sir William Compton. 

C John, lord Berkeley. ^ 
1665. Sir John Duncombe. > In commission, 

(Sir Thomas Chicheley.J 
1670. Sir Thomas Chicheley. 
1674. Sir John Chicheley. 

rSir John Chicheley. ^ j 

\ Sir William Hickman. V 
(Sir Christopher Musgrave. J "Mission. 
1681. George Legge, afterwards lord Dart- 
mouth. 



1679. 



192 



STATESMElSr AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



William and Mary. 
1689. Frederick de Schomberg, duke of Schom- 
berg. 

1693. Henry, viscount Sydney, afterwards earl 
of Romney. 

Queen Anne. 

1702. John, earl, afterwards duke of, Marl- 
borough. July 1. 

1712. Richard, earl Rivers. Jan. 1. 

1712. James, duke of Hamilton and Brandon, 
July 1. Killed in a duel, Nov. 15, 
same year.i 

King George I. 
1714. John, duke of Marlborough. Oct. 1. 
1722. William, earl Cadogan. July 1. 
1725. John, duke of Argyll and Greenwich. 
July 1. 

King George II. 
1740. John, duke of Montagu. July 1. 

1742. John, duke of Argyll, again. 

1743. John, duke of Montagu, again. 

1756. Charles, duke of Marlborough. Jan. 1. 
1759. John, viscount, afterwards earl, Ligonier. 
July 1. 

King George III. 
1763. John, marquess of Granby, afterwards 

duke of Rutland. 
1772. George, viscount Townshend. Oct. 1. 



1782. Charles, duke of Richmond, Lenox, and 

Aubigny. March 30. 

1783. George, viscount Townshend, again; af- 

terwards marquess Townshend. 
1783. Charles, duke of Richmond, again. Dec. 23. 
1795. Charles, marquess Cornwallis. Feb. 13. 
1801. John, earl of Chatham. June 16. 

1806. Francis, earl of Moira, afterwards mar- 

quess of Hastings. Feb. 14. 

1807. John, earl of Chatham, again. April 4. 
1810. Henry, lord Mul grave, afterwards earl of 

Mulgrave. May 5. 
1819. His grace, Arthur, duke of Wellington. 
Jan. 1. 

King George IV. 

1827. Henry- William, marquess of Anglesey. 

April 30. 

1828. William Carr, viscount Beresford. April 

28. 

King William IV. 
1830. Sir James Kempt. Nov. 30. 

1834. Sir George Murray. Dec. 18. 

1835. Sir Richard Hussey Vivian, bart., after- 

wards lord Vivian. May 4. 

Queen Victoria. 

1841. Sir George Murray, again. Sept. 9. 

1846. Henry- Willi am, marquess of Anglesey, 
again. July 6. The present (1850) 
Master- General of the Ordnance. 



Lieutenants-General of the Ordnance. 

From the Union of the Two Crowns, 



1603. Sir George Carew, afterwards earl of Tot- 
nes. 

1635. Sir William Haydon, knt. 

1636. Colin Legge. 

1670. David Walter. Nov. 25. 
1670. *George Legge, afterwards lord Dart- 
mouth. Dec. 7.2 
1681. Sir Charles Musgrave, bart. 

1687. Sir Henry Tichborne, bart. 

1688. Sir Henry Goodricke, bart. 

1702. John Granville, afterwards lord Granville. 

1705. Thomas Erie. 

1712. John Hill. 

1714. Thomas Erie, again. 

1717. Thomas Micklethwaite. 

1718. Sir Charles Wills, K. B. 

1742. George Wade ; field marshal, 1743 ; com- 
mander-in-chief, 1745. 

1748. *Sir John Ligonier, K. B., afterwards 
viscount and earl Ligonier ; field mar- 
shal and commander-in-chief, 1757.^ 

1757. Lord George Sackville (Germaine) : dis- 



missed the service in 1759 ; afterwards 

viscount Sackville.5 
1759. *John, marquess of Granby, afterwards 

duke of Rutland.2 
1763. *Hon. George Townshend, afterwards 

viscount, and marquess Townshend.^ 
1767. Hon. Henry Seymour Conway, afterwards 

commander-in-chief, &c. 
1772. Sir Jeffrey Amherst, K. B., afterwards lord 

Amherst, commander-in-chief in 1778, 

et seq. 

1782. Hon. sir William, afterwards viscount 

Howe, K. B. 
1804. Sir Thomas Trigge. 
1804. Rt. hon. Richard Fitzpatrick. 
1807. Sir Thomas Trigge, agai7i. 
1810. Sir Hildebrand Oakes, bart. 

1823. *William Carr, viscount Beresford.^ 

1824. *Sir George Murray .2 

1825. Sir W. H. Clinton. 

1829. Lord Robert-Edward-Henry Somerset. 
This office was abolished in 1831. 



1 The.duel in which the duke was killed, is one of the most remarkable upon record, and is thus described by 
the chroniclers of the time: " Sunday, Nov. 15, 1712: A duel was fought with small swords in Hyde Park, 
between James, duke of Hamilton, and his friend colonel Hamilton, on the one part, and Charles, lord Mohun, 
and lieutenant-general Macartney, on the other part. Lord Mohun was killed upon the spot, and the duke ex- 
pired of his wounds as he was being carried by his servants to his coach. Colonel Hamilton was wounded in the 
foot, and surrendered himself on the 22d ; but Macartney made his escape, and large rewards were offered for his 
apprehension. It was strongly suspected that the duke, after he had slain his adversary, was killed unfairly by 
Macartney. — Chron. of Great Britain. 

2 The personages distinguished by an asterisk were subsequently Masters- General. 

3 He was restored to favour in lord Bute's administration, and, in 1775, became one of the principal secretaries 
of state which office he held during the American war. 



WOODS, FORESTS, ETC. 



193 



Surveyors-General of the Ordnance. 

From the Union of the Two Kingdoms. 



William Brydges. 
1714. Major Gen. Michael Richards. 
1722. John Armstrong, afterwards Major Gen. 
1742. Thomas Lascelles. 

1750. Charles-Frederick, afterwards sir Charles, 
K. B. 

1782. Hon. Thomas Pelham. 

1783. John Courtenay. 

1784. Hon. James Luttrell. 
1789. Hon. G. C. Berkeley. 
1795. Major Gen. A. Ross. 

1804. Lieut. Col. Jas. M. Hadden. Nov. 22. 
1810. Sir Robert Moorsoom, R. N. July 20. 
1820. Lieut. Col. sir Ulysses Burgh, afterwards 

lord Downes. March 18. 
1827. Adm. sir Edward-William C. R. Owen. 

May 14. 



1828. Sir Herbert Taylor, lieut. gen. March 

24. 

1829. Sir Henry Fane, lieut. gen. April 3. 

1831. William Leader Maberley, lieut. col. * Jan 

12. 

1832. Lieut. Col. Charles R. Fox. Dec. 5. 
1835. Lord Robert-Edward-Henry Somerset. 

Jan. 12. 

1835. Lieut. Gen. sir Rufane Shawe Donkin. 
May 6. 

1841. Colonel Charles R. Fox, again. May 12. 

— Colonel Jonathan Peel. Sept. 10. 
1846. Major Gen. Charles R. Fox, again. July 10. 

The PRESENT (1850) Surveyor-General 

of the Ordnance. 



THE FIKST COMMISSIONER OF WOODS AND FORESTS. 

The origin of the Forests belonging to the crown is not to be found mentioned in any 
record, the New Forest in Hampshire excepted, which, though made by William the 
Conqueror, is called by Manwood, writing on the Forest Laws^ " the New Forest in 
England." The origin of the Laws for the management of the Forests seems involved 
in equal obscurity with the Forests themselves.^ — Notes from the Rolls' Office. 

From the reign of Henry HI., when the Charta de Foresta was granted, there were 
two Justices in Eyre, one for the north, and the other for the south, of Trent. 
Henry VIII. established Courts, which were afterwards dissolved; and James 1. 
appointed Surveyors, and Charles I. a Surveyor-General, of Crown Lands. Numerous 
statutes were enacted up to the 50th of George III., when the then offices of Surveyor- 
General of the Land Kevenues of the Crown and the Surveyor- General of Woods, 
Forests, Parks, and Chases were directed to be united under a Board of Commissioners, 
to be named the "Commissioners of Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues." In 1832 
(2 William lY. c. 1) the office of Surveyor- General of Works and Buildings was united 
with this Board, and thus was formed the present consolidated office of Commissioners 
of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works, and Buildings. 

The first Commissioner of Woods and Forests is now a high political personage. He 
is always of the privy council, and sometimes a member of the cabinet. 



Surveyors-General of the Woods and Forests. 



1607 (or 1608). John Taverner. 
1608. Thomas Morgan. 

1608 r Thomas Morgan, and ) T^:„i.7,, 

Robert Treswell, ^^omuy. 
to \ Robert Treswell, ] 

Andrew Treswell, and > Successively. 
1667 I Treswell. J 



1667. Thomas Agar, and ) x • <<.i 
John Madden. ] 

1680. Thomas Agar, and) t • ^i 
Charles Strodk j Jomtly. 

1688. PhiHp Riley. 

1701. Thomas Hewett. 

1702. Edward Wilcox. 



1 Forest Courts. These were, the Court of Woodmote, the Court oi Swanimote, and that called the Justice 
Seat, or Court of the Chief Justice in eyre. 

The Court of Woodtnote was a court held every forty days, and its function was to inquire into all offences that 
had been done in the forest within that time. 

The Court of Swanimofe, in which the verderors were the judges, was held thrice a year : The first time, for 
the purposes of clearing the forests of all animals, deer excepted, during the fawning season. The second time, 
for the admission of swine, &c., into the forests, to feed on acorns and beech-mast, called pannage. The third 
time, to receive an account of every deer killed, and every tree felled, and to obtain payment for the pasturage 
of cattle. 

The Court of Justice Seat was held once in three years, when the rolls of the two inferior courts were presented 

to the chief justice in eyre, and when all offences were tried Thomas's Notes for the History of Public Depart^ 

ments. 

O 



194 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1714. Thomas HeAvett, second appointment. 

1716. Edward Younge. 

1720. Charles Whithers. 

1736. Francis Whitworth. 

1742. Henry Legge. 

1745. John Phillipson. 

1756. John Pitt. 



1763. Sir Edmond Thomas, bart. 
1767. John Pitt, second appointment. 
1786. John Robinson. 
1803. Sylvester, lord Glenbervie. 

1806. Lord Robert Spencer. 

1807. Sylvester, lord Glenbervie, second appoint- 

ment. 



Surveyors- 

1666. Sir C. Harbord. 
1682. William Harbord. 

1692. William Tailer. 

1693. Samuel Travers. 
1710. J. Manley. 

1714. Alexander Pendarves. 

1715. H. Chomeley. 
1722. J. Poultenev. 
1726. Phillips Gybbon. 



OF THE Land Revenue. 

1730. Dr. Exton Sayer. 
1732. Thomas Walker. 

1750. John, viscount Gal way. 

1751. Rt. hon. Robert Herbert. 
1769. Peter Burrell. 

1775. John St. John. 

1784. G. Augustus Selwyn. 

1794. John Fordyce. 

1809. James Pillar (^acting). 



Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, &c. 



Dates of Patents, 
July 31, 1810. 
Sylvester, lord Glenbervie. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

Aug. 21, 1814. 
Rt. Hon. William Huskisson. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

Feb. 8, 1823. 
Rt. hon. Charles Arbuthnot. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry DaAvkins. 

May 30, 1827. 
George, earl of Carlisle. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

July 23, 1827. 
Rt. hon. William Sturges Bourne. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

Feb. 11, 1828. 
Rt. hon. Charles Arbuthnot, again. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

June 14, 1828. 
William, viscount Lowther, 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

Dec. 13, 1830. 
Rt. hon. George- James Welbore Agar Ellis. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

Feb. 11, 1831. 
John- William, riscount Duncannon. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Henry Dawkins. 

Feb. 22, 1832. 
John -William, viscount Duncannon. 



William Dacres Adams, and 

Sir Benjamin C. Stephenson, knt. 

July 30, 1834. 
Sir John Cam Hobhouse, bart. 
William Dacres Adams, and 
Sir Benjamin C. Stephenson, knt. 

Aug. 23, 1834. 
Sir John Cam Hobhouse, bart. 
Sir Benjamin C. Stephenson, knt., and 
Alexander Milne, C. B. 

Dec. 31, 1834. 
Lord Granville Charles-Henry Somerset. 
Sir Benjamin C. Stephenson, knt., and 
Alexander Milne, C. B. 

May 7, 1835. 
John-William, viscount Duncannon. 
Sir Benjamin C. Stephenson, knt., and 
Alexander Milne, C. B. 

June 18, 1839. 
John- William, viscount Duncannon. 
Alexander Milne, C. B., and 
Hon. Charles- Alexander Gore. 

Sept. 25, 1841. 
Henry Pelham, earl of Lincoln. 
Alexander Milne, C. B., and 
Hon. Charles-Alexander Gore. 

March 10, 1846. 
Charles-John, viscount Canning. 
Alexander Milne, C. B., and 
Hon. Charles-Alexander Gore. 

July 13, 1846. 
George-Frederick- William, viscount Mor- 

teth, now earl of Carlisle. 
Alexander Milne, C. B., and 
Hon. Charles-Alexander Gore. 

April 15, 1850. 
Edward-Adolphus Seymour, lord SEmouR. 
Alexander Milne, C. B., and 
Hon. Charles-Alexander Gore. The present 
(1850) Commissioners of Woods and Forests. 



TEEASUKERS OF THE NAVY. 



TREASURER OF THE NAVY. 

This office was one of great trust and dignity, and the holder of it was always of the 
privy council. Many of our eminent statesmen of historic name (among them 
Osborne, Walpole, Dodington, Grenville, Barrington, and more recently Canning) 
were Treasurers of the Navy. The salary, from the earliest date in the records of the 
department, 1721, until the year 1810, was 2000Z. per annum; but the profits of 
the office, especially in time of war, were formerly considerable, owing to the great 
sums of the public money lying long in the Treasurer s hands.^ In 1810, the salary 
was raised to 4000/., and continued at that rate until 1818, when it was reduced to 
3000/., and so remained until 1830. In this last year it was fixed at 2000/. again, 
the salary paid until the abolition of the office, in 1836. 

Conformably with the act 5th and 6th AVilliam lY. cap. 35, the offices of Paymaster- 
General, Paymaster and Treasurer of Chelsea Hospital, Treasurer of the Ordnance, and 
Treasurer of the Navy, were consolidated, and now form one office, held by the 
Paymaster- General. See Taymmter- General. 

Treasureks of the Navy, from the Restoration. 



1660. Sir George Carteret, bart. 
1667. Arthur, viscount Valentia, in Ireland, and 
earl of Anglese3^ 

1672. Sir Thomas Osborne, bart., afterwards 

viscount Dumblane, earl of Danby, 
marquess of Carmarthen, and duke of 
Leeds. 

1673. Sir Edward Seymour, bart. 

1681. Anthony, viscount Falkland. June 24. 
1689. Edward Russel, afterwards earl of Orford. 
April 8. 

1699. Sir Thomas Littleton, bart. May 29. 

1710. Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert, 

and earl of Orford. Jan. 21. 

1711. Charles Caesar. June 8. 
1714. John Aislabie. Oct. 15. 

1718. Rt. hon. Richard Hampden. March 27. 

1720. Sir George Byng, bart., afterwards vis- 
count Torrington. Oct. 24. 

1724. Hon. Pattee Byng, his son, afterwards 
viscount Torrington. April 18. 

1727. The same, by a new patent. Aug. 12. 

1734. Rt. hon. Arthur Onslow. April 20. 

1742. Hon. Thomas Clutterbuck. May 17. 

— Rt. hon. sir Charles Wager, knt. Dec. 
20. 

1743. Rt. hon. sir John Rushout, bart. Dec. 24. 

1744. George Dodington. Dec. 29. 
1749. Hon. Henry Bilson Legge. May 3. 
1754. Rt. hon. George Grenville. April 4. 
1756. Rt. hon. George Dodington, again. Jan. 

13 : afterwards lord Melcombe. 
1756. Rt. hon. George Grenville, again. Nov. 
25. 

1761. The same, by a second patent. March 18. 

1762. William Wildman, viscount Barrington. 

June 2. 



1765. Richard, viscount Howe. Aug. 9. 
1770. Sir Gilbert Elliot, bart. March 19. 
1777. Rt. hon. Welbore Ellis. June 12. 

1782. Rt. hon. Isaac Barre. April 10. 

— Rt. hon. Henry Dundas.. Aug. 19. 

1783. Rt. hon. Charles Townshend. April 11. 

1784. Rt. hon. Henry Dundas, again. Jan. 5. 
[This personage (afterwards viscount 

Melville) held the office upwards of 
sixteen years.] 

1800. Hon. Dudley Ryder. June 2. 

1801. Rt. hon. Charles Bragge. Nov. 21. 

1803. Rt. hon. George Tierney. June 3. 

1804. Rt. hon. George Canning. May 29. 

1806. Rt. hon. Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Feb. 

22. 

1807. Rt. hon. George Rose. April 15. 

1818. Rt. hon. Frederick- John Robinson, after- 
wards viscount Goderich, and earl of 
Ripon. Feb. 12. 

1823. Rt. hon. William Huskisson. Feb. 8. 

1827. Rt. hon. Charles Grant, afterwards lord 

Glenelg. Sept. 10. 

1828. Rt. hon. William Fitzgerald Yesey Fitz- 

gerald. July 15. 
1830. Rt. hon. Thomas Frankland Lewis. Feb. 
25. 

— Rt. hon. Charles Poulet Thompson, after- 

wards lord Sydenham. Dec. 13. 

1834. Rt. hon. William, viscount Lowther, now 

earl of Lonsdale. Dec. 27. 

1835. Rt. hon. sir Henry Parnell, bart. after- 

wards lord Congleton. April 22. 

[Sir Henry Parnell became Paymaster- 
General when this office ceased.] 



1 Sir Henry Vane was made Treasurer of the Navy by patent, for life, by king Charles L, which place he held 
till the first war between the English and Dutch. The fees of his office were at that time fourpence in the 
pound, which by reason of the war amounted to the enormous sum of 30,000/. per annum. Sir Henry looked 
upon this as too much for a subject, and as too great a gain to be derived from any office, and patriotically gave 
up his patent to the then parliament, desiring 2000/. per annum only, for an agent whom he had brought up to 

manage the duties. The method of a fixed salary was continued afterwards lioper. 

o 2 



196 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEKS. 



Comptrollers 

1688. Sir Richard Haddock, knt. Sept. 30: 
afterwards admiral. 

1714. Sir Charles Wager, knt. Feb. 17 : after- 
wards admiral, and first lord of the 
admiralty. 

1718. Thomas Swanton. March 26. 

1722. James Mighells. Jan. 18. 

1733. Richard Haddock, jun. March 27. 

1749. Savage Mostyn. March 22; afterwards 
admiral. 

1755. Edward Falkingham. Feb. 6. 

— Charles Saunders. Nov. 14: afterwards 

admiral, and first lord of the admi- 
ralty. 

1756. Digby Dent. June 4. 

— George Cockburne. Dec. 29. 

1770. Hugh (afterwards sir Hugh) Palliser, and 

an admiral. Aug. 1. 
1775. Maurice Suckling. April 5: afterwards 

admiral. 



OF THE Navy. 

1778. Charles (afterwards sir Charles) Middle- 
ton, bart., and an admiral. July 18. 
Created lord Barham in 1805, and 
made first lord of the admiralty. 

1790. Sir Henry Martin, bart. March 13. 

1794. Sir Andrew Snape Hamond, bart. Aug. 
30. 

1806. Henry Nicholls. Feb. 19. 
— Sir Thomas Boulden Thompson, bart. ; 
afterwards an admiral. June 7. 

1816. Sir Thomas Byam Martin, K. C. B. ; ad- 
miral. Feb. 9. 

1831. Hon. George Heneage Lawrence Dundas ; 

admiral. Nov. 2. Patent revoked 
June 9, 1832. 

In 1832 the appointment of Comptroller of the 
Navy ceased, and the duties of the office were 
transferred. See next article . 



Principal Officers. 

By the act 2d William IV. cap. 40 (passed June 1, 1832)^ the Navy and Victualling 
Boards and the offices of Commissioners of Navy and Victualling and Comptroller of the 
Navy, were dispensed with, and in lieu thereof were appointed five " Principal Officers'* 
at Somerset House, subordinate to the Admiralty, viz. : 



The Surveyor of the Navy. 
Accountant- General of the Navy. 
Storekeeper- General. 



Comptroller of Victualling, and 
Medical Director-General. 



To these have been added two important departments, viz. : — 

The Comptroller of Steam Machinery : Sir Edward Parry first officer appointed ; Captain Ellice 

(who now holds the office) succeeded him. 
The Director of Engineering and Architectural Works : the first who held this office under its 

present title (it having been previously that of Civil Architect) was Colonel Brandreth, R. E. 

He was succeeded on his death by Colonel Irvine, R. E. ; who, also, dying in office, has been 

succeeded by Colonel Green, C. B. 



Surveyors of the Navy. 



1668. Sir John Tippetts. Sept. 30. 
1692. Edmund Dummer. June 25. 
1699. Daniel Furzer. Sept. 22. 
1706. William Lee. Sept. 9. 
1715. Jacob Ackworth (afterwards sir Jacob). 
March 30. 

1746. Joseph Allin (afterwards sir Joseph). 
June 16. 

^-^r f Thomas Slade, and 1 \ ^ a 
l^'^^'l William Bateley. ) Aug. 6. 

r Thomas Slade (now sir^ 
1765. -J Thomas, knt.), and >June 22. 

John Williams. J 
1771. John Williams (now sir John, knt.), with 
two assistants. 



fSir John Wilhams, and ") ivr„^^i, iq 
^7^^- i Edward Hunt. j March 19. 

1784 {Edward Hunt, and | ^ ^4 

1 John Henslow. j ^ 

1793. Sir WilHam Rule. Jan. 26. 
1806. Sir Henry Peake. June 7. 

[Joseph Tucker superannuated March 
1831 ; and sir Robert Seppings June, 
1832.] 

1832. Sir William Symonds, knt. June 9. 
1848. Sir Baldwin Walker, K. C. B. Feb. 5. 



The higher officers of the Civil branches of the Navy were formerly very numerous ; 
but notwithstanding the vast increase of business latterly in all the departments of the 
Naval service, several of them have been, from time to time, dispensed with, and their 
duties transferred, and their various offices consolidated. 



' This statute is entitled " An Act to amend the Laws relating to the Business of the Civil Departments of the 
Navy, and to make other Regulations for more effectually carrying on the Duties of the said Departments." 
By this a-jt certain defined duties are directed to be executed by two l.ords of the Admiralty ; the duties hitherto 
executed by Commissioners at the Dock- Yards are to be discharged by Superintendents, and numerous pro- 
visions are framed, and alterations made in the constitution of various offices connected with this branch of the 
public service. 



PAYMASTERS-GENERAL. 197 



PAYMASTER-GENERAL. 

This office was formerly one of the most lucrative in the gift of the crown, not so 
much on account of the salary annexed to it, or the perquisites derived from it, as on 
account of the vast sums of public money that lay in the Paymaster s hands for a long 
space of time together ; the whole of the money voted by parliament for the land 
forces passing through this department. In 1782, the office underwent a reform, and 
the Paymaster- General was allowed a fixed salary of 4000Z., and his deputy a salary of 
1500/., in lieu of perquisites. The Paymaster s salary is now 2000Z. per annum. 

The Paymaster- General is always of the privy council, and sometimes a member of 
the cabinet. He was constituted by letters-patent under the great seal until 1836 ; 
from the 1st of December in which year the appointment has been by queen's warrant. 

On the same day, the offices of Treasurer of the Navy, Treasurer of the Ordnance, 
and Treasurer of Chelsea Hospital were consolidated with that of Paymaster-General ; 
and on August 16, 1848, the offices of Paymaster of Civil Services, and Paymaster of 
Exchequer Bills, were also united with it. 



Roll of Paymasters-General. 



1660. 
1679. 



1682. 
1689. 



1703. 

1707. 
1713. 



1714. 
1715. 
1720. 

1721. 
1722. 

1730. 
1743. 
1746. 
1755. 



1757. 
1765. 

1766. 

1767. 

1768. 
1782. 

1783. 
1784. 



1784. 



Sir Stephen Fox, knt. 
Nicholas Johnson, and 
Charles Fox. 
Charles Fox. 

Richard, earl of Ranelagh. 

[This nobleman was charged with the 

misapplication of large sums of the 

public money ; he resigned to avoid 

prosecution, and was expelled the house 

of commons, 1702.] 
John Howe ; for guards and garrisons at 

home. Jan. 4. 
Charles Fox ; for the other troops and 

Chelsea Hospital. 
Hon. James Brydges, afterwards duke of 

Chandos. 

Thomas Moore; for her majesty's forces 
abroad. 

Edward Nicholas ; treasurer and pay- 
master of her majesty's pensioners. 

Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert. 

Henry, earl of Lincoln. Oct. 26. 

Robert Walpole, again; afterwards sir 
Robert, and earl of Orford. 

Charles, lord Cornwallis : died in 1722. 

Hon. Spencer Conipton, afterwards earl of 
Wilmington. 

Hon. Henry Pelham. 

Sir Thomas Winnington, bart. 

William Pitt, afterwards earl of Chatham. 

Henry, earl of Darlington. 

Thomas Hay, viscount Dupplin, afterwards 
earl ot Kinnoul. 

Henry Fox, afterwards lord Holland. 

Hon. Charles Townshend. 
f Frederick, lord North, and| -pj -.q 
I George Cooke. j" 
1 George Cooke, and | 90 
(Thomas Townshend. j 

Richard Rigby. 

Edmund Burke. March 27. 

Isaac Barre. July 17. 

Edmund Burke, again, April 8. 

William Wyndham Grenville, afterwards 
lord Grenville. Jan. 8. 
f William Wyndham Gren 
J ville, and i » .,7 

i Constantine- John, lord Mul- r^P^^^ ^ 
C grave. 



1789. 
1791. 
1800. 
1801. 

1803. 

1804. 
1806. 
1807. 

1813. 
1817. 
1826. 



1828. 
1830. 
1834. 
1835. 

1841. 



1845. 
1846. 
1848. 



f Lord Mulgrave, and 1 Se t 4 

\ James, marquess of Graham, j P * 
fRt. hon. Dudley Ryder, and) , „ 
\ Rt. hon. Thomas Steele. J ^^^^^^ 
r Rt. hon. Thomas Steele, and \ ^ ^ ^ 
j Rt. hon. George Canning, j ^ ^ ^• 
f Rt. hon. Thomas Steele, and ) t. 
I Sylvester, lord Glenbervie. j 
f Rt. hon. Thomas Steele, and ^ 

< Rt. hon. John Hiley Ad- >Jan. 3. 

dington. J 
rRt. hon. George Rose, and^ 

< Lord Charles Henry Somer- > July 7. 
( set. J 

f Richard, earl Temple, and ) -i? k 17 
(Lord John Townshend. j" 
rRt. hon. Charles Long, and^J 

< Lord Charles Henry Somer- > April 4. 
( set. J 

IRt. hon. Charles Long, again. -\ 
Rt. hon. Frederick-John I 
Robinson, afterwards vis- > Nov. 13. 
count Goderich and earl of 
Ripon. J 
Rt. hon. Charles Long, now sir Charles, 
afterwards lord Farnborough, continued, 
Aug. 14. 

Rt. hon. William Yesey Fitzgerald, after- 
wards lord Fitzgerald and Vesci. July 
15. 

Rt. hon. John Cal craft. July 15. 

Lord John Russell. Dec. 16. 

Sir Edward Knatchbull, bart. Dec. 23. 

Sir Henry Parnell, bart., afterwards lord 
Congleton. May 14. 

Rt. hon. Edward- John Stanley, after- 
wards lord Eddisbury. July 1. Suc- 
ceeded as lord Stanley of Alderley, 
in 1850. 

Sir Edward Knatchbull, bart., again, 
Sept. 12. 

William Bingham Baring, afterwards 

lord Ash burton. March 1. 
Rt. hon. Thomas Babington Macaulay 

July 12. 

Granville-George, earl Granville. May 
11. The PRESENT (1850) Paymaster- 
General ; also Vice-President of the 
Board of Trade. 



o 3 



198 



STATESMEN" AND STATE OFFICEES. 



THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



" It does not appear at what precise period the crown undertook to be the regular 
carrier of letters for its subjects. The crown, doubtless, found it necessary, at a very 
early period, to the exercise of the functions of sovereignty, to be able to convey with 
speed and security its own despatches from one part of the realm to another, and for 
that purpose it appointed certain messengers, or runners, called the ' Posts.' These 
posts were also employed for the personal convenience of the sovereign and the 
individuals composing the royal court. In course of time a ' Master of the Posts.' was 
appointed, and the first of these on record was Brian Tuke, esq., afterwards sir Brian 
Tuke, knt., who held that office in 1516. The joint successors of Sir Brian Tuke 
were Sir William Paget, one of Henry VIlI.'s chief secretaries of state, and John 
Mason, esq., secretary for the French tongue. The letters-patent, dated Nov. 12, 
1545, conveying to them this office, grant to them during their lives and the life of 
the survivor, the office of ' Master of the Messengers, Runners, or Posts,' as well within 
the kingdom of England as parts beyond the seas, with the wages or fee of 66L ISs. 4d. 
a year, to be held by themselves or their sufficient deputy or deputies. But, besides 
his fee, the ' Master of the Posts' received from the crown the amount of his expenses 
for conveying the letters, of which he rendered an account. There is a succession of 
patents granting the same office, at the same fee, to other parties for life, in the reigns 
of Elizabeth, James I , and Charles 1." — House of Commons' Report^ 1844.^ 

The Postmaster- General is now an officer of high consideration in the government. 
He is always a member of the privy council, usually a peer, and sometimes, as at 
present, a cabinet minister. When the office has been executed by two Post-Masters, 
they have been of equal rank and authority. The duties are now confided to one 
person, whose salary is 2500/. per annum, and who is appointed by patent. 

Postmasters-General. 

(JFrom the earliest Official Accounts to the present time. Taken from a Return made to the 
House of Commons, dated March 25, 1844.) 



King Charles II. 

1678 to 1688. 
Pliihp Frowde, esq., acting for the duke of 
York. 

King William III. 

1690 to 1708. 
Sir Robert Cotton, and 
Thomas Frankland, esq. 

Queen Anne. 

1708 to 1715. 
Sir Thomas Frankland, and 
Sir John Evelyn, bart. 

King George I. 
1715 to 1720. 
Charles, lord Cornwallis, and 
James Craggs, esq. 

1720 to 1725. 
Edward Carteret, esq., and 
Galfridus Walpole, esq. 

1725 to 1732. 
Edward Carteret, esq., and 
Edward Harrison, esq. 



King George II. 

Christmas, 1732. 
Edward Carteret, alone, to midsummer, 1733. 

1733 to 1739. 

Edward Carteret, esq., and 
Thomas, lord Lovel, afterwards viscount Coke 
and earl of Leicester. 

1739 to 1744. 
Sir John Eyles, bart., and 
Thomas, lord Lovel. 

1744 to 1745. 

Thomas (lord Lovel, now), earl of Leicester, 
alone. 

1745 to 1758. 

Thomas, earl of Leicester, and 
Sir Everard Fawkener. 

Nov. 1758 to April 1759. 
Thomas, earl of Leicester. 

June 2, 1759. 
William, earl of Besborough, and 
Hon. Robert Hampden. 



1 The above extract is taken from the Report of the Secret Committee of the House of Com?nons, " appointed 
to iNqzifrc into the state of the law in respect to the detaining and opening of letters at the General Post Cifficej" 
dated July 2, 1844 : Viscount Sandon, chairman. 



POSTMASTEES-GENERAL. 



199 



King George III. 
Nov. 27, 1762. 
John, earl of Egmont, and 
Hon. Robert Hampden. 

Sept. 23, 1763. 
Thomas, lord Hyde, and 
Hon. Robert Hampden. 

Jul3^ 19, 1765. 
William, earl of Besborougli, and 
Thomas, lord Grantham. 

Dec. 29, 1766. 
Wills, earl of Hillsborough, and 
Francis, lord Le Despencer. 

April 26, 1768. 
John, earl of Sandwich, and 
Francis, lord Le Despencer. 

Jan. 16, 1771. 
Francis, lord Le Despencer, and 
Rt. hon. Henry-Frederick Carteret. 

Dec. 11, 1781. 
Rt. hon. Henry- Frederick Carteret, alone, to Jan. 
24, following. 

Jan. 24, 1782. 
William, viscount Barrington, and 
Rt. hon. Henry-Frederick Carteret. 

April 25, 1782. 
Charles, earl of Tankerville, and 
Rt. hon. Henry- Frederick Carteret. 

May 1, 1783. 
Thomas, lord Foley, and 
Rt. hon. Henry-Frederick Carteret. 

Jan. 7, 1784. 
Charles, earl of Tankerville, and 
Rt. hon. Henrv-Frederick Carteret. (Lord Car- 
teret, Jan. 29, 1784.) 

Sept. 19, 1786. 
Thomas, earl of Clarendon, and 
Henry- Frederick, lord Carteret. 

Dec. 10, 1786. 
Henrv-Frederick, lord Carteret, alone, until July 
6, i787. 

July 6, 1787. 
Henry -Frederick, lord Carteret, and 
Thomas, lord Walsingham. 

Sept. 19, 1789. 
Thomas, lord Walsingham, and 
J ohn, earl of Westmoreland. 

March 13, 1790. 
Thomas, lord Walsingham, and 
Philip, earl of Chesterfield. 

July 28, 1794. 
Philip, earl of Chesterfield, and 
George, earl of Leicester. 



March 1, 1798. 
George, earl of Leicester, and 
William, lord Auckland. 

Feb. 27, 1799. 
William, lord Auckland, and 
George, lord Gower. 

March 31, 1801. 
William, lord Auckland, and 
Lord Charles Spencer. 

July 19, 1804. 
Lord Charles Spencer, and 
James, duke of Montrose. 

Feb. 20, 1806. 
Robert, earl of Buckinghamshire, and 
J ohn- Joshua, earl of Carysfort. 

May 5, 1807. 
John, earl of Sandwich, and 
Thomas, earl of Chichester. 

June 6, 1814. 
Thomas, earl of Chichester, alone. 

Sept. 30, 1814. 
Thomas, earl of Chichester, and 
Richard, earl of Clancarty. 

April 6, 1816. 
Thomas, earl of Chichester, and 
James, marquess of Salisbury, to June 13, 1823, 
when he died. 

King George IV. 
Nov. 27, 1823. 
Thomas, earl of Chichester, alone, by patent 
dated as above : died July 4, 1826. 

Aug. 18, 1826. 
Lord Frederick Montague, by patent, dated as 
above: resigned Sept. 17, 1827. 

Sept. 27, 1827. 
William, duke of Manchester, by patent, dated 
as above. 

King William IV. 
Dec, 14, 1830. 
Charles, duke of Richmond, by patent, dated as 
above. 

April 14, 1831. 
Charles, duke of Richmond, by patent, dated as 
above, appointed postmaster-general of Great 
Britain and Ireland, conformably with the 
provisions of 1 William IV. cap. 8. ; passed 
March 11, 1831.1 

July 5, 1834. 
Francis-Nathaniel, marquess Conyngham, by 
patent, dated as above. 

Dec. 31, 1834. 
William, lord Maryborough, by patent : sworn in 
Jan. 1, 1835. 



1 By this act, the two separate offices of Postmaster-General of Great Britain and Postmaster- General of 
Ireland were united into one, to possess the same powers, and to be subject to the same penalties, as the 
former two ; and the appointments of the S'^cretary, and other officers of the Post- Office at Dublin, were there- 
after vested in the Postmaster- General. — Statutes at Large, 

o 4 



200 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



May 8, 1835. 

Francis-Nathaniel, marquess Conyngham, by 
patent : sworn in next day. 

May 30, 1835. 

Thomas- William, earl of Lichfield, by patent: 
sworn in June 1. 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. Earl of Lichfield continued. 



Sept. 15, 1841. 
William, viscount Lowther, by patent : sworn in 
same day. 

Jan. 2, 1846. 
Edward Granville, Earl of St. Germans, by pa- 
tent : sworn in next day. 

July 14, 1846. 
Ulick John, marquess of Clanricarde, by patent. 
The PRESENT (1850) Postmaster-General. 



Secretaries to the General Post Office. 



There is no complete record in the department of 
the General Post Office, of the persons by whom 
the office of Secretary was held, previously to the 
year 1762, when Anthony Tod, esq., was ap- 
pointed. 

1720. [The name of James Craggs, esq., appears 
on the records of the Post-office as se- 
cretary in this year.] 

1723. [In this year, Mr. Joseph Godman is found 
to be filling the office of secretary.] 

1738. John David Barbutt, esq., appointed se- 
cretary in the room of T. Robinson, esq., 
deceased Sept. 17. 



1742. George Shelvocke, esq., vice Mr. Barbutt, 
removed J uly 22. 

1762. Anthony Tod, esq., appointed (but in whose 
room is not stated). Dec. 1. 

1797. Francis Freeling, esq. (who had acted for 
a short time previously as joint secre- 
tary) vice Mr. Tod, deceased. Created a 
baronet, March 11, 1828. 

1836. Lieut.- Col. William Leader Maberly, vice 
Sir Francis Freeling, bart. Sept. 29. 
The PRESENT (1850) Secretary. 



THE MASTER OF THE MINT. 

The Warden was anciently the chief officer of the Mint, but the Master has of late 
years become an officer of high political consideration, and he is now always a member 
of the government, and sometimes a cabinet minister. The office of Warden was 
abolished by act of parliament (57 George III.), July 7, 1817, and the duties were 
directed to be performed by the Master, who was by that act constituted Master, 
Warden, and Worker. His salary (which in July, 1799, was fixed, instead of fees, at 
3000Z.), was reduced in June, 1831, to 2000Z. per annum. It may here be observed, 
that it is in contemplation to alter the constitution of the Mint altogether ; but it is 
uncertain what arrangements will finally be made. It is probable, however, that the 
(now almost sinecure) office of Master of the Mint will be soon abolished, at least as a 
merely honorary office. 

Masters of the Mint from the earliest time. 



King Henry I. 
* * Godwin Socche. Winchester. 

King Edward I. 

1275. Gregory Rokesley. 

1280. William de Turnemire, of Marseilles. 

— Richard de Lothebury, 

1281. Alexander Norman de Luic. Dublin. 

1282. Gregory Rokesley. 

1285. William de Turnemire, in Gascony. 

1286. John de Caturco and Gerald Mauhan. 

Lond. and Cant. 

1287. John de Caturco. 
1297. JohnPorcher. 

— Roger de Rede. St. Edmundsbury. 
1300. Hubert Elion, William de Turnemire, and 

his brother. 

King Edward II. 
1308. John de Puntoyse. 

1313. John de Puntoyse and Lapine Roger. 
Lond. and Cant. 



1317. Giles de Hertesburg, and Terric de Lose. 
Lond. and Cant. 

King Edward III. 
1327. Roger Rykeman. Lond. and Cant. 

1344. George Kyrkin, and Lotto Nicholyn, of 

Florence. 

— Henry de Brusele. 

1345. Percival de Porche, de Lucca. 

— Walter de Dunflower. 

1347. George Kyrkin and Lotto Nicholyn. 

1348. Bertrand de Polirac, meistre du coigne et 

de monoies de la ducliee de Guien. — 
Rolls of Pari. 

1351. Anthony Bache, of Geneva, and Nicholas 

Choue. 

1352. Henry de Brusele and John de Chichester. 
1354. Henry de Brusele. Lond. and Cant. 
1357 John Donative, of the castle of Florence, 

and Philip John Denier. 

1361. Peter de Bataile. Rochelle. 

1362. Gauter de Barde. 

1363. Robert de Porche. 



MASTERS OF THE MINT. 



201 



1366. Thomes Kyng. Calais. 

1367. John de Chichester. 
1372. Bardet de Malepilys. 

King Richard II. 
1377. Gauter de Barde. 

1395. Nicholas Malakine, a Florentine. 

— John Wildeman. 

1396. Nicholas Malakine. 

King Henry IV. 
1402. Walter Merwe, magister moneta. Lond. 
1413. Richard Garner. 

— John Lowys or Lodowic John. 

King Henry V. 
1418. Conrad Melwer. Normandy. 

1421. John Marceur. St. Looe. 

King Henry YI. 

1422. Bartholomew Goldbeter. London, fork, 

Bristol, and Calais. 
1426. Robert Manfeld. 

1432. William Russe. London, Calais, Bristol, 

and York. 

1433. John Paddesley : the same places. 
1446. Robert Manfeld. London and Calais. 
1459. Sir Richard Tonstall, knt. 

1461. Robert, bishop of Ross. 

— Germayne Lynch. Ireland. 

King Edward IV. 

1461. William, lord Hastings : keeper of all man- 
ner of the king's exchaunges and out- 
chaunges in the Tower of London, realm 
of England, territory of Ireland, and 
town of Calais. — Patent. 

1480. Hugh Brice. Calais. 

1483. Bartholomew Rede. 

— Thomas Galinole, master and worker of 

the money of silver in Develyn (Dublin) 
and Waterford. 

King Richard III. 
1483. Robert Brackenbury. 

King Henry VII. 
1485. Giles, lord Daubeney, and Bartholomew 
Rede, goldsmith. 

— Robert Bowley, maister of the cunage and 

mynt, within the cities of Dyvelyn and 
Waterford. — Rolls of Pari. 

1491. John Shaa and Bartholomew Rede. 

1492. Robert Fenrother, and Rede. 

King Henry VIII. 
1509. William Blount, lord Montjoy. 
1524. William Wright. York. 
1527. Ralph Rowlet, and Martin Bowes. 
1531. William Blount, lord Montjoy. 
1534. William Tillesworth, archbishop's mint, 
Canterbury. 

1543. Sir Martin Bowes, and Ralph Rowlet. 

1544. Sir Martin Bowes. 

1545. Sir Martin Bowes, and Stephen Vaughan, 

and Thomas Knight, esqrs. 

— Nicholas Tyery. 

King Edward VL 

1547. John York, and others. Southwark. 

— William Tillesworth. Canterbury. 

— Sir Martin Bowes. Tower. 

1548. George Gale. York. 



1549. Sir Edmund Peckham, and others. 

— Sir William Sharrington. 

1550. Martyn Pirri. Dublin. — Co^ow. MSS, 

— George Gale, and others. York. 

Philip and Mary. 
1554. Thomas Egerton. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
1559. Sir Thomas Stanley, and others. 

1572. John Lonison. — ^TarZ. MSS. 

1573. Thomas Stanley. — Lansdowne 3ISS, 

1581. Sir Richard Martin. 

1582. Richard Mavtin. — Ilarleian MSS. 

1584. Sir Richard Martin, and Richard Martin, 
his son. — Lowndes. 

King James I 

1603. Sir Richard Martin, and Richard Martin, 
his son, continued. 

1615. Thomas, lord Knyyet, and Edward Double- 
day. 

1619. Randal Cranfield. 

1623. Sir Edward Villiers, knt. 

1624. Sir Henry Villiers, and Henry Twedy, esq. 

1625. Sir Henry Villiers. 

King Charles I. 
1625. Sir Robert Harley. 
1635. Sir Ralph Freeman, knt. 
1637. Thomas Bushell, esq., Aberystwith. 
1641. Sir William Parkhurst, and Thomas Bushel, 

esq., Oxford. 
1643. Sir Robert Harley. 
1647. Henry Slingsby. 

— John Faulkener, or Falconer. Edinburgh. 

The Commonwealth. 
1649. Aaron Guerdain. 

King Charles II. 
1660. Sir William Parkhurst. 

— Sir Ralph Freeman, knt. 

— Sir Thomas Vyner, Robert Vyner, and 

Daniel Bellingham. Dublin. 
1670. Henry Slingsby. 
1679. Thomas Neale. 

— John Falconer. Edinburgh. 

King James II. 
1685. Thomas Neale. 

{John Trinder, 
Thomas Goddard, 
William Talbot, 
William Bromfield, hi c§ S 

Francis Rice, and 
Edward Fox. Dublin. 
WalterPlunket. Limerick. J O 



King William III. 
1689. Thomas Neale. 

1699. Isaac Newton, previously warden: after- 
wards sir Isaac Newton. 
— Major Wjwil. York. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Sir Isaac Newton (knighted by her ma- 
jesty in 1705), continued. 

King George I. 
1714. Sir Isaac Newton, continued, 
1727. John Conduit. 



202 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



King George II. 
1727. John Conduit, continued. 
1737. Hon. Richard Arundel. 
1744. Hon. William Chetwynd, afterwards vis- 
count Chetwynd. 

King George III. 
1760. Viscount Chetwynd, continued. 
17G9. Hon. Charles Sloane Cadogan, afterwards 

earl Cadogan. 
1784. Thomas, earl of Effingham. Jan. 

1789. Philip, earl of Chesterfield. Feb. 12. 

1790. George, earl of Leicester. Jan. 20. 
1794. Sir George Yonge, bart. July. 

1799. Robert Banks Jenkinson, lord Hawkes- 
bury. Feb. 14. 

1801. Charles-George, lord Arden. April 18. 

1802. Rt. hon. John Smyth. July 2. 
1804. Henry, earl Bathurst. July 7. 

1806. Lord Charles Spencer. Feb. 20. 

— Rt. hon. Charles Bathurst. Oct. 27. 

1807. Earl Bathurst, again. April 25. 
1812. Richard, earl of Clancarty. Oct. 30. 
1814. Rt. hon. William Wellesley Pole, after- 
wards lord Maryborough. Sept. 28. 

King George IY. 
1820. Rt. hon. William Wellesley Pole, after- 
wards lord Maryborough, continued. 



1823. Rt. hon. Thomas Wallace, afterwards lord 
Wallace. Oct. 9. 

1827. Rt. hon. George Tierney. May 29. 

1828. Rt. hon. John Charles Herries. Feb. 12. 

King William IV. 

1830. Rt. hon. John Charles Herries, continued. 

— George, lord Auckland. Dec. 14. 

1834. Rt. hon. James Abercromby. July 1. 

1835. Rt. hon. Alexander Baring. Jan. 1. 

— Rt. hon. Henry Labouchere. May 9. 

Queen Victoria. 

1837. Rt. hon. Henry Labouchere, continued. 
1841. Rt. hon. William Ewart Gladstone. Sept. 
2L 

1845. Sir George Clerk, bart. Feb. 12. 

1846. Rt. hon. Richard Lalor Shiel. July 14. 
1850. Sir John -Frederick- William Herschel, bart. 

Dec. 13. The present Master of the 
Mint. 



The dates in this roll, which differ, in some in- 
stances materiall}'^, from those found in other 
works, are taken^ from Ruding's '* Coinage of 
Great Britain,^'' or from the Records of the Mint. 



THE JUDGE ADVOCATE-GENERAL. 

The Judge Advocate- General and Judge Martial of all the Forces is an officer of 
high honour and of considerable responsibility. His office is held by patent from the 
crown. He is the legal adviser of the sovereign and of the commander-in-chief, in 
military cases, and by his authority all general courts-martial are held. In his office 
are deposited the originals of all such proceedings, and on his receipt of them they 
are examined, and either deposited as correct, or communicated upon, or submitted 
by the Judge Advocate- General to her majesty for royal approval, or for pardon, or 
revision, as, in the opinion of this officer, the respective cases may require. There 
are various other duties embraced in this judicial department of the state, to which 
the Judge Advocate- General has anxiously and constantly to devote his official time. 
The number of courts-martial and of cases requiring the Judge Advocate's investi- 
gation, now (1850) amount to about six thousand annually. 



Judge Advocates -General. 



The dates are those of the actual entrance upon 
office, not of the appointment, which is usually a 
few days earlier; or of the patent, commonly 
some days later than those we adopt in this list. 

1666. Dr. Samuel Barrowe. Jan. 

1684. George Clarke. 

1705. Thomas Byde. 

1715. Edward Hughes. 

1734. Sir Henry Hoghton, bart. 

1741. Thomas Morgan. 

1708. Dr. Charles Gould, afterwards Sir Charles 
Gould Morgan, bart.i 
[Knighted 1779 ; created a baronet in 1792, 
when, conformably with the will of his 
brother-in-law and by royal permission, 



he assumed the name of Morgan. Held 
the office thirty-eight years.] 

1806. Rt. hon. Nathaniel Bond. March 8. Re- 

tired from ill-health. 

1807. Rt. hon. Richard Ryder. Dec. 4. After- 

wards home secretary. 
1809. Rt. hon. Charles Manners Sutton. Nov. 8. 

Afterwards speaker of the house of 
commons. 

1817. Rt. hon. John Beckett. June 25. 

1827. Rt. hon. James Abercromby. May 12. 

Afterwards speaker of the house of 
commons, and created lord Dunfermline. 

1828. Rt. hon. sir John Beckett, bart., second 

appointment. Feb. 2. 



1 Sir Charles Gould Morgan was the eldest son of King Gould, who for several years previous to 1756 (when 
he died) held the otfice of deputy judge advocate-general. 



OFFICERS OF THE EOYAL HOUSEHOLD. 



203 



1830. Rt. lion. Robert Grant (afterwards sir 
Robert, G. C. H.). Dec. 2. Afterwards 
governor of Bombay. 

1834. Rt. hon. Robert Cutlar Fergusson. July 7. 

1834. Rt. hon. sir John Beckett, bart., third time. 

Dec. 22. 

1835. Rt. hon. Robert Cutlar Fergusson ; second 

time. April 25. 

1838. William St. Julien Arabin, serjeant-at-law. 

Nov. 26. 

1839. Rt. hon. sir George Grey, bart. Feb. 21 : 

sworn of the council,*^ March 1. After- 
wards chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 
caster, and present home secretary. 



1841. Rt. hon. Richard Lalor Shiel. June 26. 
Afterwards master of the mint. 

— Rt. hon. Dr. John NichoU. Sept. 14. Af- 

terwards one of the ecclesiastical com- 
missioners. 

1846. Rt. hon. James Stuart Wortley, Jan. 31 : 

sworn of the council, Feb. 25. 

— Charles Buller. July 14. Afterwards chief 

poor law commissioner. 

1847. William Goodenough Hayter. Dec. 30. 

(Rt. hon. Feb. 11, 1848.) Afterwards 
joint secretary to the treasury. 
1849. Sir David Dundas, knt. May 30. (Rt. 

hon. June 29, following.) The present 
(1850) Judge Advocate-General. 



THE LOED STEWARD OF THE HOUSEHOLD. 

This is the first great officer of the court : the nature of his office (which is of high 
honour and antiquity) is implied in the name. He has the management of the palace 
below stairs, and the appointment and superintendence of numerous persons in the 
sovereign's service. The Lord Steward is always a nobleman of high rank, and a privy 
councillor. He has no formal grant of his office ; and formerly received his charge 
immediately from the sovereign in person, who, on placing in his hands a white staff 
or wand, said, " Seneschal., tenez le baton de notre maizon.^'' By virtue of this office, 
the Lord Steward was, until lately, the chief judge of the court of the Queen's Palace 
of Westminster. This court was originally instituted to determine actions against 
members of the Household, but it subsequently grew into comparatively extensive 
jurisdiction. It was, however, wholly abolished in 1849. 

Lord Stewards of the Household. 



King Henry VII. 
Robert, lord Brooke. 
1502. Sir Gilbert Talbot, knt. 

King Henry VIII. 

1509. George, earl of Shrewsbury. 

1541. Charles, duke of Suffolk. 

1544. William, lord St. John of Basing, after- 
wards earl of Wiltshire, and marquess 
of Winchester. 

King Edward VI. 
1547. William, lord St. John, continued. 
1551. John, duke of Northumberland: beheaded 
in 1553. 

Queen Mary. 
1553. Henry, earl of Arundel. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
1558. Henry, earl of Arundel, continued. 
1568. William, earl of Pembroke. 
1570. Robert, earl of Leicester. 
1588. William, lord St . John of Basing, eldest 
son to the marquess of Winchester. 

King James I. 
1G03. Charles, earl of Nottingham. 
1618. Ludovick, duke of Richmond and Lenox. 
1623. James, marquess of Hamilton and earl of 
Cambridge. 

King Charles I. 
1625. William, earl of Pembroke. Died in 1630. 
[The office vacant for some years.] 



1640. Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey. 
1644. James, dulie of Richmond and Lenox. 

King Charles 11. 
1660. James, duke of Ormond. 

King James II. 
1685. James, duke of Ormond, continued. 

King William III. 
1689. WiUiam, earl, afterwards duke of Devon- 
shire. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. William, duke of Devonshire, continued: 

died 18 Aug. 1707. 
1707. William, duke of Devonshire, son to the 

former duke. Sept. 8. 

1710. John, duke of Buckinghamshire and Noi- 

mandy. 

1711. John, earl Paulet. 

King George I. 
1714. William, duke of Devonshire, again. 
1716. Henry, duke of Kent. 
1718. John, duke of Greenwich and Argyle. 
1725. Lionel Cranfield, duke of Dorset. 

King George II. 

1727. Lionel Cranfield, duke of Dorset, continued. 

1730. Philip Dormer, earl of Chesterfield. 

1733. William, duke of Devonshire. 

1737. Lionel Cranfield, duke of Dorset. 

1744. WiLiam, duke of Devonshire. 

1749. Charles, duke of Marlborough. June 12. 

1755. John, duke of Rutland. 



204 



STATESMEN^ AND STATE OFFICERS. 



King George III. 

1760. John, duke of Rutland, continued. 

1761. William, earl Talbot. 

1782. Frederick, earl of Carlisle. May 4. 

1783. Charles, duke of Rutland. Feb. 14. 

— William, earl of Dartmouth. April 9. 

— James, duke of Chandos : he died in Oct. 

1789. Dec. 26. 
1789. John -Frederick, duke of Dorset. Oct. 7. 
1799. George, earl of Leicester. Feb. 20. 
1802. George, earl of Dartmouth. Aug. 15. 
1804. Heneage, earl of Aylesford. May 30. 
1812. George-James, earl (afterwards marquess) 

of Cholniondeley. Feb. 19. 

King George IV. 
1821. Henry, marquess of Conyngham. Dec. 11. 



King William IV. 
1830. Richard, duke of Buckingham and Chan- 
dos. July 16. 

— Richard, marquess Wellesley. Nov. 23. 
1833. George-William, duke of Argyll. Sept. 12. 
1835. Thomas Egerton, earl of Wilton. Jan. 5. 

— George-William, duke of Argyll. April 23. 

Queen Victoria. 
1839. William-George, earl of Erroll. Nov. 15. 
1841. Charles Cecil, earl of Liverpool. Sept. 3. 
1846. Hugh, earl Fortescue. July 9. Resigned 
in 1850. 

1850. Richard, marquess of Westminster. March. 

22. The present Lord Steward of the 
Household. 



Treasurers of the Household. 

(^Lord Steward's Department.) 



King Henry VII. 

* * Sir Richard Croft, knt. 
1500. Sir Thomas Lovell, knt. 

King Henry VIII. 

* * Sir Thomas Boleyn (father of queen Anna 

Bolej^n) afterwards viscount Rochford 
and earl of Wiltshire. 

1537. Sir William Fitzwilliam, knt., afterwards 

earl of Southampton. 

1538. Sir William Paulet, knt., afterwards Lord 

St. John of Basing, earl of Wiltshire, and 
marquess of Winchester. 
1541. Sir Thomas Cheney, knt. 

King Edward VI. 
1547. Sir Thomas Cheney, continued. 

Queen Mary. 
The office vacant. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
1560. Sir Thomas Parry. 

* * Sir Edward Montagu, knt. 
1586. Sir Francis Knollys, K. G. 
1597. Roger, lord North. 

1601. Sir William Knollys, knt. 

King James I. 
1603. Sir William Knollys, continued. Created 

lord Knollys and viscount Wallingford ; 

and afterwards earl of Banbury. 
1616. Edward, lord Wotton. 
1618. Sir Thomas Edmonds, knt. 

King Charles I. 
1625. Sir Thomas Edmonds, continued, 
1639. Sir Henry Vane, sen., knt. 
1641. Thomas, viscount Savile, in Ireland, and 
lord Savile, of Pomfret, in England. 

King Charles XL 
1660. Sir Frederick Cornwallis, bart., afterwards 

lord Cornwallis. 
1663. Charles, viscount Fitz-Harding, of Ireland. 
1668. Sir Thomas Clifford, knt., afterwards lord 

Clifford, of Chudleigh. 
1672. Francis, lord Newport, afterwards viscount 

Newport, and earl of Bradford. 



King James II. 
1686. William, earl of Yarmouth. 

King William III. 
1689. Francis, Lord Newport, again. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Francis, earl of Bradford : died in 1708. 
1708. Hugh, earl of Cholmondeley. 
1712. George, lord Lansdowne, of Bideford. Aug. 
18. 

King George L 
1714. Hugh, earl of Cholmondeley, again. 
1725. Paul Methuen; afterwards sir Paul Me^ 
thuen, K. B. 

King George II. 
1727. Sir Paul Methuen, continued. 

1730. Robert Benson, Lord Bingley. 

1731. John, lord (afterwards earl) De la Warr, 

K. B. June 12. 
1737. Benjamin, earl Fitzwalter. 

1755. John, lord Berkeley, of Stratton. 

1756. John, viscount Bateman. Nov. 19. 

1757. Percy Wyndham, earl of Thomond. July 8. 

King George III. 

1760. The earl of Thomond, continued. 

1761. Henry Arthur, earl of Powis. 

1765. George, lord Edgcumbe, now viscount 

Mount Edgcumbe. 

1766. John Shelly, afterwards sir John. 
1777. Frederick, earl of Carlisle. June 13. 

1779. George, lord Onslow and Cranley. 

1780, James, viscount Cranbourn, afterwards earl 

of Salisbury. Sept. 

1782. Thomas, earl of Effingham. April 10. 

1783. Hon. Charles Greville. April. 

1784. James, earl of Courtown. August. 

1793. James-George, viscount Stopford. June 20. 

1806. Charles- Augustus, lord Ossulston. Feb. 12. 

1807. James-George, viscount Stopford, again. 

March 31. 

1810. James-George, afterwards earl of Courtown. 
Oct. 11. 

1812. Robert, viscount Jocelyn. May 8. 
1812. Lord William-Charles Cavendish Bentinck. 
July 29. 



OFFICERS OF THE EOYAL HOUSEHOLD. 



205 



King George IV. 
1826. Sir William -Henry Fremantle. April 29. 

King William IV. 
1830. Sir William-Henry Fremantle, continued. 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. Henry Charles, earl of Surrey. July 19. 



1841. Rt. hon. George Stevens Byng. June 23. 
— Frederick-William, earl Jermyn. Sept. 9. 

1846. Lord Robert Grosvenor. Aug. 4. 

1847. Lord Arthur Marcus Cecil Hill. July 22. 

The present (1850) Treasurer of the 
Household. 



COMPTROLLORS OF THE HOUSEHOLD. 
(^Lord Steward's Department.) 



King Henry VII. 

* * Sir Richard Edgcumbe, knt. 

King Henry VIII. 

* * Sir Edward Poynings, afterwards lord 

Poynings. 

1537. Sir John Russell, afterwards lord Russell 

and earl of Bedford. 
1542. Sir John Gage, knt. 

King Edward VI. 
1547. Sir John Gage, continued. 

— Sir William Paget, afterwards lord Paget. 
1550. Sir Anthony Wingfield, knt. 

Queen Mary. 
1553. Sir Robert Rochester, K. G. 

1557. Sir Thomas Cornwallis, knt. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

1558. Sir Thomas Parry, knt. 
1560. Sir Edward Rogers, knt. 
1565. Sir James Crofts, knt. 
1588. Sir Francis KnoUys, knt. 

1590. Sir William KnoUys, knt. (his son), after- 
wards lord KnoUys and viscount Wal- 
lingford. 

1601. Sir Edward Wotton, knt., afterwards lord 
Wotton. 

King James I. 
1603. Sir Edward, now lord Wotton, continued. 

— Sir Henry Carey, knt. 
1616. Sir Thomas Edmondes, K. B. 

1618. Sir Henry Carey, afterwards viscount Falk- 
land. 

1621. Sir John Suckling, knt. 

King Charles I. 
1625. Sir John Savile, knt, afterwards lord Savile, 

and earl of Sussex. 
1628. Sir Henry Vane, sen., knt. 

1640. Sir Thomas Jermyn. 

1641. Sir Peter Wyche, knt. 

1642. Sir Christopher Hatton, knt., afterwards 

lord Hatton. 

King Charles II. 

1660. Sir Charles Berkeley, knt., afterwards vis- 
count Fitzharding. 

1660. Sir Hugh Pollard, K.B. 

1666. Sir Thomas Clifford, knt., afterwards lord 
Clifford, of Chudleigh. 

1668. Francis, lord Newport, afterwards viscount 
Newport, and earl of Bradford. 

1672. WiUiam, lord Maynard. 

King James II. 
1685. Henry, lord Waldegrave. 



King William III. 
1689. Hon. Thomas Wharton, afterwards lord 
Wharton, earl and marquess of Wharton. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Sir Edward Seymour, bart. 
1704. Sir Thomas Mansell, bart. AprU 27. 

1708. Hugh, earl of Cholmondeley. May. 

— Sir Thomas Felton, bart. Oct. 

1709. Sir John HoUand, bart. June 2. 

1711. Sir Thomas Mansell, bart., again; after- 

wards lord Mansell. 

1712. George, lord Lansdowne, of Bideford. 
1718. Sir John Stonehouse, bart. 

King George I. 
1714. Hugh Boscawen, afterwards viscount Fal- 
mouth. 

1720. Paul Methuen, afterwards sir Paul, K. B. 
1725. Daniel, lord Finch, afterwards earl of Win- 
chelsea and Nottingham. 

King George II. 
1727. Daniel, lord Finch, continued. 
1730. Hon. sir Conyers D'Arcy, knt. June 11. 

1754. Wills, earl of Hillsborough. 

1755. John, lord Hobart, afterwards earl of 

Buckinghamshire. 

1756. Hon. Richard Edgcumbe, afterwards lord 

Edgcumbe. Nov. 19. 

King George III. 

1760. Lord Edgcumbe, continued. 

1761. Henry-Arthur, earl of Powis. May 31. 

— Lord George Cavendish. Nov. 

1762. Lord Charles Spencer. 

1763. Rt. hon. Humphrey Morrice. Jan. 10. 
1765. Thomas Pelham, esq., afterwards lord Pel- 
ham. Sept. 6. 

1774. Sir WiUiam Meredith, bart. March 9 

1777. George, lord Onslow and Cranley. 

1779. Sir Richard Worsley, bart. 

1782. Peter, earl Ludlow. 

1784. Robert, viscount Gal way. 

1787. Hon. John Charles Villiers. Feb. 19. 

1790. Hon. Dudley Ryder, afterwards lord Har- 

rowby. Feb. 27. 

1791. George, viscount Parker, afterwards earl 

of Macclesfield. AprU 21. 
1797. Lord Charles-Henry Somerset. AprU 27. 
1804. Lord George Thynne. May 31. 
1812. Lord George-Thomas Beresford. July 29. 

King George IV. 
1820. Lord George-Thomas Beresford, continued. 

King William IV. 
1830. Lord Robert Grosvenor. Nov. 23. 



206 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



1834. Hon. Henry-Thomas Lowry Corry. Dec. 29. 

1835. Rt. hon. George Stevens Byng. May 7. 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. Rt. hon. George Stevens Bvng, continued. 
1841. Lord Arthur Marcus Cecil Hill. June 23. 



1841. Hon, George Lionel Dawson Darner. Sept. 9. 

1846. Lord Arthur Marcus Cecil Hill, again. 

July 7. 

1847. Hon. William Sebright Lascelles. July 22. 

The PRESENT (1850) Comptroller of 
the Household. 



THE LORD CHAMBERLAIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD. 

To this high and very ancient officer, the second of the court, is entrusted the 
management of various branches of the Royal Household. He has the control of the 
domestics employed in the palaces of the sovereign, and the appointment of numerous 
professional persons, tradesmen, and artisans to the royal service. He has also the 
direction of all state ceremonials, coronations, marriages, funerals, &c.; and to him 
appertains the privilege of licensing plays and other dramatic entertainments. The 
Lord Chamberlain is always a nobleman of high rank, and a privy councillor. 

LoKD Chamberlains of the Household. 



King Henry VII. 
1485. Sir William Stanley, knt. : beheaded. 
* * Sir Charles Somerset, knt., afterwards lord 
Herbert and earl of Worcester. 

King Henry VIII. 
1509. The earl of Worcester continued. 
1526. Henry, earl of Arundel. 
1530. William, lord Sandys, of the Vine. 
1535. William, lord St. John, of Basing. 

King Edw^abd VI. 
1547. WilHam, lord St. John, of Basing, con- 
tinued. 

1550. Thomas, lord Wentworth. 

1551. Thomas, lord D'Arcy, of Chiche. 

Queen Mary. 
1553. John, lord Williams. 

1557. WilHam, lord Howard of Effingham. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

1558. Lord Howard of Effingham, continued. 
1572. Thomas, earl of Sussex. 

1585. Henry, lord Hunsdon. 
1596. George, lord Hunsdon. 

King James I. 
1603. George, lord Hunsdon, continued. 

— Thomas, earl of Suffi)lk. 
1613. Robert, earl of Somerset. 
1615. WilHam, earl of Pembroke. 

King Charles I. 
1625. Wihiam, earl of Pembroke, continued. 

— Philip, earl of Montgomery, and afterwards 

of Pembroke. 

1641. Robert, earl of Essex. 

1642. Edward, earl of Dorset. 

King Charles II. 
1660. Edward, earl of Manchester. 
}671. Henry, earl of St. Albans. 
1674. Henry, earl of ArHngton. 
1681. John, earl of Mulgrave, afterwards duke of 
Buckingham. 



King James II. 

1685. Robert, earl of Ailesbury and Elgin. July. 

— Thomas, earl of Ailesbury and Elgin (son 

of the former). Oct. 

1686. John, earl of Mulgrave, again. 

King William III. 
1689. Charles, earl of Dorset and Middlesex. 
1695. Robert, earl of Sunderland. 

1699. Charles, duke of Shrewsbury. 

1700. Edward, earl of Jersey. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Edward, earl of Jersey, continued. 
1704. Henry, earl of Kent, afterwards marquess 
and duke of Kent. 

1714. Charles, duke of Shrewsbury. 

King George I. 

— The same, continued. 

1715. Charles, duke of Bolton : resigned July 4, 

following. June 19. 
[The office vaca7it.'\ 
1717. Thomas Holies, duke of Newcastle. 

April 14. 
1724. Charles, duke of Grafton. 

King George IL 
1727. The duke of Grafton, continuea. 
1757. William, duke of Devonshire. 

King George III. 
1760. The duke of Devonshire, continued. 

1762. George, duke of Marlborough. Nov. 22. 

1763. Granville Leveson, earl Gower. April 22. 

1765. William-Henry Cavendish, duke of Port- 

land. July 10. 

1766. Francis Seymour, earl of Hertford. Dec. 4. 

1782. George, duke of Manchester. April 10. 

1783. Francis Seymour, earl of Hertford. April 9. 
1783. James, earl of Salisbury. Dec. 26. 

1804. George, earl of Dartmouth. May 14. 
1812. Francis, marquess of Hertford. March 5. 

King George IV. 
1821. James, duke of Montrose. Dec. 11. 



OFFICEES OF THE KOYAL HOUSEHOLD. 



207 



1827. William Spencer, duke of Devonshire. 

May 5. 

1828. James, duke of Montrose, again. Feb. 18. 

King William IV. 
1830. George Child Viiliers, earl of Jersey. 
July 24. 

1830. William Spencer, duke of Devonshire, again. 
Nov. 22. 

1834. George, earl of Jersey, again. Dec. 15. 

1835. Richard, marquess Wellesley. April. 



1835. Francis-Nathaniel, marquess Conyngham. 
May. 

Queen Victoria. 
1839. Henry Paget, earl of Uxbridge. May 6. 
1841. George- John Sackville, earl De la Warr. 
Sept. 14. 

1846. Frederick, earl Spencer. July 8. 

1848. John Campbell, marquess of Breadalbane. 

Sept. 4. The phesent (1850) Lord 
Chamberlain of the Household. 



Vice -Chamberlains. 



King Henry YIII. 

* * Sir John Gage, knt. 

King Edw^ard VI. 

* * Sir Anthony Wingfield, knt. 

* * Sir John Gates, knt. 
1550. Sir Thomas DArcy. 

Queen Mary. 
1553. [The office vacant.'] 

Queen Elizabeth. 

* * Sir Edward Rogers, knt. 

* * Sir Thomas Heneage, knt. 

* * Sir Christopher Hatton, knt. 

1602. Sir John Stanhope, knt., afterwards lord 

Stanhope, of Harrington. 

King James I. 

1603. John, lord Stanhope, continued. 

1616. Sir John Digby, afterwards lord Digby 
and earl of Bristol. 

King Charles I. 

1625. Sir Dudley Carleton, knt., afterwards lord 

Carleton, and viscount Dorchester. 

1626. Sir Henry May, knt. 

Sir Thomas Jermyn, knt. 
1640. George, lord Goring, afterwards earl of 
Norwich. 

King Charles II. 
1660. Sir George Carteret, bart. 
1670. Henry Savile or Saville, esq. 

King James II. 

1685. Henry Savile, continued. 

1686. James Porter, esq. 

King William HI. 

1689. Sir John Lowther, bart., afterwards vis- 

count Lonsdale. 

1690. Hon. Peregrine Bertie. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Hon. Peregrine Bertie, continued. 



1706. Thomas Coke, afterwards lord Lovel, and 
earl of Leicester. Dec. 5. 

King George I. 
1714. Thomas Coke, continued. 
1727. William Stanhope, afterwards earl of Har- 
rington. 

King George II. 
1727. William Stanhope, continued. 
1730. Lord John Hervey. May 8. 
1740. Lord Svdney Beauclerk. May 1 . 
1742. Hon. William Finch. July 13. 

King George HI. 
1760. Hon. William Finch, continued. 
1765. George Bussy, viscount Viiliers, afterwards 
earl of Jersey. July 12. 

1770. Hon. Thomas Robinson, afterwards lord 

Grantham. Feb. 13. 

1771. John, viscount Hinchinbroke. Feb. 6. 
1782. George, viscount Chewton, afterwards earl 

Waldegrave. May 2. 
1784. George, lord Herbert, afterwards earl of 

Pembroke. Nov. 20. 
1794. Rt. hon. Charles Fulke Greville. Aug. 
1804. Lord John Thymic. July 11. 
1812. Francis-Charles, earl of Yarmouth. March 

10. 

1812. Robert, viscount Jocelyn. Aug. 15. 

King George IY. 
1821. James, marquess of Graham. Feb. 7. 
1827. Sir Samuel Hulse. May 5. 

King William IV. 
1830. George, earl of Belfast. July 24. 

1834. Frederick, viscount Castlereagh. Dec. 27. 

1835. Lord Charles Fitzroy. June 29. 

Queen Victoria. 

1838. George, earl of Belfast, again. May 2. Af- 
terwards marquess of Donegal. 

1841. Lord Ernest Bruce. Sept. 8. 

1846. Lord Edward- George Fitz-Alan Howard. 

The present (1850) Vice - Chamber- 
lain of the Household. J uly 8. 



THE groom of the STOLE. 

The Groom of the Stole, a high officer of the Hoyal Household, and whose office 
existed until the commencement of the present reign, was first Lord of the Bed- 
chamber, and derived his official distinction from having the custody of the long robe 
or vestment worn by the king upon solemn occasions of state, called the Stole. The 



208 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



office was always filled by a nobleman of high rank, who wore a gold key as the emblem 
of it. The Groom of the Stole always became a privy councillor, if not so previously. 



King Charles II. 
1660. John, earl of Bath. 



Grooms of the Stole. 

(^From the Restoration, to the Suppression of the Office in 1837.) 

1775. Thomas, viscount Weymouth. 

1782. 



King James II. 
1685. Henry, earl of Peterborough. 

King William III. 
1689. WiUiam, earl of Portland. 
1699. Henry, earl of Komney : died in 1700. 

Queen Anne.i 
1704. Sarah, duchess of Marlborough. 
1710. Elizabeth, duchess of Somerset. 

King George I. 
1714. Lionel Craniield, earl of Dorset and Mid- 
dlesex, afterwards duke of Dorset. 
1719. Charles, earl of Sunderland. 
1723. Francis, earl of Godolphin. 

King George II. 
1727. Francis, earl of Godolphin, continued. 
1735. Henry, earl of Pembroke. Jan. 9. 
1750. William-Anne, earl of Albemarle. 
1755. William- Henry, earl of Rochford. 

King George III. 

1760. John, earl of Bute. 

1761. Francis, earl of Huntingdon. 
1770. George-William, earl of Bristol. 



March. 

J ohn, earl of Ashburnham. Nov. 
Thomas, viscount Weymouth, afterwards 
marquess of Bath. 
1796. John, duke of Roxburgh : died in 1804. 
Nov. 30. 

1804. George, earl of Winchilsea and Notting- 
ham. May 14. 

1812. Charles Ingoldsby, marquess of Win- 
chester. 

King George IY. 
1820. Marquess of Winchester, continued. 

King William IV. 
1830. Marquess of Winchester, continued. 

[This office was discontinued on the ac- 
cession of her present majesty, Victoria, 
in 1837.] 



Mistresses of the Robes.^ 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. Harriett-Elizabeth, duchess of Sutherland. 
Aug. 29. 

1841. Charlotte, duchess of Buccleuch. Sept. 6. 
1846. The duchess of Sutherland, again. July 

6. The PRESENT (1850) Mistress of the 

Robes. 



THE MASTER OF THE HORSE. 

Is reckoned the teird great officer of the court. The office is of high honour and 
antiquity, and is always filled by noblemen of great rank. The Master of the Horse 
has the management and direction of all matters relating to the royal stables, and of 
the revenue appropriated to this branch of the Royal Household. He is the only 
personage who has the privilege of using horses belonging to the crown, and of being 
attended by pages and servants attached to his department. In royal processions and 
on occasions of state the Master of the Horse usually rides in the same carriage with 
the sovereign. 

Masters of the Horse. 



King Henry YIII. 

* * Sir Thomas Knivet, knt. 

* * Sir Nicholas Carew, knt. 
1539. Sir Anthony Brown. 

King Edavard VI. 
1547. Sir Anthony Brown, continued. 
* * Sir William Herbert, knt., afterwards lord 

Herbert and earl of Pembroke 
1552. Ambrose, earl of Warwick. 

Queen Mary. 
1556. Sir Henry Jernynham, knt. 



Queen Elizabeth. 
* * Sir Robert Dudley, knt., afterwards earl of 
Leicester. 

1588. Robert, earl of Essex : beheaded in 1601. 

1602. Edward, earl of Worcester. 

King James I. 

1603. Edward, earl of Worcester, continued. 
1616. George, viscount Villiers, afterwards duke 

of Buckingham. 

King Charles I. 
1625. The duke of Buckingham, continued. 



^ Though somewhat Incongruous in name, the office of groom of the stole was continued when her majesty 
queen Anne was on the throne, and combined the duties of mistress of the robes. 

2 The mistress of the robes to a queen regnant is an office of more political importance than to a queen con- 
sort. Mary, duchess of Ancaster and Kesteven, held this appointment in the household of Charlotte, consort of 
George III. ; and the duchess dowager of Leeds In that of her late majesty, Adelaide, queen of William IV. 



OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD. 



209 



1629. James, marquess, and afterwards duke of 
Hamilton. 

King Charles II. 
IGGO. George, duke of Albemarle. 
1665. James, duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch : 
beheaded in 1G85. 

1672. George, duke of Buckingham. 

1673. Henry Guy, esq. 
/"Theophilus Oglethorpe, esq. 
J Charles Adderlejs esq. 

* *i Commissioners during the minority of 

C Charles, duke of Richmond. 
1679. Charles, duke of Richmond and Lenox. 

King William III. 
1689. Henry de Nassau d'Auverquerque. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Charles, duke of Somerset. 

King George I. 
1714. Charles, duke of Somerset, continued: he 
resigned the next year. 

1717. Henry Berkeley, esq., commissioner, in the 
room of hon. Conyers D'Arcy. June 14 

1717. Mr. Negus appointed, and continued sole 
commissioner till the accession of George 
H. June 27, 

King George II. 

1727. Richard, earl of Scarborough. June 15. 

1 7*i/L f Hon. James Lumley. "I Commissioners. 

^ ' j Hon. Henry Berkeley, j May. 

1735. Charles, duke of Richmond, Lenox, and 
Aubigny. Jan. 9. 

1751. William, marquess of Hartington, after- 
wards duke of Devonshire. 



1755. Lionel Cranfield, duke of Dorset. 
1757. Granville Leveson Gower, earl Gower. 

King George HL 

1760. Francis, earl of Huntingdon. 

1761. John, duke of Rutland. 

1766. Francis Seymour, earl of Hertford. Aug. 
1766. Peregrine, duke of Ancaster and Kesteven. 
Dec. 

1778. Hugh, duke of Northumberland. Dec. 10. 
1780. George, duke of Montagu. Dec. 11. 
1790. James, duke of Montrose. Dec. 7. 
1795. John Fane, earl of Westmoreland. March. 
1798. Philip Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield. 
Feb. 14. 

1804. Francis, marquess of Hertford. July 21. 

1806. Henry, earl of Carnarvon. Feb. 11. 

1807. J ames Graham, duke of Montrose. April 4. 

King George IV. 
1821. Charles Sackville Germaine, dui^e of 

Dorset. Dec. 11. 
1827. George-William-Frederick, duke of Leeds. 

May 4. 

King William IY. 
1830. William-Charles, earl of Albemarle. Nov. 
22. 

1835. Charles Sackville Germaine, duke of 

Dorset, again. Jan. 1. 
1835. William- Charles, earl of Albemarle, again. 

April 25. 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. The earl of Albemarle, continued. June 20. 
1841. George Villiers, earl of Jersey. Sept. 4. 
1846. Henry-Charles Howard, duke of Norfolk. 

July 11. The present (1850) Master 

of the Horse to the Queen. 



CORPS of gentlemen-at-arms. 

The Honourable Corps of Gentlemen- at- Arms (formerly styled the Band of Gentle- 
men-Pensioners) is the oldest corps in England, with the exception of the Yeomen of 
the Guard and the Sergeants-at-Arms.^ This Corps was instituted soon after Henry 
YIII. ascended the throne, and was composed entirely of gentlemen of noble blood. ]n 
the preceding reign a body of fifty archers had been enrolled, composed of yeomen, 
and styled " the Yeomen of the Guard a splendid corps, which at the present time 
continues to form one of the most picturesque ornaments of the ante-chamber. Henry 
YIII., however, was too magificent in his notions of state to be satisfied with a guard 
consisting merely of yeomen ; he thought that none but gentlemen of superior rank 
should have the privilege of forming the immediate guard of the sovereign, and accord- 
ingly his majesty (as is affirmed by Lloyd), at the instance of Sir William Compton, a 
lineal ancestor of the earl of Northampton, created a troop composed entirely of the 
cadets of noble families, and these he called his Pensioners, or Spears, each Spear being 
attended by an archer, a demi-lance, and a coustill (from the French coustillie?^) or 
half-armed servant, with three managed horses completely furnished for service in the 
field. — Captain James Bunce Curling. 

His late majesty William IV. was graciously pleased to command (March 17, 1834) 

1 The first regular force employed by the kings of England was their own personal guard ; but there does not 
appear to have been a regularly embodied corps of guards previous to the reign of Richard I., who instituted 
the serjeants-at-arms — a body of twenty-four archers, whose duties were to keep watch round the king's tent, in 
complete armour, with a bow and arrows, and a sword ; and to arrest traitors and other offenders about the 
court. The sergeant s-at-arms have ceased to be considered a corps of guard, but they retain their civil character. 
— Captaiji Curling. 

P 



210 



STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICERS. 



that the Honourable Band of Gentlemen Pensioners should be in future called " His 
Majesty's Honourable Corps of Gentlemen- at- Arms." — Captain James Bunce Curling. 

Captains of the Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms. 

(^From the Institution of the Corps by King Henry VIII., 1509.) 



King Henry VIII. 
1509. Henry, earl of Essex, K. G. 
1539. Sir Anthony Browne, K. G. 

King Edward YI. 

1549. John, lord Bray. 

1550. William Parr (late earl of Essex), mar- 

quess of Northampton, K. G. ' 

Queen Mary. 
1553. William, marquess of Northampton, K. G. 
continued, 

* * Thomas, earl of Sussex, K. G. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

1558. Henry Gary, lord Hunsdon, K. G. 

1596. George Gary, lord Hunsdon, K. G., suc- 
ceeded on the death of his father, the 
preceding lord. 

King James I. 
1603. George, lord Hunsdon, continued. 

* * Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, 

K G 

1615. Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk, K. G. 

1616. Theophilus Howard, lord Walden, earl of 

Suffolk in 1626, K. G. 

King Charles I.^ 
1625. Theophilus, lord Howard de Walden, earl 
of Suffolk, continued. 

* * William Cecil, earl of Salisbury, K. G. 
1643. Francis Leigh, lord Dunsmore ; afterwards 

earl of Chichester. 

King Charles 11. 

* * William Cecil, earl of Salisbury, again. 

1660. Thomas Wentworth, earl of Cleveland. 

1661. George, earl of Norwich: died the next 

year. 

1662. Thomas, earl of Cleveland, again. 

1667. John Belasyse, lord Belasyse, of Worlaby. 
1672. Thomas Belasyse, viscount Fauconberg, 

on the resignation of his uncle, John, 

lord Belasyse. 
1674. Wentworth Dillon, earl of Roscommon. 
1684. Robert Leake, earl of Scarsdale. 

King James II. 
1687. Theophilus Hastings, earl of Huntingdon. 

King William III. 

* * John Lovelace, lord Lovelace: died in 

command, in 1693. 



1693. Ralph Montagu, earl of Montagu. 

1695. Charles Fitzroy, duke of St. Albans, K. G. 

Queen Anne. 
* * Henry Somerset, duke of Beaufort, K. G. 

King George I. 
1714. Charles Fitzroy, duke of St. Albans, again : 

died in command. 
1726. William Cavendish, marquess of Harting- 

ton, afterwards duke of Devonshire, 

K. G. 

King George II. 
1731. Richard Boyle, earl of Burlington and 
Cork, K. G. 

1734. John Montagu, duke of Montagu, K. G. 
and K. B. 

1740. Charles Paulet, duke of Bolton, K. G. 
1742. Allen Bathurst, lord Bathurst ; afterwards 

earl Bathurst. 
1745. John Hobart, lord Hobart ; afterwards earl 

of Buckinghamshire, K. B. 
1756. John, lord Berkeley, of Stratton : resigned 

in 1763. 

King George III. 

1762. George-Henry, earl of Lichfield. July 17 : 
died in command, in 1772. 

1772. George, lord Edgcumbe. Dec. 31 : after- 
wards viscount Mount-Edgcumbe and 
Valletort. 

1782. George Townshend, lord de Ferrers. March 

29. Resigned the command in 1783. 

1783. George Bussy Villiers, earl of Jersey. 

May 14. 

— George, lord Ferrers. Dec. 31. Re-ap- 
pointed on the resignation of the earl of 
Jersey. 

1797. George Evelyn, earl of Falmouth. 
1799. Heneage, earl of Aylesford. 
1804. George, earl of Macclesfield. 
1806. George-Richard, viscount St. John. Feb. 
19. 

1808. Richard, earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. March 
19. 

1812. James-George, earl of Courtown. April 11. 

King George IV. 
1820. The earl of Courtown, continued. 
1827. Henry, viscount Hereford. 

King William IV. 
1830. Henry, viscount Hereford, continued. 



^ This nobleman had been created earl of Essex in December 1543. He was created Marquess of Northampton 
February 16, 1546 ; but was attainted in 1553, when all his honours became forfeited. In 1558 he was restored in 
blood, but not in honours ; and on January 13, 1559. he was created again marquess of Northampton and K.G. 
His lordship was brother of Catherine Parr, queen of Henry VHI Sir Har7-is Nicolas. 

2 Captain Curling, in his beautiful volume, entitled " An Account of the Ancient Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms,''* 
lately published, has the following passage in relation to the British Household troops and our standing army : 
" King Charles II. at the Restoration established a regiment of Life Guards, to which he added a regiment of 
Horse Guards and two regiments of Foot Guards, and a third regiment of Foot Guards was raised at Coldstream, 
on the borders of Scotland. These corps constitute the British Household troops. Their formation was the 
commencement of the present regular army ; and such additions have from time to time been made of regiments 
of horse, dragoons, and foot soldiers, as the occasions of the nation have required." 



OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD. 



211 



1830. Thomas, lord Foley. Dec. 8 : died in com- 
mand, April 1833. 

1833. Thomas-Henry, lord Foley. May. 

1834. Henry, viscount Hereford. Dec. 30 : re- 

signed. 

1835. Thomas-Henr}^ lord Foley, again. May 6. 



Queen Victoria. 
1841. John-George, lord Forester. Sept. 8. 
1846. Thomas-Henry, lord Foley, again. July 24. 

The PRESENT (1850) Captain of the 

Gentlemen- at- Arms. 



HER MAJESTY'S BODY-GUARD 

OF THE 

YEOMEN OF THE GUARD. 

The Body-Guard of the Queen is the oldest corps in Her Majesty's service. This 
corps was instituted by Henry VII. in 1485, nearly two hundred years before any 
regiment that is now in existence was raised : it was, in fact, the only standing 
force in the kingdom, with the exception of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen- at- 
Arms. 

In the reign of the first founder the number of the corps was fifty men ; but it was 
increased by Henry YIII. to two hundred, of which number one hundred were 
mounted. The corps was afterwards very considerably augmented by the same 
monarch; for we find that in 1513, at the siege of TeroUenne^, where they accom- 
panied the king, the corps amounted to six hundred. In the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth the Body-Guard was composed of three hundred and seven men ; and in 
that of James I. the number was again two hundred. It was further reduced by 
Charles II. in consequence of several regiments having been raised in the course of 
his reign. 

The present strength of the Body-Guard is one hundred and forty men, including 
eight ushers or sergeant-majors. 

The officers of this corps consist of a Captain, who is always a peer, and a member 
of the Privy Council, ex officio.^ and who carries a gold stick of office ; a Lieutenant, 
an Ensign, four Exons, and an Adjutant or Clerk of the Cheque. All the officers, 
under the Captain, carry, when on duty, a silver stick of office, which they have the 
privilege of receiving, at a private audience, immediately from the hands of the 
sovereign. 

The commissions, as in the rest of the army, are saleable ; but death- vacancies are 
filled up by the Commander-in-Chief from the Half-pay list, subject to the approval 
of the Captain of the Corps. 

The Body-Guard is entirely recruited from the non-commissioned officers of the 
army, without distinction of regiments. The selection is made by the Commander-in- 
Chief (subject to the approval of the Captain) as a reward for distinguished gallantry 
or good conduct. On state occasions, the men carry the halbert, but they are armed 
and drilled like the rest of the infantry ; and from their high character and their 

1 Henry VIII. of England, the emperor Maximilian, and the Swiss, entered, in 1513, into an alliance offensive 
against France. Henry VIII. landed at Calais in the month of July, and soon formed an army of 30,000 men, 
counting the troops he had brought with him. He was joined by the emperor with a good corps of horse, and 
some foot. The emperor was so mean as to act as a mercenary to the king of England, who allowed him a 
hundred ducats a day for his table ! They laid siege to Teroiienne, investing the place with an army of 60,000 
men ; and the Due de Longueville, marching to its relief, was signally defeated; the French were everywhere 
routed in the battle. This battle of Guinnegate was called the battle of Spurs, because the French used their 
spurs more than they did their swords. It happened on the 18th of August, and the place surrendered on the 
24th ; and the allies* not agreeing as to which of them should keep it, razed it to the ground. The English 
king then laid siege to Tournay, which submitted in a few days. And the Swiss laid siege to Dijon, which 
Louis de la Trimouille preserved by a treaty highly advantageous to that nation, which he reckoned the French 
king (Louis XII.) would refuse to ratify, 'i he Venetians, on the other hand, did not meet with better success ; 
they were defeated by the Spaniards ; and Sforza retook all the towns that Louis XII. had conquered for that 
republic — Henault, Hist, de France. 

This battle (the Spurs) before Teroiienne, owed its name to an occurrence not much redounding to the 
honour of the French arms ; in the same way that a former battle (that of the Herrings) fought when the 
English were besieging Orleans, obtained its ludicrous yet lasting name, from an incident occurring at the 
time. The due de Bourbon, in attempting to intercept a convoy on the road to the English camp before 
Orleans, was severely beaten. It was a convoy of salt-fish, and the action by which this supply of provisions to 
the besieging army was preserved from falling into the hands of the French, was called the battle of the 
Herrings, a name it has borne ever since.— r^?7o/. 

p 2 



212 STATESMEN AND STATE OFFICEES. 

perfect state of discipline, they are as efficient a corps as any in Her Majesty's ser- 
vice.^ 

Thirty of the Guard are on daily duty at St. James's, under the command of the 
Exon in waiting, who resides at the palace during his tour of duty. 

Captains of the Yeomen of the Guakd. 

{From the Institution of the Corps hy King Henry VII. in 1485.) 



King Henry VII. 
1486. John, earl of Oxford. 
1488. Sir Charles Somerset, knt. : afterwards 
lord Herbert, and earl of Worcester. 

King Henry VIII. 
1514. Sir Henry Guilford, knt., K. G. 
1521. Sir Henry Marney, afterwards lord Mar- 

ney, K. G. 
1523. Sir William Kingston, knt. K. G. 
1536. Sir Anthony Win^field, knt. K. G. 

King Edward VI. 
1550. Sir Thomas D'Arcy, afterwards lord 
D'Aj-cy, K. G. 

Queen Mary. 
1553. Sir Henrj^ Jernyngham, knt. 

Queen Elizabeth. 
1558. Sir William St. Loe, knt. 
1569. Sir Francis Knowlys, knt. 
1578. Sir Christopher Hatton, knt. K. G. 

1587. Sir Goodier, knt. 

1592. John Best, Champion of England. 
1597. Sir Walter Raleigh, knt. Beheaded in 
1618. 

King James I. 

1603. Sir Thomas Erskine, knt., afterwards vis- 
count Fenton and earl of Kellie, K. G. 

1617. Henry, earl of Holland. Beheaded in 
1649. 

King Charles I. 
1630. Sir Christopher Musgrave, knt. 
1632. George, earl of Kinnoul. 
1635. William, earl of Morton, K. G. 

King Charles II. 
1660. George, viscount Grandison. 
1662. Charles, earl of Norwich. 
3 670. Charles, earl of Manchester. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. William, marquess of Hartington, after- 
wards duke of Devonshire. 



1707. Charles, viscount Townshend, K. G. 

King George I. 

1714. Henry, lord Paget, afterwards earl of Ux- 

bridge. 

1715. James, earl of Derby. 

1723. Philip Dormer, lord Stanhope, afterwards 

earl of Chesterfield, K. G. 
1725. John, earl of Leicester, K. B. 

King George II. 
1731. John, lord Ashburnham, afterwards earl of 

Ashburnham. 
1733. Charles, earl of Tankerville, K. B. 
1737. William, duke of Manchester, K. B. 
1739. William, earl of Essex, K. G. 
1743. John, lord Berkeley, of Stratton. 

1746. Pattee, viscount Torrington. 

1747. Hugh, viscount Falmouth. 

King George III. 

1782. John-Frederick, duke of Dorset. Feb. 

1783. George - James, earl of Cholmondeley. 

April. 

— Heneage, earl of Aylesford. Dec. 16. 
1804. Thomas, lord Pelham. 

— George, earl of Macclesfield. 

King William IV. 
1830. Ulick - John, marquess of Clanricarde. 
Dec. 1. 

1834. Archibald, earl of Gosford. Sept. 3. 

1835. James-George, earl of Courtown. Jan. 5. 

— Archibald, earl of Gosford. April. 

Queen Victoria. 
1837. Henry-Stephen, earl of Ilchester. July 22. 

1841. Henry-Charles, earl of Surrey. July 5. 

— John-William, marquess of Lothian. Sept. 

8. 

1842. George, earl of Beverley. Jan. 18. 
1846. Lucius, viscount Falkland. July 24. 
1848. George, marquess of Donegal. Feb. 16. 

The present (1850) Captain of the 
Yeomen of the Guard. 



1 The learned antiquary, Ashmole, has the following passage in relation to this corps: — " The yeomen of 
the guard are a peculiar body of foot-guards to the king's person, instituted at the coronation of Henry VII., 
Oct. 30, 1485. This corps originally consisted of fifty men, under a captain ; they were of larger stature than 
other guards, being required to be over six feet in height, and they were armed with arquebusses and other 
arms. This band was increased by the royal successors of Henry to one hundred men, and seventy super- 
numeraries ; and when one of the hundred died, it was ordered that his place should be supplied out of the 
seventy. They were clad after the manner of king Henry VIII Ashmole^s Instil. 

The corps still retains the ancient dress assigned to it by Henry VIII., viz. a scarlet coat, of a peculiar make, 
down to the knees, guarded with black velvet, and badges on the coat, before and behind. Their breeches are 
also scarlet, guarded with black velvet ; and instead of hats, they wear black velvet caps, round and broad- 
crowned, with ribbons of the king's colour. 



OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD. 



213 



THE SUPPRESSED OFFICES. 



MASTER OF THE GREAT WARDROBE. 

The Master or Keeper of the Great Wardrobe was an officer of great antiquity and 
dignity. High privileges and immunities were conferred upon him by King Henry VL 
and were confirmed to him by his successors ; and King James I. not only enlarged 
them, but ordained that this office should be a corporation or body politic for ever. 
Tlie salary of this officer was 2000Z. per annum. He was usually a personage of high 
political consideration, and subordinate to him were, a comptroller, a patent^lerk, and 
many officers and servants, who were all sworn servants to the king. 

The Wardrobe establishment was abolished by act of parliament, in 1782 ; and it was 
directed that the duties of the office should thenceforth be transferred to the depart- 
ment of the lord chamberlain. 

Masters of the Great Wardrobe. 



(From the reign of King James I. to 
King James I. 

* * George Hume, lord Hume of Berwick* 

afterwards earl of Dunbar, in Scot- 
land. 

1616. James Hay, lord Hay, afterwards earl of 
Carlisle. 

1636. WilHam Fielding, viscount Fielding, after- 
wards earl of Denbigh. 

King Charles I. 

* * Spencer Compton, earl of Northampton. 

Killed at the battle of Hopton Heath in 
1642. 

1642. WilUam Legge. 

King Charles II. 

1660. Edward Montagu, earl of Sandwich. 

Slain in the great sea-battle with the 
Dutch off Southwold Bay, May 28, 1672. 

1672. Ralph Montagu. 

King James II. 
1685. James Hamilton, earl of Arran, afterwards 
duke of Hamilton. 



the suppression of the office in 1782.) 

King William III. 
1689. Ralph Montagu, lord Montagu, afterwards 
earl and duke of Montagu. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Ralph Montagu, continued. 
1709. John Montagu, duke of Montagu. 

King George I. 
1714. John Montagu, continued. 

King George II. 
1727. John Montagu, continued. 
1750. Sir Thomas Robinson, K. B. (afterwards 
lord Grantham), deputy master. 

1754. William Wildman Barrington, viscount 

Barrington. 

1755. Sir Thomas Robinson, again. 

King George III. 
1760. Granville L^vison Gower, earl Gower. 
1763. Francis Dashwood, lord Le Despencer. 
1765. John Ashburnham, earl of Ashburnham. 
1775. Thomas Pelham, lord Pelham. 
1782. The office abolished by act of parliament, 
this year. 



COFFERER OF THE HOUSEHOLD. 

The Cofferer of the Household was the officer next in rank to the comptroller. He 
was a white-staff officer, usually of political rank, and always a member of the privy 
council. He had a special charge and oversight of the other officers of the household. 
On the suppression of the office, by act of parliament, in 1782, the duties of it were 
ordered to be discharged by the lord steward and the paymaster of the household. 

Cofferers of the Household. 

(JProm the reign of Queen Elizabeth to the suppression in 1782.) 



Queen Elizabeth. 
* * Sir Henry Cocks, knt. 

King James L 
1603. Sir Richard Vernon, knt. 
1615. Sir Arthur Ingram, knt. 
1620. Sir Marmaduke Darrell, knt. 



King Charles I. 
1625. Sir Henry Vane, knt., afterwards secretary 

of state. 
1628. Sir John Suckling, knt. 
1642. William Ashburnham. 



p 3 



King Charles II. 
William Ashburnham, continued. 



214 



STATESMEN AND 



STATE OFFICERS. 



King Jainies II. 

* * Sir Peter Apsley, knt. 

King William III. 

* * Henry Herbert, afterwards lord Herbert, 

of Chirbury. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Sir Benjamin Bathurst, knt. 
1704. Hon. Francis Godolphin, afterwards vis- 
count Rialton, and earl of Godolphin. 
1711. Samuel Masham, afterwards lord Masham. 

King George I. 
1714. Francis, earl of Godolphin. 
1723. William Pulteney, afterwards earl of 
Bath. 

1725. Henry Clinton, earl of Lincoln. 

King George II. 
1727. Henry, earl of Lincoln, continued. 
1730. Horace Walpole, afterwards lord Wal- 
pole. 



1741. Sir William Yonge, bart. and K. B. 

1743. Samuel Sandys, lord Sandys. 

1744. Edmund Waller. 

1746. Henry Clinton, earl of Lincoln, afterwards 
duke of Newcastle. 

1754. Sir George Lyttelton, bart., afterwards 

lord Lyttelton. 

1755. Thomas Osborne, duke of Leeds. 

King George III. 

1760. The duke of Leeds, continued. 

1761. Hon. James Grenville. April 17. 

— Percy Wyndham O'Bryen, earl of Tho- 
mond. Nov. 18. 

1765. Richard Lumley, earl of Scarborough. 

July 12. 

1766. Hans Stanley. 
1774. Jeremiah Dyson. 
1776. Hans Stanley. 

1780. Francis- Seymour Conway, viscount Beau- 
champ. 

1782. The office was suppressed by act of parlia- 
ment this year. 



TREASUEER OF THE CHAMBER. 

This was an officer of great consideration ; and he was always a member of the privy 
council. He discharged the bills of all the king's tradesmen, and for this purpose had 
offices in Cleveland-row, in the vicinity of the palace. His duties were transferred, 
and the office suppressed, at the same time with the offices of Master of the Great 
Wardrobe and Cofferer of the Household, in 1782.^ 



TrEASUREKS OF THE CHAMBER. 



{From the Restoration to the . 
King Charles II. 
* * Sir Edward Griffin, bart. 

King James 11. 
1G85. Sir Edward Griffin, continued. 

King William III. 
1689. Sir Rowland Gwin, knt. 
1692 Edward Russell, afterwards earl of Or- 
ford. 

Queen Anne. 
1702. Charles Berkeley, viscount Fitzharding. 

1713. John West, lord Delawar. 

King George I. 

1714. Charles Bodville, earl of Radnor. 
1720. Hon. Henry Pelham. 
1722. Hon. Charles Stanhope. 



suppression of the office in 1782.) 

King George II. 
* * Sir John Hobart, bart., afterwards lord 
Hobart and earl of Buckinghamshire. 
1744. Sir John Hinde Cotton, bart. 

1746. Hon. Richard Arundel. 

1747. Samuel, lord Sandys. 

1755. Wills Hill, earl of Hillsborough. 

1756. Hon. Charles Townshend. 

King George III. 

1760. Hon. Charles Townshend, continued. 

1761. Sir Francis Dashwood, bart., afterwards 
lord Le Despencer. 

1762. Sir Gilbert Elliot, bart. 
1770. Rt. hon. George Rice. 
1779. Lord Charles Spencer. 
1782. The office discontinued this year by act 

of parliament. 



.< \ preceding offices were suppressed, is the 22d George III. cap. 82, and entitled 

An Act to enable His Majesty to discharge the debt contracted upon the Civil List Revenues, and for preventing 
n^id^hPr^f^.""^ '^^^ payments out of the said Revenues, and by suppressing certain office! 

Sn iVk M • 1 c Among other offices suppressed by this act were, the Commissioners of the Board of Trade 
pjpnf nf Ih'fr g^F^etary of State. The act further directed, that any of the offices so abolished should, in the 
hid never prev^ouf ^^""-"t deemed to all intents and purposes a new office or offices, as if the same 



215 



PART III. 



SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. — THE 
JUDGES OF ENGLAND. — LAW OFFICERS OF THE 

CROWN ECCLESIASTICAL COURTS.— ADMIRALS 

OF GREAT BRITAIN.— GENERALS OF THE ARMY 

INDIA GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF COLONIES, &c. 



THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

This great and independent officer is chosen by the House of Commons from among 
its own members, subject to the approval of the sovereign, and hokls his office until the 
dissolution of the parliament by which he was elected. As Chairman of the House, his 
duties are the same as those of any other president of a deliberative assembly. He is 
always a member of the privy council, and is entitled to rank immediately after barons 
and before the commissioners of the great seal. Generally speaking, the business of 
the House cannot be transacted in the absence of the Speaker, although to this rule 
there was an exception in the year 1606, when, during the illness of a Speaker, a pri- 
soner was released from custody by order of the House. He reads to the sovereign the 
occasional petitions and addresses of the Commons, and, as their organ, makes such 
speeches as are usual or necessary on their behalf. He manages the House when pri- 
soners, witnesses, or counsel are at the bar ; reprimands persons who have incurred the 
displeasure of the House ; issues warrants of committal for breaches of privilege ; and 
expresses the thanks or approbation of the Commons to such personages as have been 
voted this high and most honourable distinction by the House. When parliament is 
about to be prorogued, it is customary for the Speaker to address the sovereign, at the 
bar of the House of Lords, in a speech recapitulating the leading business and proceed- 
ings of the session. The Speaker has the casting voice upon divisions in which the 
votes prove equal. 

Speakers of the House of Commons. 

(^From the earliest authentic Records of Parliament.') 

*^* The county , town^ or borough following each name is the place for which the Speaker was returned 

as a memher to the Comm^ons. 



England and Wales. 

King Henry III. 
1260. Peter de Montfort. Killed at the battle of 
Evesham. 

King Edward II. 

1326. William Trussell. 

King Edward III. 

1327. William Trussell, continued. 
1332. Sir Henry Beaumont. 

[The two preceding must have been 
Speakers to both lords and commons.] 

1376. Sir Peter de la Mare, — Herefordshire. 
[He is supposed to have been the first 

regular Speaker.] 

1377. Sir Thomas Hungerford, — Wiltshire. 



1377. 
1378. 
1380. 
1381. 
1382. 
1386. 

1394 
1397. 
1398. 



1399. 



1400. 
4 



King Richard II. 
Sir Peter de la Mare, — Herefordshire. 
Sir James Pickering, — Westmorland. 

I Sir John Goldsborough, — Essex. 

Sir Richard Waldegrave, — Suffolk. 
Sir James Pickering, — Westmorland. 

The next Speaker on record is 
Sir John Bushey, — Lincolnshire. 



} 



King Henry IV. 
Sir John Cheney, — Gloucestershire: he, 

growing infirm and unable to serve, 
John Doreword, — Essex, was delegated 

to serve in his place. 
Sir Arnold Savage, — Kent. 



216 



SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 



1403. Sir Henry Redeford, — Lincolnshire. 

1404. Sir Arnold Savage, again, — Kent. 

1405. Sir William Esturmy, — Devonshire. 

— Sir William Esturmy, again, same year. 

— Sir John Cheney, — Cornwall ; who also 

appears to have been speaker in this 
parliament. 

1406. Sir John Tiptoft, — Huntingdonshire. 

1408. ) 

1409. VThomas Chaucer, — Oxfordshire. 
1412.J 

King Henry V. 
William Stourton, — Dorsetshire; but he 
being unwell, John Doreword, — Essex, 
was chosen in his room. 
Walter Hungerford, — Wiltshire. 
Thomas Chaucer, — Oxfordshire. 
Richard Redman, — Yorkshire. 
Sir Walter Beauchamp, — Wiltshire. 



1413. 



1414. 
1415. 



1416. 
1417. 
1419. 
1421. 



^ Roger Flower, — Rutlandshire. 
Richard Baynard. — Essex. 

Henry VI. 
Richard Flower, again, — Rutlandshire. 
John Russell, — Herefordshire. 
Sir Thomas Waughton or Wauton, — 

Bedfordshire. 
Richard Vernon, — Derbyshire. 
John Tyrrell, — Essex. 
William Allington, — Cambridgeshire. 
J ohn Tyrrell, again, — Essex. 
John Russell, again, — Herefordshire. 
Roger Hunt, — Huntingdonshire. 
John Bowes. Here the records being 
imperfect, it is presumed he sat for 
Northumberland. 
Sir J ohn Tyrrell, for a third and a fourth 

time, — Essex. 
William Boerley, — Shropshire. 
William Tresham, — Northamptonshire. 
William Boerley, again, — Shropshire. 
William Tresham, again, — Northampton- 
shire. 

J ohn Saye, — Cambridgeshire. 
John Popliam, — Southamptonshire ; but 

he excusing himself, 
William Tresham (a third time) was chosen. 
Sir William Oldhall, — Herefordshire. 
Thomas Thorpe, — Essex. 
Thomas Thorpe, again, same year. 
Sir Thomas Charlton, — Middlesex. 
Sir John Wenlock, — Bedfordshire. 
Sir William Tresham, a fourth time. 
J ohn Green, — Essex. 

King Edward IV. 
1460. Sir James Strangeways, — Yorkshire. 
1467 } Saye. — Hertfordshire. 
1472. William Allington, — Cambridgeshire. 
1477. William Allington, — Lincolnshire. 

1482. John Wode, — Surrey or Sussex. 

King Richard III. 

1483. William Catesby, — Northamptonshire. 

King Henry VII. 
1485. Thomas Lovel, — Northamptonshire or 
Oxfordshire. 

1488. John Mordaunt, — Bedfordshire. 

1489. Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam, — Yorkshire. 



1422. 
1423. 
1425. 

1426. 
1428. 
1480. 
1431. 
1432. 
1433. 
1436. 



1439. 



1440. 
1445. 
1447. 

1449. 
1450. 



1451. 
1453. 



1455. 
1459. 
1460. 



1492. Richard Empson, — Northamptonshire. 

1496. Sir Reginald Bray, — Bedfordshire or 

Northamptonshire. 
— Robert Drury, — Sussex. 

1497. Thomas Engletield, — Berkshire, 
1504. Edmund Dudley, — Staffordshire. 

King Henry VIII. 
Sir Thomas Englefield, again, — Berk- 
shire. 

Sir Thomas Sheffeild, — Lincolnshire. 
Sir Thomas Nevill, — perhaps Kent. 

I Sir Thomas More, — Middlesex. 



1509. 

1512. 
1514. 
1523. 
1524. 
1530. 
1537. 
1540. 
1542. 



Corn- 
Chippenham, Wilt- 



Sir Thomas Audley, — perhaps Essex. 
Richard Rich, — Essex. 
Sir Nicholas Hare, — Norfolk. 
Thomas Moyle, — Kent ; he continued 
Speaker all the rest of this reign. 

King Edward VI. 
1547. Sir John Baker, — Huntingdonshire. 
1553. James Dyer, — Cambridgeshire 

Queen Mary I. 

1553. John Pollard, — Oxfordshire. 

1554. Robert Brooke, — London city. 

Philip and Mary. 

1555. Clement Higham, — West Looe, 

wall. 

1556. John Pollard, a^mw. 

shire. 

1558. William Cordell, — Essex. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

1559. Sir Thomas Gargrave, — Yorkshire. 
15G3. Thomas Williams, — Exeter cit}' : he died 

in 1566, when Richard Onslow, — 
Steyning, Sussex, was chosen in his 
room. 

1571. Christopher Wra}^, — Ludgershall, Wilt- 

shire. 

1572. Robert Bell, — Lynn Regis, Norfolk; 

made chief baron of the exchequer in 
1577, when 

1577. John Popham, — Bristol city; solicitor- 
general, was chosen in his place. 

^ &^ Jjohn Puckering,l^''^f°'"'l 

jggg i J (jratton, Surrey. 

1589. Thomas Snagg, — Bedford town, 
1592. Edward Coke, — Norfolk. 
1597. Christopher Yelverton, — Northampton- 
shire. 

1601. John Croke, — London; recorder of the 
city. 

King James I. 
1603. Edward Philipps, — Somersetshire. 
1614. Randolph Crewe. 

[No records of this parliament are to be 
found; but it is presumed he sat for 
Brackley, Northamptonshire.] 
1620. Thomas Richardson, — St. Alban's, Hert- 
fordshire. 

1623. Thomas Crewe, — Ailesbury, Bucks. 

King Charles I. 
Thomas Crewe, again, — Gatton, 



1625. Sir 

Surrey. 

1626. Sir Heneage Finch, — London city; re- 

corder of London. 
1628. Sir John Finch, — Canterbury city. 



SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 



217 



1640. John Glanville, — Bristol city. 

1641. William Lenthal, — Woodstock, Oxford- 

shire: he continued till 1653, when, 
during the king's exile, the usurping 
powers governed the kingdom. 

King Charles II. 

1653. Francis Rous ; nominated for Devonshire. 

1654. William Lenthal ; restored, — Oxford- 

shire. 

1656. Sir Thomas Widdrington, nominated for 
York city. 

1659. Chaloner Chute, sen., — Middlesex; but 

being unable to attend, they chose 

— Sir Lisleborne Long, — Wells city, to sup- 

ply his place. Sir Lisleborne, on March 
9th, gave up the office after seven days' 
possession, when, on March 16th, the 
commons delegated to this office 

— Thomas Bampfield, — Exeter city. Mr. 

Chute dying on April 15 following, Mr. 
Bampfield was then chosen their 
speaker. 

The Restoration. 

1660. Sir Harbottle Grimstone, bart. — Col- 

chester. 

1661. Sir Edward Turnor, bart. — Hertford 

town. On his being appointed chief 
baron of the exchequer, May 23, 1671, 
the commons chose at their meeting in 
1673. Sir Job Charlton, bart. — Ludlow, Salop; 

but he desiring leave to resign on ac- 
count of his health, 

— Edward Seymour, — Hindon, Wilts, was 

elected in his place.i On Mr. Seymour's 
indisposition, the commons chose 

— Sir Robert Sawyer, — Wycombe, Bucks ; 

but he, excusing his attendance, they 
again chose 

1678. Sir Edward Seymour, bart. — Hindon, 
Wilts. To this choice the king re- 
fused his approval ; whereupon the 
commons returned to their house, and 
elected 

— Serjeant William Gregory, — Weobly, 

Herefordshire. 
1680. William WiUiams, — Chester city. 

King James II. 
1685. Sir John Trevor, — Denbigh town. 

King William III. 
1689. Henry Powle, — Windsor, Berks. 



1690. 



1695. 
1698. 

1700 
& 
1701. 

1702. 
1705. 



Sir John Trevor, ot^am, — Yarmouth, 
Hants. 

[Sir John Trevor was expelled the chair 
and the house for taking a bribe of 
1000 guineas from the city of London, 
on the passing of the Orphans' bill 2 
March 12, 1695.] 

Paul Foley, — Hereford city. 

Sir Thomas Lyttelton, bart. — Woodstock, 
Oxfordshire. 



Robert Harley, — New Radnor. 



Queen Anne. 
Robert Harley, — New Radnor. 
J ohn Smith, — Andover, Hampshire. 

[The first parliament of Great Britain 
(the union with Scotland having be- 
come a law) assembled Oct. 23, 1707> 
and the commons proceeded to elect a 
Speaker. Their choice fell upon Mr- 
Smith, just mentioned. Speaker of the 
late house of commons of England, 
who was approved of by her majesty 
on the 30th, and the house then ad- 
journed to Nov. 6. following, when the 
queen opened the session by a speech 
from the throne to the first 

British Parliament. 

1707. John Smith, — Andover, Hampshire. 

1708. Sir Richard Onslow, bart. — Surrey. 
1710. William Bromley, — Oxford university. 
1713. Sir Thomas Hanmer, bart. — Suffolk. 

King George I. 
■'"^^ 1 Hon. Spencer Compton, — Sussex, who 
1722 r ^^^^^ chair all this reign. 

King George II. 
1727. ^ Arthur Onslow, — Surrey, chosen by 
1734. these five parliaments successively ; 
1741. > and so filled the chair during the 
1747. whole reign of this king, embracing a 
17 54:. J period of thirty- three years.^ 

King George III. 
1761. Sir John Cust, bart. — Grantham, Lin- 
colnshire. 



1 One instance of the hardihood of Mr. Speaker Seymour deserves record. A message being brouo;ht him 
that the king (Charles II.) was seated on the throne, and desired the presence of the Commons to hear the pro- 
rogation of parliament, he refused to stir until the Bill of Supply had been returned, according to precedent, f om 
the House of Lords; and although again warned that his majesty was waiting, he declared he would be torn by 
wild horses sooner than quit the chair. The bill was brought to him, and then the Commons advanced to the 
bar of the Lords, encuuraged by the triumph of their Speaker Toumshend. 

^ Almost universal corruption prevailed about this time, and it seems to have been no bar, in many instances, 
to professional advancement or to personal honours. Vast sums were given by the East India Company and by 
the Chamber of London among the members, for facilitating acts of parliament relating to those bodies ; and 
even the duke of Leeds, lord president of the council, was accused by the commons (who had appointed a com- 
mittee of inquiry into charges of corruption) of having accepted a bribe of 5500 guineas from the East India 
merchants, for procuring them a charter of confirmation and regulations. Sir Thomas Cooke, governor of the 
company, and a member of the house, having refused to give an account of the money by him distributed in 
bribes, was ordered to be committed to the Tower, and a bill was brought in to compel him to render such an 
account ; he afterwards confessed to having expended 70,000/. among certain courtiers and commoners. The 
sums accepted by members of the commons' house were, in some cases, of very mean amount : Mr. Hungerford, 
chairman of the committee on the Orphans' bill was adjudged guilty of " a high crime and misdemeanour, in 
receiving 20 guineas for his pains and service," and was expelled from his seat; and Sir Basil Firebrace and 
other members were imprisoned, " to satisfy the clamours of the people." 

3 He was elected by the unanimous concurrence of the House; and as he enjoyed this eminent station a longer 
time than any of his predecessors, so he executed his trust with equal, if not superior, abilities to any of those 
Speakers that had gone before him, — Browne Willis, Notitia Parliamentaria. 



218 



SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 



1768. Sir John Cust, re-chosen. He resigned 
on account of ill health, Jan. 17, 1770, 
and on the 23d of same month the 
commons elected 

1770. Sir Fletcher Norton, knt. — Guildford, 
Surrey. 

1774. Sir Fletcher Norton, — Guildford, Surrey, 
again, 

1780. Charles Wolfran Cornewall, — Winchelsea, 
Sussex. 

1784. Charles Wolfran Cornewall, — now of 
Rye, re-elected. Died Jan. 2, 1789. 

1789. William Wyndham Grenville (afterwards 
lord Grenville), — Bucks, elected Jan. 
5 : resigned June 5 following. 

1789. Rt. hon. Henry Addington, — Devizes, 

elected June 8. 

1790. Mr. Addington, re-chosen^ Nov. 25. 
1796. Mr. Addington, again elected, Sept. 27. 

[Parliament assembled Jan. 22, 1801 ; 
when the house of commons, proceeding 
to the choice of a Speaker, elected Mr. 
Addington, late Speaker of the par- 
liament of Great Britain, as Speaker of 
this parliament (the first of the United 
Kingdom) ; the act of union with Ire- 
land having passed July 2, 1800.1 On 
the next day, the king, by commission, 
approved of the choice made of Mr. 
Addington. — Journals of the House.'] 

Great Britain and Ireland. 
1801. Rt. hon. Henry Addington. Jan. 22. 

[Resigned Feb. 10; and became first lord 
of the treasury and chancellor of the 
exchequer March following : created 
viscount Sidmouth, Jan. 1805.] 

Sir John Mitford, knt. — Beeralston. Feb. 
11. [Resigned Feb. 9, 1802, on being 



elevated to the peerage as baron Redes- 
dale, and made lord chancellor of Ire- 
land.] 

1802. Rt. hon. Charles Abbot, — Helston, Corn- 
wall. Feb. 10. 
— Mr. Abbot again chosen, Nov. 16. 

1806. Mr. Abbot, chosen a third time, Dec. 15. 

1807. Mr. Abbot, chosen a fourth time, June 22. 
1812. Mr. Abbot, chosen a fifth time, Nov. 24. 

Retired; and was created lord Col- 
chester, June, 1817. 

1817. Rt. hon. Charles Manners Sutton, — Scar- 
borough. June 2. 

1819. Mr. Manners Sutton, re-chosen, Jan. 15. 

King George IV. 

1820. Mr. Manners Sutton, again chosen, April 

22. 

1826. Mr. Manners Sutton, chosen a fourth time, 
Nov. 15. 

King William IV. 

1830. Mr. Manners Sutton, chosen a fifth time, 

Oct. 26. 

1831. Mr. Manners Sutton, chosen a sixth time, 

June 14. 

1833. Sir Charles Manners Sutton, now repre- 
senting Cambridge university; chosen 
a seventh time, Jan. 29. 

1835. Rt. hon. James Abercromby^, — Edin- 
burgh city, Feb. 19. 
Queen Victoria. 

1837. Mr. Abercromby, again chosen, Nov. 15. 

Raised to the peerage, by the title of 
baron Dunfermline, June 7, 1839. 

1839. Rt. hon. Charles Shaw Lefevre, — Hamp- 
shire, Northern division. May 27. 

1841. Mr. Charles Shaw Lefevre, again chosen, 
Aug. 19. 

1847. Mr. Charles Shaw Lefevre, chosen a third 
time, Nov. 18. The present (1850) 
Speaker of the House of Commons. 



With the Kevolution commenced the real importance of the Speaker in rank, character, 
and consideration. '•'Jam domiti ut pai^eant non ut serviant.^^ From that auspicious era, 
he has occupied his proper station. Ever since the statute 1. William and Mary, cap. 
21, he has taken his place next the peers of Great Britain, both in and out of parlia- 
ment; in all public commissions he is so ranked, and he has this precedence at the 
Council Table. To secure his perfect independence, he ceased, in George III.'s reign, 
to hold any office under the crown, Mr. Speaker Onslow setting that example, to which 
his successors have invariably adhered. His impartiality and his acquaintance with 
precedents have been insured by an almost fixed tenure of office, and his arduous duties 
have been justly rewarded, at the close of long service, with a coronet. — Townsend's 
History of the Commons, 



1 The date of the passing of the bill m the British parliament. The union with Ireland became an operative 
law, Jan. ], 1801, when the imperial standard was hoisted on the Tower of London, and on Bedford Tower, 
Dublin Castle. On Jan. 3, the king caused the great seal of Great Britain to be defaced, presenting the lord 
chancellor with a new one, of Great Britain and Ireland; and the members of his majesty's council took the oaths 
as privy councillors for the United Kingdom — Annals of the Union. 

2 In the memorable contest for the Speakership, in 1835, Mr. Abercromby had 316 votes, and Sir Charles 
Manners Sutton, 306 ; the majority in favour of Mr. Abercromby being ten. It has been affirmed that the House, 
upon this occasion, presented the largest assemblage of members that was ever drawn together, 622 having 
divided upon the question, although several members had left the house without voting. Sir Charles Manners 
Sutton was shortly after created viscount Canterbury and baron Bottesford ; he retired immediately after this 
contest from political life, and died in 1845. 



219 



THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND. 



CHIEF JUSTICIERS OF ENGLAND. 

In ancient times tlie Kings of England used to hear and determine causes ; but it is 
declared by law, that " if the King cannot determine every controversy, he, to ease 
himself, may divide the labour among persons, men of wisdom, and fearing God, and 
out of such appoint judges." The Saxon kings of England appointed a judge after this 
manner, who was, in fact, the King's deputy. After the Norman Conquest, the per- 
sonage invested with the office had the style of Capitalis Justicia or Justiciarius An- 
glice. These judges continued until the erection of the Courts of King's Bench and 
the Common Pleas. 

The last person that had the office of Justiciarius Anglice^ was Philip Basset ; and 
he, for the better support of his dignity, received an annual stipend of a thousand 
marks out of the King's Exchequer, at Easter and Michaelmas, by equal portions, 
which stipend Hugh Bigod, his predecessor, also had received. — Beatson 



Chief Justiciers of England. 



"William the Conqueror. 
1067. Odo, bishop of Baj^eux and earl of Kent, 
chief justicier of the southern division, 
and 

— William Fitz-Osborne, earl of Hereford, 

chief justicier of the northern division 
of the kingdom. 
1073. William de Warenne, and Eichard de 
Benefacta.i 
r Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, 
1078 < GreolFrey, bishop of Coutance, in Nor- 
* J mandy, and 
(^Robert, earl of Moreton, or Mortagne. 

King William II. 

1087. Odo, bishop of Bayeux, a second time. 

1088. William de Carilefo, bishop of Durham. 

— Ranulph Flambard, afterwards bishop of 

D urham. — Dugdale. 

King Henry I. 
1100. Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. 
1107. Roger, afterwards bishop of Salisbury. 

[For the following six persons, the autho- 
rity is very questionable as to their 
having been Just. Angl.'] 

* * Hugh de Bocland, canon of St. Paul's. 

* * Geoffrey Ridel, a baron. 

* * Ralph Basset, baron of Weld. 

* * Richard Basset, son of Ralph. 

* * Geoffrey de Clinton, treasurer. 

* * Alberic de Vere. — Dugdale, 

King Stephen. 
1135. Roger, bishop of Salisbury. 
1153. Henry, duke of Normandy. 

— Richard de Luci, or Lucy. 



King Henry XL 

rRobert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester, 
1154.^ and 

(Richard de Luci, or Lucy, jointly. 
1167. Richard de Lucy, only. 

( Richard Tocliffe, bishop of Winchester. 

1179. ^ Geoffrey Ridel, bishop of Ely, and 
( J ohn of Oxford, bishop of Norwich. 

1180. Ranulph de Glanville. 

King Richard I. 
1189. Ranulph de Glanville, continued. 

f Hugh Pusar, or Pudsey, bishop of Dur- 

J ham, and 

William de Mandeville, earl of Albe- 
it marie. Sept. 

rHugh Pusar, or Pudsey, again, and 
— < William de Longchamp, bishop of Ely. 
( Dec. 

1191. Walter de Constantiis, bishop of Lincoln 
and archbishop of Rouen. 

1193. Walter Hubert, archbishop of Canter- 
bury. 

1198. Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, earl of Essex. 

King John. 

1199. Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, continued. 

1214. Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Winchester. 

1215. Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent. 

King Henry IIL 

1216. Hubert de Burgh, continued, according to 

Dugdale. He was regent of England 
during the king's minority, in 1219. 

1232. Stephen de Segrave, Just. Angl. 

1234. Hugh de PatteshuUe, canon of St. Paul's, 
afterwards bishop of Lichfield and 



1 When the king left England in 1073, these two were appointed chief justiciaries of the kingdom. Their 
government was principally distinguished by overcoming the rebellion raised by the earls of Hereford and Nor- 
folk. But they disgraced their victory by cruelly ordering the right feet of their prisoners to be amputated ! — a 
barbarous practice for which they had the example of the king in some of his Norman viQX%,~~ Foss's Lives of 
the Judges. 



220 



THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND. 



Coventry; mentioned as chief justicier 
by Dugdale. 

1234. Robert de Lexinton, chief justicier for the 
southern counties. 

1236. Thomas de Muleton, chief justicier. 

1240. William de York, provost of Beverley, 
and afterwards bishop of Salisbury; 
chief justiciary for the northern coun- 
ties. 

1247. Henry de Bathonia^ ; mentioned by Dug- 
dale as chief justicier this year. 

1258. Hugh Bigot, or Bigod, appointed Just. 

Angl. by the parliament held at Ox- 
ford. 



1259. Roger de Thurkilby ; chief justicier. — 

Dugdale. 

1260. Hugh le Despencer, Just. Angl. ; appointed 

by the barons. 

1261. Philip Basset, Just. Angl. ; appointed by 

the king. 

Numerous justiciers and itinerant justices were 
appointed by the sovereign to administer the law; 
the latter in the various counties of the realm. 
The office was discontinued in the reign of this 
king, when the principal duties were transferred 
to the chief justice of the king's bench. 



1 This judge was charged before the parliament, in 1251, with